Cannabis, also known as marijuana (from the Mexican Spanish marihuana), and by numerous other names,a[›] is a preparation of the plantCannabis intended for use as a psychoactive drug and as medicine. Pharmacologically, the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); it is one of 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 84 other cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and cannabigerol (CBG).
Cannabis is often consumed for its psychoactive and physiological effects, which can include heightened mood or euphoria, relaxation, and increase in appetite. Unwanted side-effects can sometimes include a decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills, reddening of the eyes, and feelings of paranoia or anxiety.
Cannabis drug testing describes various drug test methodologies for the use of cannabis in medicine, sport, and law. Cannabis use is highly detectable and can be detected by urinalysis, hair analysis, as well as saliva tests for days or weeks.
Unlike alcohol, for which impairment can be reasonably measured using a breathalyser (and confirmed with a blood alcohol content measurement), valid detection for cannabis is time-consuming, and tests cannot determine an approximate degree of impairment. The lack of suitable tests and agreed-upon intoxication levels is an issue in the legality of cannabis debate, especially regarding intoxicated driving.
Cannabis strains are either pure breeds or hybrid varieties of Cannabis, typically of the species C. sativa and/or the putative C. indica. Varieties are developed to highlight a specific combination of properties of the plant or to establish marketing differentiation. Variety names are typically chosen by their growers, and often reflect properties of the plant, such as taste, color, smell, or the origin of the variety.]citation needed[ Cannabis strains commonly refer to those varieties with recreational/medicinal use, which have been cultivated for high cannabinoid content. Several varieties of cannabis, known as hemp, have no recreational value (low cannabinoid content) and have been traditionally been grown for their fiber, oil, and seed.
A variety may refer ambiguously to different forms of cannabis:
This article presents common techniques and facts regarding the cultivation of the flowering plant cannabis, primarily for the production and consumption of marijuana buds. Cultivation techniques for other purposes (such as hemp production) differ. A basic description of hemp cultivation can be found in the US film Hemp for Victory.
Medical cannabis refers to the parts of the herb cannabis used as a form of medicine or herbal therapy, or to synthetic forms of specific cannabinoids such as THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) as a form of medicine. The plantCannabis has been used as a medicine over an extensive period of time. Cannabis is one of the 50 "fundamental" herbs of traditional Chinese medicine, and is prescribed for a broad range of indications.
However, organizations such as the American Society of Addiction Medicine dismiss the concept of medical cannabis because the plant in question fails to meet its standard requirements for approved medicines, as well as those of the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA); that is, cannabis is associated with numerous harmful health effects, and significant aspects such as content, production, and supply are not regulated.
Synthetic cannabis is a psychoactive designer drug created by spraying natural herbs with synthetic chemicals that, when consumed, allegedly mimic the effects of cannabis. It is often known by the brand names K2 and Spice, both of which are genericized trademarks used for any synthetic cannabis product. Synthetic cannabis is often termed spice product. There is controversy about calling Spice and K2 synthetic cannabis. "Synthetic" is considered a misnomer, because the ingredients contained in these products are mimics, not copies of THC.
Research on the safety of synthetic cannabis is now becoming available. Initial studies are focused on the role of synthetic cannabis in psychosis. Synthetic cannabis may precipitate psychosis and in some cases it may be prolonged. Some studies suggest that synthetic cannabinoid intoxication is associated with acute psychosis, worsening of previously stable psychotic disorders, and it may trigger a chronic (long-term) psychotic disorder among vulnerable individuals such as those with a family history of mental illness.
The legality of cannabis varies from country to country. Possession of cannabis is illegal in most countries and has been since the beginning of widespread cannabis prohibition in the late 1930s. However, many countries have decriminalized the possession of small quantities of cannabis, particularly in North America, South America and Europe. Furthermore, possession is legal or effectively legal in the Netherlands, North Korea and in the U.S. states of Colorado (Colorado Amendment 64) and Washington (Washington Initiative 502) as the federal government has indicated that it will not attempt to block enactment of legalization in those states.
The medicinal use of cannabis is legal in a number of countries, including Canada, the Czech Republic and Israel. While federal law in the United States bans all sale and possession of cannabis, enforcement varies widely at the state level and some states have established medicinal marijuana programs that contradict federal law—Colorado and Washington have repealed their laws prohibiting the recreational use of cannabis, and have instated a regulatory regime that is contrary to federal statutes.
The illegal drug trade is a global black market that is dedicated to the cultivation, manufacturing, distribution, and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws.
A UN report said "the global drug trade generated an estimated US$321.6 billion in 2003." With a world GDP of US$36 trillion in the same year, the illegal drug trade may be estimated as nearly 1% of total global trade. Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally.
Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles. The metabolome represents the collection of all metabolites in a biological cell, tissue, organ or organism, which are the end products of cellular processes. Thus, while mRNA gene expression data and proteomic analyses do not tell the whole story of what might be happening in a cell, metabolic profiling can give an instantaneous snapshot of the physiology of that cell. One of the challenges of systems biology and functional genomics is to integrate proteomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic information to give a more complete picture of living organisms.
An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.
Sometimes drugs are formulated deliberately so they will break down inside the body to form the active drug. These are called prodrugs. The reason for this may be because the drug is more stable during manufacture and storage as the prodrug form, or because the prodrug is better absorbed by the body or has superior pharmacokinetics (e.g., lisdexamphetamine).
