Size 4 or extra small 25.5 inches. Size 6 to 8 or small 26.5 to 27.5 inches. Size 10 to 12 or medium 28.5 to 30 inches. Size 14 to 16 or large 31.5 to 33 inches. Size 18 or extra large 35 to 37 inches. But these sometimes vary by the manufacturer.
Photo print sizes
Standard photographic print sizes are used in photographic printing. Cut sheets of paper meant for printing photographs are commonly sold in these sizes.
They are often denoted with a code of the format nR, where the number n represents the length of the shorter edge in inches. In the normal series, the long edge is the length of the short edge plus 2 inches (10" or less) or 3 inches (11" and above). The alternative Super series, denoted SnR, has an aspect ratio of 3:2 (or as close as possible) and thus provides a better fit for standard 135 film (35mm) at sizes of 8 inches or above.
In Japan, the same print sizes (and several additional ones) are known by different names. The Japanese L is equivalent to 3R, while 2L — twice the size — matches 5R. KG represents the size of a traditional 4"×6" (4R) Japanese postcard (hagaki). The nP or cut series are defined in reference to a full page size of 457×560 mm, with smaller numbers (fewer cuts) indicating larger sizes.
Unlike ISO 216 paper sizes, the aspect ratios of photographic prints vary, so exact scaling of prints is not always possible. However, there are some logical correspondences between the sizes, noted below when applicable.
Many of the standard sizes are the same as sheet film formats, and are appropriate for making contact sheets from these films.
A shoe size
is an alphanumerical indication of the fitting size of a shoe for a person. Often it just consists of a number indicating the length because many shoemakers only provide a standard width for economic reasons. There are several different shoe-size systems that are used worldwide. These systems differ in what they measure, what unit of measurement they use, and where the size 0 (or 1) is positioned. Only a few systems also take the width of the feet into account. Some regions use different shoe-size systems for different types of shoes (e.g., men's, women's, children's, sport, or safety shoes).
The length of a foot is commonly defined as the distance between two parallel lines that are perpendicular to the foot and in contact with the most prominent toe and the most prominent part of the heel. Foot length is measured with the subject standing barefoot and the weight of the body equally distributed on both feet.
The sizes of the left and right feet are often slightly different. In this case, both feet are measured, and purchasers of mass-produced shoes are advised to purchase a shoe size based upon the larger foot because, contrary to the reality of foot sizes, most manufacturers do not sell pairs of shoes in non matching sizes.
Each size of shoe is considered suitable for a small interval of foot lengths. The inner cavity of a shoe must typically be 15–20 mm longer than the foot, but this relation varies between different types of shoes.
There are three characteristic lengths that a shoe-size system can refer to:
All these measures differ substantially from one another for the same shoe.
Sizing systems also differ in what units of measurement they use. This also results in different increments between shoe sizes because usually, only "full" or "half" sizes are made.
The following length units are commonly used today to define shoe-size systems:
Due to the different units of measurements, converting between different sizing systems results in round-off errors as well as unusual sizes such as "10⅔".
The sizing systems also place size 0 (or 1) at different locations:
Some systems also include the width of a foot. There are different methods indicating the width:
The width for which these sizes are suitable can vary significantly between manufacturers. The A-E width indicators used by most US and some UK shoe manufacturers are typically based on the width of the foot, and common step sizes are 3/16 of an inch.
The International Standard is ISO 9407
:1991, "Shoe sizes—Mondopoint system of sizing and marking", which recommends a shoe-size system known as Mondopoint
It is based on the mean foot length and width for which the shoe is suitable, measured in millimetres. A shoe size of 280/110 indicates a mean foot length of 280 millimetres (11 in) and width of 110 millimetres (4.3 in).
Because Mondopoint also takes the foot width into account, it allows for better fitting than most other systems. It is, therefore, used by NATO and other military services. Mondopoint is also used for ski boots.
European standard EN 13402, used also for clothes, recommends instead that shoes be labelled with the interval of foot lengths for which they are suitable, measured in centimetres.
Shoe size in the United Kingdom (British size) is based on the length of the last, measured in barleycorn (approx 1/3 inch) starting from the smallest practical size, which is size zero. It is not formally standardised.
