The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the (upper) arm.
It is the continuation of the axillary artery beyond the lower margin of teres major muscle. It continues down the ventral surface of the arm until it reaches the cubital fossa at the elbow. It then divides into the radial and ulnar arteries which run down the forearm. In some individuals, the bifurcation occurs much earlier and the ulnar and radial arteries extend through the upper arm. The pulse of the brachial artery is palpable on the anterior aspect of the elbow, medial to the tendon of the biceps, and, with the use of a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff) often used to measure the blood pressure.
In human anatomy, the axillary artery is a large blood vessel that conveys oxygenated blood to the lateral aspect of the thorax, the axilla (armpit) and the upper limb. Its origin is at the lateral margin of the first rib, before which it is called the subclavian artery.
After passing the lower margin of teres major it becomes the brachial artery.
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a syndrome involving compression at the superior thoracic outlet resulting from excess pressure placed on a neurovascular bundle passing between the anterior scalene and middle scalene muscles. It can affect one or more of the nerves that innervate the upper limb and/or blood vessels as they pass between the chest and upper extremity, specifically in the brachial plexus, the subclavian artery, and, rarely, the subclavian vein, which does not normally pass through the scalene hiatus.
TOS may result from a positional cause, for example, by abnormal compression from the clavicle (collarbone) and shoulder girdle on arm movement. There are also several static forms, caused by abnormalities, enlargement, or spasm of the various muscles surrounding the arteries, veins, and/or brachial plexus, a fixation of a first rib, or a cervical rib. A Pancoast tumor (a rare form of lung cancer in the apex of the lung) can lead to thoracic outlet syndrome in the progressive stages of the disease. The most common causes of thoracic outlet syndrome include physical trauma from a car accident, repetitive strain injury from a job such as frequent nonergonomic use of a keyboard, sports-related activities, and anatomical defects such as having an extra rib. In pregnancy, if a narrow superior thoracic outlet exists previously, the patient can have symptoms for the first time. Joints loosen during pregnancy, making it easier to develop bad posture.