Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that produce venom. Members of the families Elapidae, Viperidae, Atractaspididae and Colubridae are major venomous snakes.
Venom is the general term referring to any variety of toxins used by certain types of animals that inject it into their victims by the means of a bite, sting or other sharp body feature.
The potency of different venoms varies; lethal venoms are often characterised by the median lethal dose (LD50, LD50, or LD-50), expressed in terms of mass fraction (e.g., milligrams of toxin per kilogram of body mass), that will kill 50% of victims of a specified type (e.g., laboratory mice).
Wilderness medicine is defined as a medical emergency which takes place in a wilderness or remote setting which is at least 60 minutes away from definitive care (hospital, clinic, etc.) and present unique challenges that may require specialized skills, treatment techniques, and knowledge in order to manage the patient for an extended period of time before being evacuated.
These are incidents which produce an elevated number of injuries, such as blizzards, earthquake, avalanche, landslide, floods and forest fire. Triage is a concern as well as location of victims who may be in dense foliage, rocky and remote locations or covered in mud, snow and debris. Helicopters are used to access remote locations during natural disasters. In other instances, mass casualties have resulted when parties of climbers or explorers have suffered adverse consequences of human error, with or without complications from inclement weather.
A dry bite is a bite by a venomous animal in which no venom is released. Dry snake bites are called "Venomous snake bite without envenoming". Dry bites can occur from all snakes, but their frequency varies from species to species. For example, Australian eastern brown snakes (Pseudonaja textilis) can inflict dry bites 80% of the time while taipans inflict dry bites only 5% of the time. About 25% of snakebite cases can be dry bites. They are characterized by fang and tooth marks and the absence of injected poison.
Dry bites often are confusing for the attending physician and the victim. The phenomenon also is exploited by quack doctors as evidence for the effectiveness of supposed miracle cures.