A child's size zero is equivalent to a hand (4 in, 12 barleycorns or 10.16 cm), and the sizes go up to size 13½ (8½ in, 25.5 barleycorns or 21.59 cm). Thus, the calculation for a child shoe size in the UK is:
An adult size one is then the next size up (8⅔ in or 22.01 cm) and each size up continues the progression in barleycorns. The calculation for an adult shoe size in the UK is thus:
In North America, there are different systems that are used concurrently. The size indications are usually similar but not exactly equivalent especially with athletic shoes at extreme sizes.
The traditional system is similar to English sizes but start counting at one rather than zero, so equivalent sizes are one greater. This is similar to the way that floors in buildings are numbered; the British count the ground floor as zero, whereas the Americans count the ground floor as one.
So the calculation for a male shoe size in the USA or Canada is:
Women's sizes are almost always determined with the "common" scale, in which women's sizes are equal to men's sizes plus 1.5 (for example, a men's 10.5 is a women's 12). In other words:
In the less popular scale, known as the "standard" or "FIA" (Footwear Industries of America) scale, women's sizes are men's sizes plus 1 (so a men's 10.5 is a women's 11.5).
Children's sizes are equal to men's sizes plus 12.33. Thus, girls' and boys' sizes do not differ, even though men's and women's do.
Children's shoe stores in the United States and Canada use a sizing scheme which ends at 13, after which it starts at 1 again as adult sizes.
A slightly different sizing method is based on the Brannock Device, a measuring instrument invented by Charles F. Brannock in 1925 and now found in many shoe stores. The formula used by the Brannock device assumes a foot length ⅔ inch (1.7 cm) less than the length of the last; thus, men's size 1 is equivalent to a foot's length of 7 ⅔ inches. Women's sizes are one size up.
The method also measures the length of the distance of the heel and the widest point of the foot. For that purpose, the device has another, shorter scale at the side of the foot. If this scale indicates a larger size, it is taken in place of the foot's length.
For children's sizes, additional wiggle room is added to allow for growth.
The device also measures the width of the foot and assigns it designations of AAA, AA, A, B, C, D, E, EE, or EEE. The widths are 3/16 in apart and differ by shoe length.
Some shoe stores use optical devices to precisely measure the length and width of both feet and recommend the appropriate shoe model and size.
The Continental European system is used in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, most other continental European countries, Brazil—which uses the same method but subtracts 2 from the final result—and, commonly, Hong Kong.
In this system, the shoe size is the length of the last, expressed in Paris points, for both sexes and for adults and children alike. Because a Paris point is ⅔ of a centimetre, the formula is as follows:
To compute the size based on actual foot length, one must first add a length of about 1.5 to 2 cm. For instance, for a shoe having an internal length 1.5 cm longer than the foot:
The Asian system is based on metric measurements and standardised as JIS S 5037:1998, CNS 4800, S 1093, or KS M 6681. Foot length and girth are taken into account.
The foot length is indicated in centimetres; an increment of 5 mm is used. This system was also used in the GDR.
The length is followed by designators for girth (A, B, C, D, E, EE, EEE, EEEE, F, G), which is taken from a table indexed to girth and length. There are different tables for men's, women's, and children's (less than 12 years of age) shoes. The tables also include the width as supplemental indications. Not all designators are used for all genders and in all countries. For example, the largest girth for women in China is EEEE, whereas in Japan, it is F.
Please, note that the following tables indicate theoretical sizes calculated from the standards and information given above. Differences between these tables and makers' tables or other tables found on the Web are usually due to the following factors:
Further, some tables available on the Web simply contain errors. For example, the wiggle room or different zero point is not taken into account, or tables based on different U.S. systems (traditional and athletic) are simply combined although they are incompatible.
Example: A child's foot that is 185 millimetres (7.3 in) long requires a shoe that is about 15 millimetres (0.59 in) longer. The inner length of 200 millimetres (7.9 in) is EU shoe size 29 or UK size 11.
Wacky Packages are a series of trading cards and stickers featuring parodies of North American consumer products. The cards were produced by the Topps Company beginning in 1967, usually in a sticker format. The original series sold for two years, and the concept proved popular enough that it has been revived every few years since. They came to be known generically as Wacky Packs, Wacky Packies, Wackies and Wackys. According to trader legend, the product parodies once outsold Topps baseball cards.
Relying on the talents of such cartoonists and comics artists as Kim Deitch, George Evans, Drew Friedman, Bill Griffith, Jay Lynch, Norman Saunders, Art Spiegelman, Bhob Stewart and Tom Sutton, the cards spoofed well-known brands and packaging, such as "Crust" (instead of Crest) toothpaste, "Blisterine" (instead of Listerine) and "Neveready" batteries (for Eveready batteries).
