Question:

How long does a person who has Cerebral Palsy live?

The life expectancy for adults with cerebral palsy can range from 30 years for those with severe spasticity to 60 to 70 years.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term denoting a group of non-progressive, non-contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement. Scientific consensus still holds that CP is neither genetic nor a disease, and it is also understood that the vast majority of cases are congenital, coming at or about the time of birth, and/or are diagnosed at a very young age rather than during adolescence or adulthood. It can be defined as a central motor dysfunction affecting muscle tone, posture and movement resulting from a permanent, non-progressive defect or lesion of the immature brain.

Cerebral refers to the cerebrum, which is the affected area of the brain. The disorder may often involve connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum. The term palsy in modern parlance refers to disorder of movement, but the word root "palsy" does still technically mean "paralysis" today, even though it is not used as such within the meaning of cerebral palsy. The use of "palsy" in the term cerebral palsy makes it important to note that paralytic disorders are in fact not cerebral palsy – meaning that the condition of quadriplegia, which comes from spinal cord injury or traumatic brain injury, should not be confused with spastic quadriplegia, which doesn't; nor should tardive dyskinesia be confused with dyskinetic cerebral palsy or the condition of (paralytic) "diplegia" with spastic diplegia. In fact, as of the early 21st century some clinicians have become so distressed at common incorrect use of these terms that they have resorted to new naming schemes rather than trying to reclaim the classic ones; one such example of this evolution is the increasing use of the term bilateral spasticity to refer to spastic diplegia. Such clinicians even argue quite often that the "new" term is technically more clinically accurate than the established term.]citation needed[

Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term denoting a group of non-progressive, non-contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement. Scientific consensus still holds that CP is neither genetic nor a disease, and it is also understood that the vast majority of cases are congenital, coming at or about the time of birth, and/or are diagnosed at a very young age rather than during adolescence or adulthood. It can be defined as a central motor dysfunction affecting muscle tone, posture and movement resulting from a permanent, non-progressive defect or lesion of the immature brain.

Cerebral refers to the cerebrum, which is the affected area of the brain. The disorder may often involve connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum. The term palsy in modern parlance refers to disorder of movement, but the word root "palsy" does still technically mean "paralysis" today, even though it is not used as such within the meaning of cerebral palsy. The use of "palsy" in the term cerebral palsy makes it important to note that paralytic disorders are in fact not cerebral palsy – meaning that the condition of quadriplegia, which comes from spinal cord injury or traumatic brain injury, should not be confused with spastic quadriplegia, which doesn't; nor should tardive dyskinesia be confused with dyskinetic cerebral palsy or the condition of (paralytic) "diplegia" with spastic diplegia. In fact, as of the early 21st century some clinicians have become so distressed at common incorrect use of these terms that they have resorted to new naming schemes rather than trying to reclaim the classic ones; one such example of this evolution is the increasing use of the term bilateral spasticity to refer to spastic diplegia. Such clinicians even argue quite often that the "new" term is technically more clinically accurate than the established term.]citation needed[

Spastic cerebral palsy, sometimes also termed bilateral spasticity, is the type of cerebral palsy wherein spasticity (also known in some versions of colloquial English as "muscle tightness") is either the dominant or exclusive impairment present.

It is by far the most common type of overall cerebral palsy, occurring in 90% of all cases according to the Society for Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE); even if the 90% assertion is an exaggeration, however, more conservative scientific estimates still place the prevalence of spasticity-dominant cerebral palsy at anywhere from 70–80% of all cases, leaving cases dominated by ataxic cerebral palsy, dyskinetic cerebral palsy and athetoid cerebral palsy trailing at 20–30%.

Ataxic cerebral palsy is clinically observed in approximately 5-10% of all cases of cerebral palsy, making it the least frequent form of cerebral palsy diagnosed. Ataxic cerebral palsy is caused by damage to cerebellar structures, differentiating it from the other two forms of cerebral palsy, which are spastic cerebral palsy (damage to cortical motor areas and underlying white matter) and athetoid cerebral palsy (damage to basal ganglia).