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Unlike primary metabolites, absence of secondary metabolites does not result in immediate death, but rather in long-term impairment of the organism's survivability, fecundity, or aesthetics, or perhaps in no significant change at all. Secondary metabolites are often restricted to a narrow set of species within a phylogenetic group. Secondary metabolites often play an important role in plant defense against herbivory and other interspecies defenses. Humans use secondary metabolites as medicines, flavorings, and recreational drugs.
Most of the secondary metabolites of interest to humankind fit into categories which classify secondary metabolites based on their biosynthetic origin. Since secondary metabolites are often created by modified primary metabolite synthases, or "borrow" substrates of primary metabolite origin, these categories should not be interpreted as saying that all molecules in the category are secondary metabolites (for example the steroid category), but rather that there are secondary metabolites in these categories.
A primary metabolite is a kind of metabolite that is directly involved in normal growth, development, and reproduction. It usually performs a physiological function in the organism (i.e. an intrinsic function). A primary metabolite is typically present in many organism or cell. It is also referred to as a central metabolite, which has an even more restricted meaning (present in any autonomously growing cell or organism).
Conversely, a secondary metabolite is not directly involved in those processes, but usually has an important ecological function (i.e. a relational function). A secondary metabolite is typically present in a taxonomically restricted set of organisms or cells (Plants, Fungi, Bacteria...).
Metabolite pool is a collective term for all of the substances involved in the metabolic process in a biological system. Metabolic pool Within a cell (or organelle such as a chloroplast) there exists a reservoir of molecules upon which an enzymes can operate. This size of this reservoir, is referred to as its "metabolic pool." The metabolic pool concept is important to cellular biology. Let's consider an analogy:
In certain ways, a metabolic pathway is similar to a factory assembly line. Products are assembled from parts by workers who each perform a specific step in the manufacturing process. Enzymes of a cell are like workers on an assembly line; each is only responsible for a particular step in the assembly process. A lag period also occurs when a new factory is constructed, a time period before finished products begin to roll off the assembly line at a steady rate. This lag period partially results from the time needed to fill supply bins with the necessary parts. As you might imagine, when parts are not readily available, production is slow, or stops. Molecular pools are somewhat analogous to the parts bins of a factory. The Calvin-Benson cycle will only operate at full speed when the cellular 'bins' are full of the molecule building blocks that lie between PGA and RUBP.
LabCorp v. Metabolite, Inc. is a court case related to the patentability of scientific principles which the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear, and later dismissed, in 2006.
In 1999, Metabolite sued LabCorp for infringement of a patent covering a diagnostic test. The claims of Metabolite's patent include the correlation between levels of homocysteine and vitamins 6B and 12B. A jury ordered LabCorp to pay $4.7 million in damages and the decision was upheld by a federal court, which further stated that doctors were 'directly infringing' Metabolite's patents each time such a test is ordered and interpreted. LabCorp argued that the correlation is a principle of nature, and therefore the patent should never have been granted. The court dismissed the case, although Justice Breyer, Justice Stevens, and Justice Souter dissented from this decision. Breyer's dissenting opinion cited numerous cases in which scientific principles had been held to be unpatentable.
Cannabis smoking is the inhalation of smoke or vapors released by heating the flowers, leaves, or extracts of cannabis. Smoking releases the main psychoactive chemical in cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is absorbed into the bloodstream via the lungs.
Cannabis can be smoked, vaporized, consumed orally or applied to the skin; the bioavailability characteristics and effects of smoking and vaporizing cannabis differ from other consumption methods in having a more rapid and predictable onset of effect.
The use, sale and possession of cannabis (marijuana) in the United States is illegal under federal law. However, some states have created exemptions for medical cannabis use, as well as decriminalized non-medical cannabis use. In two states, Colorado and Washington, the sale and possession of marijuana is legal for both medical and non-medical use. This law however is up in the air for the time being as the states have one year to write laws on distribution and regulation of marijuana.]clarification needed[. Multiple efforts to reschedule cannabis under the Act have failed, and the United States Supreme Court has ruled in United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative and Gonzales v. Raich that the federal government has a right to regulate and criminalize cannabis. Also, if the cannabis is called "medical cannabis" the federal law still has priority.
In July 2009, Gil Kerlikowske, Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy, further clarified the federal government's position when he stated that "marijuana is dangerous and has no medicinal benefit" and that "legalization is not in the president's vocabulary, and it's not in mine." However, a January 2010 settlement between the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and the Wo/Men's Alliance for Medical Marijuana (WAMM) provides an example confirming the administration policy as communicated by Attorney General Holder, as WAMM reached an agreement to re-open after being shut down by the federal government in 2002.
Cannabis in Oregon relates to a number of legislative, legal, and cultural events surrounding use of cannabis (marijuana, hashish, THC, kief, etc.). Oregon was the first U.S. state to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of cannabis, and among the first to authorize its use for medical purposes. An attempt to recriminalize possession of small amounts of cannabis was turned down by Oregon voters in 1997.
From 1999 through 2005, the ratio of Oregonians using cannabis outpaced the general United States population by 32–45%. In 2003–2004, Oregon ranked among the top five states for cannabis usage of people 12 and older. Oregon is also one of the largest cannabis producing states, ranking fourth in indoor production, and tenth overall in 2006.]citation needed[