The very first Wacky Packages series was produced in 1967 and featured 44 die-cut cards that were similar in size to baseball cards (2.5” × 3.5” or 64 × 89 mm). This series featured parodies created by Spiegelman and primarily painted by Saunders. Two of the cards – "Cracked Animals" and "Ratz Crackers" – were pulled from production after an initial run and have since become extremely rare. This series was followed by a somewhat different Wacky Ads line in 1969, featuring gags and roughs by Lynch and Deitch with finished paintings by Sutton. These cards, approximately three-by-five inches (76 × 127 mm), were designed more like miniature billboards with a die-cut around the parodied product, so it could pop out of the horizontal billboard scene. Card #25 "Good & Empty" was removed from the initial release, after Leaf Brands sued. There were two different versions of the "Ads": the long perforations (believed to signify the 1st printing), and short perforations (possibly for the second printing) as well as an early 5-cent wrapper for the first printing and a 10-cent wrapper for the second print.
Wacky Packages returned in 1973 as stickers for a highly successful run. Sixteen different series were produced from 1973 to 1976 and were primarily sold in five-cent packs with approximately 30 cards in each series and nine puzzle cards with a series checklist on the back. Series 1 re-used designs that were issued on the 1967 die-cut series and Series 2 re-used designs from the 1969 Wacky Ads. In all, there were 488 different cards over 16 series (one design from Series 2 was used again in Series 14). These cards can be distinguished from all later releases by a lack of a number on the front of the card.
Newly designed series were produced in 1985 and 1991. The 1991 series was successful enough to begin production of a 1992 series, but the set was cancelled prior to mass production. Many of these unused parodies were eventually released in the All New Series 1.
Wacky Packages returned in 2004 with the release of the first All New Series (ANS) set of stickers. New series have appeared almost annually, on average, since that time. The first five sets consist of 55 base cards with two levels of chase cards with the sixth series consisting of 80 base cards and three levels of chase cards. Series 7 saw the return of the 55 card base set, but with more chase card sets, as well as border color variations and sketch cards. (Note: the All New Series moniker was dropped for this set, but returned with series 8). Series 9 was released on July 25, 2012. The ANS sets have been very successful with the return of original 1970s Wacky Packages cartoonist Jay Lynch plus newcomers David Gross, Strephon Taylor, Neil Camera, Fred Wheaton, Smokin' Joe McWilliams, Mark Parisi, Brent Engstrom and Joe Simko. ANS 3 and 4 included the work of underground artist M. Wartella.
Many of the 1973–76 cards have been reissued over the years in various sets.
Four series with 66 cards each, for a total of 264 cards. These sets consisted of images from the 1973-76 cards as well as one previously unused image.
Two sets of album stickers were produced of 120 and 77 stickers respectively. These stickers were of a reduced size in comparison to the standard cards (2.125 by 3 inches (54.0 mm × 76 mm)) and were designed to be affixed to a display album that was sold separately.
In February 2008, Topps released a series of Wacky Packages called Flashbacks. This series contained artwork from previously released cards, the spinoff posters, as well as unreleased artwork from both the original and the aborted 1992 set to make a set of 72 base cards. Moving towards the trend with other types of trading cards, this set also featured a number of rare chase cards. In December 2008, Topps released Flashback 2. This set contained artwork from previously released cards, a test marketed Wacky Can Labels set, as well as more unreleased artwork from the aborted 1992 series to make a set of 72 base cards.
Wacky Packages have been used in numerous products since the 1970s as incentives to purchase the product or to promote a new series release. The promotional stickers were highly successful as inserts in bags of Wonder Bread, running for three sets of stickers. Promotional stickers also appeared in Hostess products, Shedd’s Peanut Butter containers, Ralston Purina cereal, and more recently in a number of DC Comics (to promote ANS1) and in the Abrams Books line of products.
The success of the Wacky Packages concept has led Topps to create a variety of additional Wacky Packages products over the years.
In 1974 a set of oversized paper posters was produced for just over two dozen of the gags from the original run, with two of the gags being original for the series. These posters were created from new artwork painted at a significantly larger size than was done for the stickers.
In 2012 a modern day set of 24 oversized paper posters was produced as a new Series One set, with the majority depicting enlargements of re-used art from the ANS card sets as well as including three new gags original for the series. As this series maintained the aspect ratio of the original art, the posters were significantly wider than the 1974 posters. This new series was sold exclusively through Topps online.
