The domesticated turkey is a large poultry bird. The modern domesticated form descends from the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), one of the two species of turkey (genus Meleagris). It was domesticated by the indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica at least 2,000 years ago, with the evidence pointing to what are today the central regions of Mexico.
Turkey meat is a popular form of poultry, and turkeys are raised throughout temperate parts of the world, partially because industrialized farming has made it very cheap for the amount of meat it produces. Female domesticated turkeys are referred to as hens and the chicks may be called poults or turkeylings. In the United States, the males are referred to as toms, while in Europe, males are stags. The average lifespan for a domesticated turkey is ten years.]citation needed[
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.
Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumed by the world population is supplied by the food industry.
A turkey fryer is an apparatus for deep-frying a turkey. Fried turkey has been a longtime favorite in the Southern United States, and has recently become popular in other parts of the country because of the reduced time needed to cook a turkey in a deep fryer, versus other conventional methods such as an oven or a rotisserie grill.
A traditional turkey fryer kit consists of a burner, a large stock pot with lid, a basket and/or poultry holder, a lifter and a thermometer. The burner operates on a standard propane tank that usually must be purchased separately. Current burner units are much lower than the original design so as to increase stability and help prevent tip-overs. Lower cost units use an aluminum stock pot and a steel burner while higher-end units include a stainless steel pot and burner. Some stock pots may have an integrated valve to drain the oil. The poultry holder consists of an aluminum or stainless steel disk with a metal rod formed into a loop with the ends affixed to the center of the disk. The loop is placed through the cavity of the turkey and the lifter is used to lower and remove the turkey. If a basket is used, it includes a bail that is grabbed by the lifter. The thermometer has a long probe and is used to monitor the temperature of the oil. The fryer can also be used to cook other poultry and seafood. The stock pot lid is used to cover the pot only when not actually frying or when preparing other foods by boiling in water. Heavy gloves and an apron are recommended.