**Elementary arithmetic** is the simplified portion of arithmetic which includes the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Elementary arithmetic starts with the natural numbers and the written symbols (digits) which represent them. The process for combining a pair of these numbers with the four basic operations traditionally relies on memorized results for small values of numbers, including the contents of a multiplication table to assist with multiplication and division.

**Brassiere measurement** (also called **brassiere size**, **bra size** or **bust size**) refers to determining what size of bra a woman wears and mass-producing bras that will fit most women. Bra sizes usually consist of a number, indicating a band size around the woman's torso, and one or more letters indicating the breast cup size. Bra cup sizes were invented in 1932 and band sizes became popular in the 1940s.

Bra sizes vary from one manufacturer to another, and from country to country. Women's bodies and breasts may not conform to the sizes offered by companies. As a result, some women have a difficult time finding a properly fitted bra. Up to 80% of women wear the wrong size bra causing 40% to 60% to experience pain of one kind or another.]*citation needed*[

The **cups and balls** is a classic performance of magic with innumerable adaptations. The effect known as *acetabula et calculi* was performed by Roman conjurers as far back as two thousand years ago. One popularly circulated picture, thought to date from 2500 B.C. from the walls of a burial chamber in Beni Hasan, Egypt, shows two men kneeling over four inverted bowls. It was taken by early Egyptologists Wilkinson and Newberry as evidence that the cups and balls effect, or its related deceptive gambling game, thimblerig, possibly dates back to Ancient Egypt. Because of its context, modern Egyptologists regard the image as a game using pots or cups but details of the game are unknown. The illustration is unique in ancient Egyptian art, so whether or not the game utilizes sleight of hand trickery may never be known unless a future discovery produces a similar image in a more explanatory context.

The most widely performed version of the effect uses three cups and three small balls. The magician makes the balls pass through the solid bottoms of the cups, jump from cup to cup, disappear from the cup and appear in other places, or vanish from various places and reappear under the cups (sometimes under the same cup), often ending with larger objects, like fruit, or vegetable, or even baby chicks appearing under the cups.

**Connected Mathematics** is a comprehensive, problem-centered curriculum designed for all students in grades 6-8 based on the NCTM standards. The curriculum was developed by the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) at Michigan State University and funded by the National Science Foundation.

Each grade level curriculum is a full-year program, and in each of the three grade levels, topics of number, algebra, geometry/measurement, probability and statistics are covered in an increasingly sophisticated manner. The program seeks to make connections within mathematics, between mathematics and other subject areas, and to the real world. The curriculum is divided into units, each of which contains investigations with major problems that the teacher and students explore in class. Extensive problem sets are included for each investigation to help students practice, apply, connect, and extend these understandings.

- How many 1/3 cups do i need to make one 3/4 cup?
- How do you make 1/3 cups using a 1/2 cup, 1/4 cup and 1 cup?
- How many 1/4 cups are in a 1/3 cup?
- How many 1/3 cups is in a 3/4 cup?
- How many cups is 1 cup plus 3/4 cup?
- How many 3/4 cups make 1/2 cup?
- How many 1/4 cups are in 3/4 cup?
- How many 1/4 cups make 3/4 cups?

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