In November 2007, Topps released the first of its Wacky Packages Postcards series. Originally created by artist Neil Camera, the three-card set was released in two editions: a limited release of 100 signed and numbered sets and a regular unsigned edition. Since then, the postcard sets have been expanded to include additional titles and artists. Currently there are nine of the regular series, as well as three special Halloween sets that were released in October 2010, 2011 and 2012, as well as several promotional cards released at trade shows. One of the biggest draws of the Postcard sets are the inclusion of artist Sketch Cards, which feature original drawings by popular Wacky Packages artists such as Neil Camera, Smokin' Joe and Brent Engstrom. The Wacky Packages Postcards are sold exclusively through Topps Online Store.
In February 2010, Topps released a series called "Wacky Packages Old School". The Old School series line, created by David Gross, is designed to resemble the box, wrappers and stickers of the original successful run from 1973–1976. Each series consists of 33 stickers along with a 9 piece puzzle checklist with the gags based on products from the 1970s that Topps did not parody in the original 1970s run. Also included are various chase cards and a Sketch Card in every box. The first series Sketch Cards were all done by Jay Lynch. Old School series 2 began shipping in late March 2011 with Sketch Cards by Lynch, Bill Griffith, Bhob Stewart, David Gross, Fred Wheaton, Brent Engstrom, Jeff Zapata, Joe Simko, Neil Camera, Smokin Joe and Mark Parisi. Old School series 3 shipped in mid-February, 2012 and Old School series 4 in late December 1012. Old School is sold exclusively through the Topps Online Store.
Topps released two eraser series in 2011, the first in March and second in October, each with 24 of the ANS Wacky Package designs. In addition to the erasers, which consisted of paper labels adhered to a shaped eraser core, each eraser also had a corresponding miniature sticker included in the pack.
Topps has released four comic books in the Wacky Packages line. The panels of just the first two issues consist of reproductions of Halloween Postcard sketch card artwork, by Jay Lynch for issue 1 and by Joe Simko for issue 2, that were specifically designed to depict a story when set out as sequential art. Issue 3 was created by Neil Camera and Issue 4 by Brent Engstrom. Issue 5 was released on April 1, Topps self-proclaimed Wacky Packages Day, and was a double-sized issue drawn by multiple artists.
One unreleased design, by John Pound for the 1985 series, spawned the Garbage Pail Kids trading card series.
Tie-in merchandise of endless variety has been, and continues to be, produced by both Topps and by third-party companies ever since the initial success of Wacky Packages in 1973. Examples of recent licensed merchandise include a line of T-shirts from 10 Again Clothing, coffee table art books from Abrams Books, wall graphics from LTL prints and two set of 24 collectible erasers from Topps. Current items include wall graphics from walls360.com and collectors 3-ring binders from Topps. Several of these binders have included unique promotional items such as wax wrappers, stamp sheets or bonus cards.
Wacky Packages ANS 10 was released in March 2013 and featured first-ever Collector Edition boxes. Other recent releases include Old School Series 4 on December 28, 2012, Comic Book #5 on April 1, 2013, the first 4 in the Original Series Binder Collection set in May 2103 and Postcard series 9 on June 25, 2013. Forthcoming releases include ANS 11, scheduled for September 2013 and additional binder sets in July, September and November of 2013.
An inch (plural: inches; abbreviation or symbol: in or ″ – a double prime) is a unit of length in the imperial and United States customary systems of measurement. Historically an inch was also used in a number of other systems of units. Traditional standards for the exact length of an inch have varied in the past, but now the imperial or US customary inch is defined to be exactly 25.4 mm. There are 12 inches in a foot and therefore 36 inches in a yard.
The inch is a commonly used customary unit of length in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. For the United Kingdom, guidance on public sector use states that since 1 October 1995, without time limit, that the inch (along with the foot) is to be used as a primary unit for road signs and related measurements of distance (with the possible exception of clearance heights and widths) and may continue to be used as a secondary or supplementary indication following a metric measurement for other purposes.
The international standard symbol for inch is in (see ISO 31-1, Annex A) but traditionally the inch is denoted by a double prime, which is often approximated by double quotes, and the foot by a prime, which is often approximated by an apostrophe. For example can be written as 3′ 2″. Subdivisions of an inch are typically written using dyadic fractions with odd number numerators; for example, would be written as ″ and not as 2.375″ nor as ″.