Because of the damage to the cerebellum, which is essential for coordinating muscle movements and balance, patients with ataxic cerebral palsy experience problems in coordination, specifically in their arms, legs, and trunk. Ataxic cerebral palsy is known to decrease muscle tone.

United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is an international nonprofit charitable organization consisting of a network of affiliates. UCP is a leading service provider and advocate for adults and children with disabilities. As one of the largest health nonprofits in the United States, the UCP mission is to advance the independence, productivity and full citizenship of people with disabilities through an affiliate network.

Athetoid cerebral palsy or dyskinetic cerebral palsy (sometimes abbreviated ADCP) is a type of cerebral palsy primarily associated with damage, like other forms of CP, to the basal ganglia in the form of lesions that occur during brain development due to bilirubin encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Unlike spastic or ataxic cerebral palsies, ADCP is characterized by both hypertonia and hypotonia, due to the affected individual's inability to control muscle tone. Clinical diagnosis of ADCP typically occurs within 18 months of birth and is primarily based upon motor function and neuroimaging techniques. While there are no cures for ADCP, some drug therapies as well as speech ,occupational therapy, and physical therapy have shown capacity for treating the symptoms.

The Cerebral Palsy Alliance (formerly The Spastic Centre) is a not-for-profit organization which provides services to adults and children with cerebral palsy from over 70 sites across New South Wales, Australia.

Cerebral Palsy Alliance was founded on 30 January 1945 by a group of parents of children with cerebral palsy under the leadership of Audrie and Neil McLeod. It was the first organisation of its type in the world for people with cerebral palsy.

The Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CPISRA) is the international governing body for sports for athletes with cerebral palsy.

CP-ISRA sports are open to athletes with cerebral palsy, and athletes with similar disabilities resulting from other neurological disorders such as stroke or traumatic brain injuries.

Mixed cerebral palsy

Cerebral Palsy Greece (CPG) (Greek: Εταιρεία Προστασίας Σπαστικών) is a Greek nonprofit charitable organization that serves people with cerebral palsy.

Cerebral Palsy Greece was founded as the Athens Spastic Society in 1972. In 2001, thanks to a significant donation made by the Lilian Voudouri Foundation and the success of the TV-Marathon organized by Mega Channel in 1996, CPG built the Open Door Centre of Education and Rehabilitation in Argyroupolis, Greece.

Spastic diplegia, historically known as Little's Disease, is a form of cerebral palsy (CP) that is a chronic neuromuscular condition of hypertonia and spasticity — manifested as an especially high and constant "tightness" or "stiffness" — in the muscles of the lower extremities of the human body, usually those of the legs, hips and pelvis. Doctor William John Little's first recorded encounter with cerebral palsy is reported to have been among children who displayed signs of spastic diplegia.

This condition is by far the most common type of CP, occurring in almost 70% of all cases.

Life expectancy is the expected (in the statistical sense) number of years of life remaining at a given age. It is denoted by $e_x$,[a] which means the average number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged $x$, according to a particular mortality experience. Because life expectancy is an average, a particular person may well die many years before or many years after their "expected" survival. The term "maximum life span" has a quite different meaning. The "median life span" is also a different concept although fairly similar to life expectancy numerically in most developed countries.

The term that is known as life expectancy is most often used in the context of human populations, but is also used in plant or animal ecology; it is calculated by the analysis of life tables (also known as actuarial tables). The term life expectancy may also be used in the context of manufactured objects although the related term shelf life is used for consumer products and the terms "mean time to breakdown" (MTTB) and "mean time before failures" (MTBF) are used in engineering.

Life expectancy is the expected (in the statistical sense) number of years of life remaining at a given age. It is denoted by $e_x$,[a] which means the average number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged $x$, according to a particular mortality experience. Because life expectancy is an average, a particular person may well die many years before or many years after their "expected" survival. The term "maximum life span" has a quite different meaning. The "median life span" is also a different concept although fairly similar to life expectancy numerically in most developed countries.

The term that is known as life expectancy is most often used in the context of human populations, but is also used in plant or animal ecology; it is calculated by the analysis of life tables (also known as actuarial tables). The term life expectancy may also be used in the context of manufactured objects although the related term shelf life is used for consumer products and the terms "mean time to breakdown" (MTTB) and "mean time before failures" (MTBF) are used in engineering.

