Highly charged ions: Multiply-ionized atoms for clocks, qubits, and constants
The best highly charged ions seem to be atoms such as Nd, Pr, and Sm that can be ionized to have the same number of electrons as four ... is that the gaps in the energy levels are too great. This is because when you ionize an atom, its energy levels ...
Pique the Geek 20091101: A Primer on Nuclear Electricity
As one gets further from the sun, the energy falls off rapidly (the radiant energy follows an inverse-square relation, meaning that when you double the distance away from the sun, the energy per unit area decreases by a factor of four. Since the best solar ...
Quantum thermodynamics: A better understanding of how atoms soak up their surroundings
And no atom neither ... develop clocks of the highest stability. The precision of the clocks, however, is no better than knowledge of the internal energy levels of the atoms themselves, whether they are single ions or a gas of neutral atoms held in ...
The Future of Nuclear Power
Last year Al Gore declared that nuclear energy could play a “small part” in plans to avert global warming. James Lovelock, best known for ... nucleus and the electrons. Such an electrically neutral system is called an atom of the element.
Q & A: How long would we have if the Sun went out?
The Sun emits energy all over the light spectrum, from long-wavelength radio waves (many meters long) to visible light to X-rays (just a small fraction of a nanometer). The surface of the Sun is an astounding 5,800 Kelvin, hot enough to melt (or sublime ...