1 international inch is equal to:
The English word inch comes from Latin uncia meaning "one-twelfth part" (in this case, one twelfth of a foot); the word ounce (one twelfth of a troy pound) has the same origin. The vowel change from u to i is umlaut; the consonant change from c (pronounced as k) to ch is palatalisation (see Old English phonology).
In some other languages, the word for "inch" is similar to or the same as the word for "thumb"; for example, Catalan: inch, polze thumb; French: inch/thumb; Italian: inch/thumb; Spanish: inch, pulgar thumb; Portuguese: inch, polegar thumb; Swedish: inch, tumme thumb; Dutch: inch/thumb; Czech: inch/thumb; Slovak: inch/thumb; Hungarian: inch/thumb, Danish and Norwegian: / tommer inch/inches and tommel thumb. Given the etymology of the word "inch", it would seem that the inch is a unit derived from the foot unit in Latin in Roman times.
The earliest known reference to the inch in England is from the Laws of Æthelberht dating to the early 7th century, surviving in a single manuscript from 1120. Paragraph LXVII sets out the fine for wounds of various depths: one inch, one shilling, two inches, two shillings, etc. "Gif man þeoh þurhstingð, stice ghwilve vi scillingas. Gife ofer ynce, scilling. æt twam yncum, twegen. ofer þry, iii scill."
An Anglo-Saxon unit of length was the barleycorn. After 1066, 1 inch was equal to 3 barleycorn, which continued to be its legal definition for several centuries, with the barleycorn being the base unit. One of the earliest such definitions is that of 1324, where the legal definition of the inch was set out in a statute of Edward II of England, defining it as "three grains of barley, dry and round, placed end to end, lengthwise".
Similar definitions are recorded in both English and Welsh medieval law tracts. One, dating from the first half of the 10th century, is contained in the Laws of Hywel Dda which superseded those of Dyvnwal, an even earlier definition of the inch in Wales. Both definitions, as recorded in Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales (vol i., pp. 184,187,189), are that "three lengths of a barleycorn is the inch".
King David I of Scotland in his Assize of Weights and Measures (c. 1150) is said to have defined the Scottish inch as the width of an average man's thumb at the base of the nail, even including the requirement to calculate the average of a small, a medium, and a large man's measures. However, the oldest surviving manuscripts date from the early 14th century and appear to have been altered with the inclusion of newer material.
Charles Butler, a mathematics teacher at Cheam School, in 1814 recorded the old legal definition of the inch to be "three grains of sound ripe barley being taken out the middle of the ear, well dried, and laid end to end in a row", and placed the barleycorn, not the inch, as the base unit of the English Long Measure system, from which all other units were derived. John Bouvier similarly recorded in his 1843 law dictionary that the barleycorn was the fundamental measure. Butler observed, however, that "[a]s the length of the barley-corn cannot be fixed, so the inch according to this method will be uncertain", noting that a standard inch measure was now (by his time) kept in the Exchequer chamber, Guildhall, and that was the legal definition of the inch. This was a point also made by George Long in his 1842 Penny Cyclopædia, observing that standard measures had since surpassed the barleycorn definition of the inch, and that to recover the inch measure from its original definition, in the event that the standard measure were destroyed, would involve the measurement of large numbers of barleycorns and taking their average lengths. He noted that this process would not perfectly recover the standard, since it might introduce errors of anywhere between one hundredth and one tenth of an inch in the definition of a yard.
The now obsolete Scottish inch (Scottish Gaelic: ), of a Scottish foot, was about 1.0016 imperial inches (about 2.5441 cm). It was used in the popular expression , in English "Give him an inch and he'll take an ell.", first published as "For when I gave you an inch, you tooke an ell." by John Heywood in 1546. (The ell, equal to 37 inches (about 94 cm), was in use in England until 1685.)
The current internationally accepted value for the imperial and US customary inch is exactly 25.4 millimetres. This is based on the international yard of exactly 0.9144 metres adopted through the International yard and pound agreement in 1959. Before the adoption of the international inch various definitions were in use. In the United Kingdom and most countries of the British Commonwealth][ the inch was defined in terms of the Imperial Standard Yard. The US adopted the conversion factor 1 metre = 39.37 inches by an act in 1866, and in 1893 Mendenhall ordered the physical realization of the inch be based on the international prototype metres numbers 21 and 27, which had been received from the CGPM together with the previously adopted conversion factor.