This is a list of countries by life expectancy at birth.

This is a list of Indian states by Life expectancy at birth. The figures come from the 2011 Human Development Index Report by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) India.

Kerala has the highest Life expectancy among the states in India. The figures for North-Eastern States are unavailable.

Life Expectancy is a novel by suspense/horror writer Dean R. Koontz. The plot centers on five pivotal moments in the life of a self-proclaimed "lummox" named James "Jimmy" Tock.

James Tock was born on a stormy night in Snow County Hospital in Colorado...and at the exact moment his grandfather, Josef Tock, a pastry chef, dies of a stroke. Though crippled by a stroke earlier in the week, moments before his death, Josef recovers miraculously to impart on his son Rudy ten cryptic predictions: the boy would be born at 10:46 PM, weigh 8 pounds, 10 ounces, be 20 inches long and be born with syndactyly. Josef also predicts five terrible days to come in his grandson's life. He names each, though not why they are so terrible, and Rudy dutifully notes them on the back of a free circus pass given to him by a police officer friend. Coherent though bizarre his speech may be, Josef Tock does not recover from his event, but expires right when the baby is born.

There are 26 States of Brazil, or Estados in Portuguese, which are the federal states of Brazil, plus the Federal District which holds the capital city, Brasília. The second number in bold corresponds to the map. This and the below figures are based on 2007 estimate data.

Happy life expectancy is calculated by multiplying life expectancy by a happiness index. The first uses life expectancy at birth. The happiness index is the average appreciation of life (with a value from 0 to 1) from the World databases of happiness.

The HDI measures average achievements based on three dimensions: 1. life-span, as measured by life expectancy at birth. 2. Education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and average amount of years spent in school in adults over 25 3. Standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms in US dollars. Veenhoven is critical of the HDI because it measures QOL in terms of input, while never addressing to what extent these input provisions are in fact good for people. Furthermore, the HDI is a rather generalized index that gives a simple average of the three dimensional achievements mentioned above, which can be expressed in this formula:

School life expectancy

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a simple, approximate statistic devised by Mahbub ul Haq and Amartya Sen to introduce non-income factors and rival traditional economic indicators within a framework of international development. Prof. Amartya Sen described HDI as "a very crude measure, but better crude measure than Gross National Product or Gross Domestic Product". Formula produces composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development, well-being concept based on capability approach. It is annually published by the United Nations Development Programme since 1990.

The index has been developed as a broad proxy intending to stimulate political changes and according to UNDP shall not be considered the only measure of a country’s level of development in general nor the ultimate measure within the concept of human development. Also, exact ranks of the countries have been found subjected to significant miscalculation as a result of underlying data error. Despite these shortcomings Human Development approach is reported to greatly influence policy-makers all around the world, thus contributing to reduction of global poverty.

Sexually active life expectancy is the average number of years remaining for a person to be sexually active. This population-based indicator extends the concept of health expectancy to the measure of sexuality (via sexual activity). Calculation of sexually active life expectancy uses the age-specific prevalence data on sexual activity in conjunction with life table data on survival probabilities to partition the number of person-years into years with and without sexual activity, which is based on the Sullivan method. The measure of sexually active life expectancy was introduced by Lindau and Gavrilova.

A study of two large population-based U.S. surveys found that, on average, women expect fewer years of sexual activity, mainly due to prevalent widowhood among older women. This gender disparity is attenuated for people with a spouse or other intimate partner. The study also found that men tend to lose more years of sexually active life due to poor health.

The life expectancy of a cat is typically 15–17 years. However, some cats that are kept indoors may attain the age of 21 years or more. By comparison, the average life expectancy of humans at birth is 67.2 years. A one-year-old cat is roughly comparable, in developmental terms, to a 15-year-old-human. Subsequent years of a cat's life add progressively fewer years to its human age equivalent, so that a 15-year old cat is roughly comparable, developmentally, to a 76-year-old human.

