Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons, compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, as well as compositions based on carbon but containing other elements. Organic chemistry overlaps with many areas including medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, organometallic chemistry, and polymer chemistry, as well as many aspects of materials science.
Benzodiazepine drug misuse, sometimes called benzodiazepine drug abuse (both terms are merely nominal, and cover all non-medical uses of the drugs), is defined as using benzodiazepines for recreational purposes i.e. to get "high" or continuing benzodiazepines long term against medical advice. The level of benzodiazepine misuse is as high as other common drugs of misuse. When used recreationally benzodiazepines are usually administered orally but sometimes they are taken intranasally or intravenously. Recreational use produces effects similar to alcohol intoxication. In tests in pentobarbital trained rhesus monkeys benzodiazepines produced effects similar to barbiturates. In a 1991 study, triazolam had the highest self-administration rate in cocaine trained baboons, among the five benzodiazepines examined: alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, triazolam.
Studies have indicated that those benzodiazepines which are more rapidly absorbed and those with a quick rate of elimination have the highest abuse potential. Self-injection rates of triazolam, temazepam and midazolam have been shown in several studies to be considerably higher when compared to other benzodiazepines.