In 1930 the British Standards Institution adopted an inch of exactly 25.4 mm. The American Standards Association followed suit in 1933. By 1935 industry in 16 countries had adopted the "industrial inch" as it came to be known.
In 1946 the Commonwealth Science Congress recommended a yard of exactly 0.9144 metres for adoption throughout the British Commonwealth. This was adopted by Canada in 1951. The United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa signed a treaty agreeing to the same standards on 1 July 1959. This gives an inch of exactly 25.4 mm. However, the US retains the -metre definition for survey purposes creating a slight difference between the international and US survey inches.
The 12-inch single (often simply called 12″) is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing compared to other types of records. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the cutting engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range, and thus better sound quality. This record type is commonly used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in discos or clubs. They are played at either 33⅓ or 45 rpm.
The gramophone records cut especially for dancefloor DJs came into existence with the advent of recorded Jamaican mento music in the 1950s. By at least 1956 it was already standard practice by Jamaican sound systems owners to give their "selecter" DJs acetate or flexi disc dubs of exclusive mento and Jamaican rhythm and blues recordings before they were issued commercially. Songs such as Theophilus Beckford's "Easy Snappin'" (recorded in 1956) were played as exclusives by Sir Coxson's Downbeat sound system for years before they were actually released in 1959 - only to become major local hits, also pressed in the UK by Island Records and Blue Beat Records as early as 1960. As the 1960s creativity bloomed along, and with the development of multitrack recording facilities, special mixes of rocksteady and early reggae tunes were given as exclusives to dancehall DJs and selecters. With the 1967 Jamaican invention of remix, called dub on the island, those "specials" became valuable items sold to allied sound system DJs, who could draw crowds with their exclusive hits. The popularity of remix sound engineer King Tubby, who singlehandedly invented and perfected dub remixes from as early as 1967, led to more exclusive dub plates being cut. By then 10-inch records were used to cut those dubs. By 1971, most reggae singles issued in Jamaica included on their B-side a dub remix of the A-side, many of them first tested as exclusive "dub plates" on dances. Those dubs basically included drum and bass-oriented remixes used by sound system selecters. The 10-inch acetate "specials" would remain popular until at least the 2000s (decade) in Jamaica. Several Jamaican DJs such as DJ Kool Herc exported much of the hip hop dance culture from Jamaica to the Bronx in the early 1970s, including the common Jamaican practice of DJs rapping over instrumental dub remixes of hit songs (See King Stitt, U Roy, Dennis Alcapone, Dillinger), ultimately leading to the advent of rap culture in the United States. Most likely, the widespread use of exclusive dub acetates in Jamaica also led American DJs to do the same.
In the United States, the 12-inch single gramophone record came into existence with the advent of disco music in the 1970s. The first 12-inch (30 cm) single was actually a 10-inch (25 cm) acetate used by a mix engineer (José Rodríguez) in need of a Friday-night test copy for famed disco mixer Tom Moulton. As no 7-inch (18 cm) acetates could be found, a 10-inch (25 cm) blank was used. Moulton, feeling silly with a large disc which only had a couple of inches of groove on it, asked Rodríguez to re-cut it so that the grooves looked more spread out. Because of the wider spacing of the grooves, a broader overall dynamic range (distinction between loud and soft) was made possible. This was immediately noticed to give a more favorable sound for discothèque play.
Moulton's position as the premiere mixer and "fix it man" for pop singles ensured that this fortunate accident would instantly become industry practice. This would perhaps have been a natural evolution: As songs became much longer than had been the average for a pop song, and the DJ in the club wanted sufficient dynamic range, the format would have surely had to be changed from the 7 inch (18 cm) single eventually.
Also worth noting is that the visual spacing of the grooves on the 12-inch assisted the DJ in locating the approximate area of the "breaks" on the disc's surface (without having to listen as he dropped and re-dropped the stylus to find the right point). A quick study of any DJ's favorite discs will reveal mild wear in the "break points" on the discs' surfaces that can clearly be seen by the naked eye, which further eases the "cueing" task (a club DJ's tone-arm cartridge will be heavily weighted and mild wear will seldom spoil the sound quality). Many DJ-only remix services, such as Ultimix and Hot Tracks, issued sets with deliberately visualised groove separations (i.e., the record was cut with narrow and wider spacings that could be seen on the surface, marking the mix points on the often multi-song discs).