The table below shows the correspondence between a cat's chronological age and the age of a human at a comparable stage of development.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term denoting a group of non-progressive, non-contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement. Scientific consensus still holds that CP is neither genetic nor a disease, and it is also understood that the vast majority of cases are congenital, coming at or about the time of birth, and/or are diagnosed at a very young age rather than during adolescence or adulthood. It can be defined as a central motor dysfunction affecting muscle tone, posture and movement resulting from a permanent, non-progressive defect or lesion of the immature brain.

Cerebral refers to the cerebrum, which is the affected area of the brain. The disorder may often involve connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum. The term palsy in modern parlance refers to disorder of movement, but the word root "palsy" does still technically mean "paralysis" today, even though it is not used as such within the meaning of cerebral palsy. The use of "palsy" in the term cerebral palsy makes it important to note that paralytic disorders are in fact not cerebral palsy – meaning that the condition of quadriplegia, which comes from spinal cord injury or traumatic brain injury, should not be confused with spastic quadriplegia, which doesn't; nor should tardive dyskinesia be confused with dyskinetic cerebral palsy or the condition of (paralytic) "diplegia" with spastic diplegia. In fact, as of the early 21st century some clinicians have become so distressed at common incorrect use of these terms that they have resorted to new naming schemes rather than trying to reclaim the classic ones; one such example of this evolution is the increasing use of the term bilateral spasticity to refer to spastic diplegia. Such clinicians even argue quite often that the "new" term is technically more clinically accurate than the established term.]citation needed[

Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term denoting a group of non-progressive, non-contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement. Scientific consensus still holds that CP is neither genetic nor a disease, and it is also understood that the vast majority of cases are congenital, coming at or about the time of birth, and/or are diagnosed at a very young age rather than during adolescence or adulthood. It can be defined as a central motor dysfunction affecting muscle tone, posture and movement resulting from a permanent, non-progressive defect or lesion of the immature brain.

Cerebral refers to the cerebrum, which is the affected area of the brain. The disorder may often involve connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum. The term palsy in modern parlance refers to disorder of movement, but the word root "palsy" does still technically mean "paralysis" today, even though it is not used as such within the meaning of cerebral palsy. The use of "palsy" in the term cerebral palsy makes it important to note that paralytic disorders are in fact not cerebral palsy – meaning that the condition of quadriplegia, which comes from spinal cord injury or traumatic brain injury, should not be confused with spastic quadriplegia, which doesn't; nor should tardive dyskinesia be confused with dyskinetic cerebral palsy or the condition of (paralytic) "diplegia" with spastic diplegia. In fact, as of the early 21st century some clinicians have become so distressed at common incorrect use of these terms that they have resorted to new naming schemes rather than trying to reclaim the classic ones; one such example of this evolution is the increasing use of the term bilateral spasticity to refer to spastic diplegia. Such clinicians even argue quite often that the "new" term is technically more clinically accurate than the established term.]citation needed[

Spastic cerebral palsy, sometimes also termed bilateral spasticity, is the type of cerebral palsy wherein spasticity (also known in some versions of colloquial English as "muscle tightness") is either the dominant or exclusive impairment present.

It is by far the most common type of overall cerebral palsy, occurring in 90% of all cases according to the Society for Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE); even if the 90% assertion is an exaggeration, however, more conservative scientific estimates still place the prevalence of spasticity-dominant cerebral palsy at anywhere from 70–80% of all cases, leaving cases dominated by ataxic cerebral palsy, dyskinetic cerebral palsy and athetoid cerebral palsy trailing at 20–30%.

Ataxic cerebral palsy is clinically observed in approximately 5-10% of all cases of cerebral palsy, making it the least frequent form of cerebral palsy diagnosed. Ataxic cerebral palsy is caused by damage to cerebellar structures, differentiating it from the other two forms of cerebral palsy, which are spastic cerebral palsy (damage to cortical motor areas and underlying white matter) and athetoid cerebral palsy (damage to basal ganglia).

Because of the damage to the cerebellum, which is essential for coordinating muscle movements and balance, patients with ataxic cerebral palsy experience problems in coordination, specifically in their arms, legs, and trunk. Ataxic cerebral palsy is known to decrease muscle tone.

