The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (US), America, or simply the States, is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, 16 territories, a federal district, and various overseas extraterritorial jurisdictions. The 48 contiguous states and the federal district of Washington, D.C., are in central North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is the northwestern part of North America and the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also has five populated and nine unpopulated territories in the Pacific and the Caribbean. At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km2) in total and with around 316 million people, the United States is the fourth-largest country by total area and third largest by population. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. The geography and climate of the United States is also extremely diverse, and it is home to a wide variety of wildlife.
Paleo-indians migrated from Asia to what is now the US mainland around 15,000 years ago, with European colonization beginning in the 16th century. The United States emerged from 13 British colonies located along the Atlantic seaboard. Disputes between Great Britain and these colonies led to the American Revolution. On July 4, 1776, delegates from the 13 colonies unanimously issued the Declaration of Independence. The ensuing war ended in 1783 with the recognition of independence of the United States from the Kingdom of Great Britain, and was the first successful war of independence against a European colonial empire. The current Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787. The first 10 amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and guarantee many fundamental civil rights and freedoms.
Soft matter is a subfield of condensed matter comprising a variety of physical states that are easily deformed by thermal stresses or thermal fluctuations. They include liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, granular materials, and a number of biological materials. These materials share an important common feature in that predominant physical behaviors occur at an energy scale comparable with room temperature thermal energy. At these temperatures, quantum aspects are generally unimportant. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, who has been called the "founding father of soft matter," received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1991 for discovering that the order parameter from simple thermodynamic systems can be applied to the more complex cases found in soft matter, in particular, to the behaviors of liquid crystals and polymers.
Cranberry juice is the juice of the cranberry. As a pure juice, it is quite tart; as with lime juice, it is seldom drunk on its own. Due to its tartness, it is often combined it with sweeter juices, such as apple or grape. Another solution is to dilute it with water and add some natural sweetener, such as xylitol. The term, used on its own, almost always refers to a sweetened version. In fact, Cranberry Juice available at grocery stores is one of the highest sugar content items across all items carried in any grocery store. An 8-ounce glass of cranberry juice has more sugar than a can of soda at 33 grams. According to info gathered by HealthScience.net, new information and research on cranberry juice suggests the beverage is not as healthy as once considered, and in many cases may be worse for you than soft drinks and sodas considering cranberry juice is higher in sugar and calories. However, this is debatable considering soft drinks often contain caffeine, another controversial ingredient that has both positive and negative characteristics.
Parents have long considered cranberry juice a healthy choice for their children; however, new information about the high sugar content in cranberry juice is emerging and causing concern. A laboratory study found that when fructose is present as children’s fat cells mature, it makes more of these cells mature into fat cells in body fat, contributing to overweight, obesity and subsequently related health issues such as diabetes, higher cholesterol, and higher blood pressure.