A broader dynamic range or louder recording level requires more space as the grooves' excursions (i.e., the width of the groove waves and distance traveled from side to side by the turntable stylus) become much greater in amplitude, especially in the bass frequencies so important for dance music. Many record companies began producing 12-inch (30 cm) singles at 33⅓ rpm, as the slower speed enhances the bass on the record.][ By the same token, however, 45 rpm gives better treble response][ and was used on many 12-inch singles, especially in the UK.
The first very first 12-inch single was released in 1973 by soul/R&B musician/songwriter/producer Jerry Williams, Jr. aka Swamp Dogg. 12-inch promotional copies of "Straight From My Heart" were released on his own Swamp Dogg Presents label (Swamp Dogg Presents #501/SDP-SD01, 33⅓ r.p.m.), with distribution by Jamie/Guyden Distribution Corporation. It was manufactured by Jamie Record Co. of Philadelphia PA. The B-side of the record is blank.
The first official promotional 12-inch single was Southshore Commissions' "Free Man". At first, these special versions were only available as promotional copies to DJs. Examples of these promos, released at almost the same time in 1975, are GARY TOMS EMPIRE – "Drive My Car", DON DOWNING – "Dream World", BARRABAS – "Mellow Blow", THE TRAMMPS – "Hooked for Life", ACE SPECTRUM – "Keep Holdin' On", SOUTH SHORE COMMISSION – "Train Called Freedom", THE CHEQUERS – "Undecided Love", ERNIE RUSH – "Breakaway", RALPH CARTER – "When You're Young and in Love", Michael ZAGER & The Moon Band feat. Peabo BRYSON – "Do It With Feeling", MONDAY AFTER – "Merry-Go-Round", THE RITCHIE FAMILY – "I Want To Dance" and FRANKIE VALLI – "Swearin' to God".
The first song found on a 12-inch single is "Love to Love You Baby" by Donna Summer, released worldwide by Atlantic Records in 1975. By 1976, with the release of "Ten Percent" by Double Exposure on Salsoul Records, the new format was being sold to the general public. This song was originally a full side of her North American debut release, but released again in early 1977 backed with "Try Me, I Know We Can Make It", on the Oasis/Casablanca label. As from 1976, the issued 12-inch single trend spread to Jamaica, where hundreds of reggae 12-inch singles were pressed and commercially issued as "discomix" to catch on the disco hype. These singles included The Maytones' "Creation Time" (GG Records, 1976) and Bob Marley and the Wailers' "Keep on Moving" (Upsetter Records, 1977) produced and remixed by Lee "Scratch" Perry, featuring a dub mix and a rap mix by Wung Chu all gathered on the same side and edited together. The Jamaican reggae and disco trend also hit London, where reggae was popular and many new punk groups such as The Clash ("London Calling"/"Armagideon Times", 1979) issued 12-inch singles - but these were mostly regular A-sides, not remixes.
Increasingly in the 1980s, many pop and even rock artists released 12-inch singles that included longer, extended, or remixed versions of the actual track being promoted by the single. These versions were frequently labeled with the parenthetical designation "12-inch version", "12-inch mix", "extended remix", "dance mix", or "club mix".
Later musical styles took advantage of this new format and recording levels on vinyl 30 cm (12 in) maxis have steadily increased, culminating in the extremely loud (or "hot") cuts of drum and bass records of the 1990s and early 2000s (decade).
Many record labels produced mainly 12-inch singles (in addition to albums) during the 1980s, such as Factory Records, who only ever released a handful of 7-inch (18 cm) records. One of Factory's resident artists, alternative rock/dance quartet New Order, produced the biggest-selling 12-inch record ever in the United Kingdom, "Blue Monday", selling about 800,000 copies on the format and over a million copies in total. It was somewhat helped by the fact that Factory did not release a 7-inch version of the single until 1988, five years after the single was originally released as a 12-inch-only release. "Blue Monday" came in 76th on the 2002 UK list of all-time best-selling singles.
The term "12-inch" usually refers to a single with several remixes. Now that advances in compact disc player technology have made the CD acceptable for mixing and "turntablism", the term maxi single is increasingly used.
In the mid-late 1980s, prior to the rise in popularity of the CD single, vinyl maxi-singles for popular artists often included "bonus" songs that were not included on albums, just as a 7-inch single included a B-side cut that was often not to be found on the referenced album. Many CD singles contain a number of such cuts, in a manner similar to the older EP vinyl format.