United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is an international nonprofit charitable organization consisting of a network of affiliates. UCP is a leading service provider and advocate for adults and children with disabilities. As one of the largest health nonprofits in the United States, the UCP mission is to advance the independence, productivity and full citizenship of people with disabilities through an affiliate network.

Athetoid cerebral palsy or dyskinetic cerebral palsy (sometimes abbreviated ADCP) is a type of cerebral palsy primarily associated with damage, like other forms of CP, to the basal ganglia in the form of lesions that occur during brain development due to bilirubin encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Unlike spastic or ataxic cerebral palsies, ADCP is characterized by both hypertonia and hypotonia, due to the affected individual's inability to control muscle tone. Clinical diagnosis of ADCP typically occurs within 18 months of birth and is primarily based upon motor function and neuroimaging techniques. While there are no cures for ADCP, some drug therapies as well as speech ,occupational therapy, and physical therapy have shown capacity for treating the symptoms.

The Cerebral Palsy Alliance (formerly The Spastic Centre) is a not-for-profit organization which provides services to adults and children with cerebral palsy from over 70 sites across New South Wales, Australia.

Cerebral Palsy Alliance was founded on 30 January 1945 by a group of parents of children with cerebral palsy under the leadership of Audrie and Neil McLeod. It was the first organisation of its type in the world for people with cerebral palsy.

The Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CPISRA) is the international governing body for sports for athletes with cerebral palsy.

CP-ISRA sports are open to athletes with cerebral palsy, and athletes with similar disabilities resulting from other neurological disorders such as stroke or traumatic brain injuries.

Mixed cerebral palsy

Cerebral Palsy Greece (CPG) (Greek: Εταιρεία Προστασίας Σπαστικών) is a Greek nonprofit charitable organization that serves people with cerebral palsy.

Cerebral Palsy Greece was founded as the Athens Spastic Society in 1972. In 2001, thanks to a significant donation made by the Lilian Voudouri Foundation and the success of the TV-Marathon organized by Mega Channel in 1996, CPG built the Open Door Centre of Education and Rehabilitation in Argyroupolis, Greece.

Spastic diplegia, historically known as Little's Disease, is a form of cerebral palsy (CP) that is a chronic neuromuscular condition of hypertonia and spasticity — manifested as an especially high and constant "tightness" or "stiffness" — in the muscles of the lower extremities of the human body, usually those of the legs, hips and pelvis. Doctor William John Little's first recorded encounter with cerebral palsy is reported to have been among children who displayed signs of spastic diplegia.

This condition is by far the most common type of CP, occurring in almost 70% of all cases.

spasticity Spasticity

Royal Pains is a medical comedy-drama television series which premiered on USA Network on June 4, 2009. The series stars Mark Feuerstein as a young doctor who, after being wrongly blamed for an important patient's death, moves to The Hamptons and becomes a reluctant concierge doctor to the rich and famous.

A Royal Pains two-hour movie aired on Sunday, December 16, 2012.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term denoting a group of non-progressive, non-contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement. Scientific consensus still holds that CP is neither genetic nor a disease, and it is also understood that the vast majority of cases are congenital, coming at or about the time of birth, and/or are diagnosed at a very young age rather than during adolescence or adulthood. It can be defined as a central motor dysfunction affecting muscle tone, posture and movement resulting from a permanent, non-progressive defect or lesion of the immature brain.

Cerebral refers to the cerebrum, which is the affected area of the brain. The disorder may often involve connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum. The term palsy in modern parlance refers to disorder of movement, but the word root "palsy" does still technically mean "paralysis" today, even though it is not used as such within the meaning of cerebral palsy. The use of "palsy" in the term cerebral palsy makes it important to note that paralytic disorders are in fact not cerebral palsy – meaning that the condition of quadriplegia, which comes from spinal cord injury or traumatic brain injury, should not be confused with spastic quadriplegia, which doesn't; nor should tardive dyskinesia be confused with dyskinetic cerebral palsy or the condition of (paralytic) "diplegia" with spastic diplegia. In fact, as of the early 21st century some clinicians have become so distressed at common incorrect use of these terms that they have resorted to new naming schemes rather than trying to reclaim the classic ones; one such example of this evolution is the increasing use of the term bilateral spasticity to refer to spastic diplegia. Such clinicians even argue quite often that the "new" term is technically more clinically accurate than the established term.]citation needed[

Hypertonia Spastic

Spastic cerebral palsy, sometimes also termed bilateral spasticity, is the type of cerebral palsy wherein spasticity (also known in some versions of colloquial English as "muscle tightness") is either the dominant or exclusive impairment present.

