Edwin M. Stanton
Ulysses S. Grant
William T. Sherman
David D. Porter
Judah P. Benjamin
Robert E. Lee
Joseph E. Johnston
A civil war is a war between organized groups within the same nation state or republic, or, less commonly, between two countries created from a formerly united nation state. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region, or to change government policies. The term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile which was used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC.
A civil war is a high-intensity conflict, often involving regular armed forces, that is sustained, organized and large-scale. Civil wars may result in large numbers of casualties and the consumption of significant resources.
Currently as of November 20, 2013 the population of the United States is 317,104,210. As of January 1, 2013, the United States had a total resident population of 317,115,000, making it the third-most populous country in the world. It is very urbanized, with 82% residing in cities and suburbs as of 2008 (the worldwide urban rate is 50.5%). Much of the country is nearly uninhabited. California and Texas are the most populous states, as the mean center of U.S. population has consistently shifted westward and southward. New York City is the most populous city in the United States.
The total fertility rate in the United States estimated for 2012 is 1.88 children per woman, which is below the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1. Compared to other Western countries, in 2011, U.S. fertility rate was lower than that of France (2.02) and the United Kingdom (1.97). However, U.S. population growth is among the highest in industrialized countries, because the differences in fertility rates are less than the differences in immigration levels, which are higher in the U.S. The United States Census Bureau shows population increase of 0.75% for the twelve-month period ending in July 2012. Though high by industrialized country standards, this is below the world average annual rate of 1.1%.
The Strauss–Howe generational theory, created by authors William Strauss and Neil Howe, identifies a recurring generational cycle in American history. Strauss and Howe lay the groundwork for the theory in their 1991 book Generations, which retells the history of America as a series of generational biographies going back to 1584. In their 1997 book The Fourth Turning, the authors expand the theory to focus on a fourfold cycle of generational types and recurring mood eras in American history. Their consultancy, LifeCourse Associates, has expanded on the concept in a variety of publications since then.
The theory was developed to describe the history of the United States, including the 13 colonies and their Anglo antecedents, and this is where the most detailed research has been done. However, the authors have also examined generational trends elsewhere in the world and identified similar cycles in several developed countries. The books are best-sellers and the theory has been widely influential and acclaimed. Eric Hoover has called the authors pioneers in a burgeoning industry of consultants, speakers and researchers focused on generations.
Note: Varies by jurisdiction
Note: Varies by jurisdiction