In the days of the 7-inch single, and especially in R&B releases, the single would occasionally be "flipped" by radio DJs who found the B-side cut to be better for airplay than the intended A-side. One noteworthy example is the now-classic "I'll Be Around", the first of the Spinners' Thom Bell-produced hits for Atlantic Records in the mid-1970s. Around the time 12-inch releases became standard for pop records, this practice faded, because of the increase in marketing costs, the reliance on video to sell single releases, and the public's expectation of quality packaging with photo or picture sleeves.
DISCO SINGLE – story in pix12
The withers is the ridge between the shoulder blades of a four-legged mammal. In many species it is the tallest point of the body, and in horses and dogs it is the standard place to measure the animal's height (in contrast, cattle are normally measured to the top of the hips).
The withers in horses are formed by the dorsal spinal processes of roughly the 3rd through 11th thoracic vertebrae (most horses have 18 thoracic vertebrae), which are unusually long in this area. The processes at the withers can be more than 12 inches (30 cm) long.
Since they do not move relative to the ground (as the horse's head does), the withers are used as the measuring point for the height of a horse. Horses are commonly measured in hands – one hand is 4 inches (10.16 cm). Horse heights are extremely variable, from small pony breeds to large draft breeds. The height at the withers of an average Thoroughbred is 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm), and ponies are up to 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm)
The withers of the horse are considered in evaluating conformation. Generally, a horse should have well-defined withers, as they are considered an important attachment point for the muscles of the torso. Withers of medium height are preferred, as high withers make it difficult to fit a saddle and are often associated with a narrow chest, and low withers (known as "mutton withers") do not provide a ridge to help keep the saddle in place.
More importantly, the dorsal spinal processes provide an attachment for the muscles that support the shoulder and neck. Horses do not have a clavicle, so the shoulder can freely rotate backwards. If the vertebrae of the withers are long (front to back), the shoulder is more free to move backwards. This allows for an increase of stride length (and so it can increase the horse's speed). It is also important in jumping, as the shoulder must rotate back for the horse to make his forearm more parallel to the ground, which will then raise the animal's knees upward and get the lower legs out of the way. Therefore, the withers have a direct impact on one of the most important points of conformation: the shoulder.][
In dogs, the height of the withers is often used to determine the dog's jump height in various dog sports. It is also often a determining factor in whether the dog conforms to the show-quality standards for its breed.
Zebras have very low withers, making it far more difficult for a saddle to stay in place.
Inflammation of the bursae (bursitis) in this region is called fistulous withers.
Vanity sizing, also known as size inflation refers to the phenomenon of ready-to-wear clothing of the same nominal size becoming bigger in physical size over time. This has been documented primarily in the United States and the United Kingdom. Vanity sizing tends to occur in places where clothing sizes are not standardized, such as the US.][ In the US, although clothing size standards exist (i.e. ASTM), most companies do not use them anymore.
Size inconsistency have existed since at least 1937. In Sears's 1937 catalog, a size 14 dress had a bust size of 32 inches (81 cm). In 1967, the same bust size was a size 8. In 2011, it was a size 0. Some argue that vanity sizing is designed to satisfy wearers' wishes to appear thin and feel better about themselves. Designer Nicole Miller introduced size 0 because of its strong California presence and to satisfy the request of many Asian customers. It introduced subzero sizes for naturally petite women. However, the increasing size of clothing with the same nominal size caused Nicole Miller to introduce size 0, 00, or subzero sizes.
In 2003, a study that measured over 1,000 pairs of women's pants found that pants from more expensive brands tended to be smaller than those from cheaper brands with the same nominal size.
Although more common in women's apparel, vanity sizing occurs in men's clothing too. For example, men's pants are traditionally marked with two numbers, "waist" (waist circumference) and "inseam" (distance from the crotch to the hem of the pant). While the nominal inseam is fairly accurate, the nominal size may be smaller than the actual length by more than an inch in US sizes. In 2010, Abram Sauer of Esquire magazine measured several pairs of dress pants with a nominal waist size of 36 at different US retailers and found that actual measurements ranged from 37 to 41 inches. The phenomenon has also been noticed in the United Kingdom, where a 2011 study found misleading labels on more than half of checked items of clothing. In that study, worst offenders understated waist circumferences by 1.5 to 2 inches. London-based market analyst Mintel say that the number of men reporting varying waistlines from store to store doubled between 2005 and 2011.