It is by far the most common type of overall cerebral palsy, occurring in 90% of all cases according to the Society for Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE); even if the 90% assertion is an exaggeration, however, more conservative scientific estimates still place the prevalence of spasticity-dominant cerebral palsy at anywhere from 70–80% of all cases, leaving cases dominated by ataxic cerebral palsy, dyskinetic cerebral palsy and athetoid cerebral palsy trailing at 20–30%.

Baclofen

Spastic diplegia, historically known as Little's Disease, is a form of cerebral palsy (CP) that is a chronic neuromuscular condition of hypertonia and spasticity — manifested as an especially high and constant "tightness" or "stiffness" — in the muscles of the lower extremities of the human body, usually those of the legs, hips and pelvis. Doctor William John Little's first recorded encounter with cerebral palsy is reported to have been among children who displayed signs of spastic diplegia.

This condition is by far the most common type of CP, occurring in almost 70% of all cases.

Rhizotomy

Spastic hemiplegia is a neuromuscular condition of spasticity that results in the muscles on one side of the body being in a constant state of contraction. It is the "one-sided version" of spastic diplegia. It falls under the mobility impairment umbrella of cerebral palsy. About 20–30% of patients who suffer from cerebral palsy are suffering from spastic hemiplegia. Due to brain or nerve damage, the brain is constantly sending action potentials to the neuromuscular junctions on the affected side of the body. Similar to strokes, damage on the left side of the brain affects the right side of the body and damage on the right side of the brain affects the left side of the body. The affected side of the body is rigid, weak and has low functional abilities. In most cases, the upper extremity is much more affected than the lower extremity. This could be due to preference of hand usage during early development. If both arms are affected, the condition is referred to as double hemiplegia. Some patients with spastic hemiplegia only suffer minor impairments, where in severe cases one side of the body could be completely paralyzed. The severity of spastic hemiplegia is dependent upon the degree of the brain or nerve damage.

There are many different brain dysfunctions that can account for the cause for spastic hemiplegia. Spastic hemiplegia occurs either at birth or in the womb. The cause can be all types of strokes, head injuries, hereditary diseases, brain injuries and infections. Malformations of the veins or arteries in any part of the body can lead to spastic hemiplegia. The artery most commonly affected is the middle cerebral artery. Unborn and newborn babies are susceptible to strokes. Leukodystrophies are a group of hereditary diseases that are known to cause spastic hemiplegia. Brain infections that cause spastic hemiplegia are meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and encephalitis. The spasticity occurs when the afferent pathways in the brain are compromised and the communication between the brain to the motor fibers is lost. When the inhibitory signals to deactivate the stretch reflex is lost the muscle remains in a constant contracted state. With spastic hemiplegia, one upper extremity and one lower extremity is affected, so cervical, lumbar and sacral segments of the spinal column can be affected.

Medicine Health Biology Neurology Neurosurgery

A neurological disorder is any disorder of the body nervous system. Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves can result in a range of symptoms. Examples of symptoms include paralysis, muscle weakness, poor coordination, loss of sensation, seizures, confusion, pain and altered levels of consciousness.There are many recognized neurological disorders, some relatively common, but many rare. They may be assessed by neurological examination, and studied and treated within the specialities of neurology and clinical neuropsychology.

Interventions for neurological disorders include preventative measures, lifestyle changes, physiotherapy or other therapy, neurorehabilitation, pain management, medication, or operations performed by neurosurgeons. The World Health Organization estimated in 2006 that neurological disorders and their sequelae (direct consequences) affect as many as one billion people worldwide, and identified health inequalities and social stigma/discrimination as major factors contributing to the associated disability and suffering.

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