Human resource management (HRM, or simply HR) is the management process of an organization's workforce, or human resources. It is responsible for the attraction, selection, training, assessment, and rewarding of employees, while also overseeing organizational leadership and culture and ensuring compliance with employment and labor laws. In circumstances where employees desire and are legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining agreement, HR will also serve as the company's primary liaison with the employees' representatives (usually a labor union).
HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. The function was initially dominated by transactional work, such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advancement, and further research, HR now focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion.
Customs and regulations for shopping hours (times that shops are open) vary from country to country.
Some countries, particularly those with predominantly Christian populations or histories do not allow Sunday shopping. In Islamic countries some shops are closed on Fridays for noontime prayers. In Israel many shops are sometimes closed on Friday evening and Saturday during the daytime for Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath).
Business hours are the hours during the day in which business is commonly conducted. Typical business hours vary widely by country. By observing common informal standards for business hours, workers may communicate with each other more easily and find a convenient divide between work life and home life.
In the United States, United Kingdom and Australia, the hours between 9 am and 5 pm (the traditional "9 to 5") are typically considered to be standard business hours, although in the United States this varies by region due to local tradition and the need to conduct business by telephone with people in other time zones. For instance, business in Chicago is often conducted between 8 am and 4:30 pm, while in New York City, business hours tend to be later—for instance, from 10 am to 6 pm. On Saturdays businesses are usually open from 8 or 9 am to noon or 1 pm.
Working time is the period of time that an individual spends at paid occupational labor. Unpaid labors such as personal housework or caring for children/pets are not considered part of the working week. Many countries regulate the work week by law, such as stipulating minimum daily rest periods, annual holidays and a maximum number of working hours per week. Working time may vary from person to person often depending on location, culture, lifestyle choice, and the profitability of the individuals livelihood. For example someone who is supporting children and paying a large mortgage will need to work more hours to meet a basic cost of living than someone without children of the same earning power. As fewer people than ever are having children choosing part time is becoming more popular.
Standard working hours (or normal working hours) refers to the legislation to limit the working hours per day, per week, per month or per year. If an employee needs to work overtime, the employer will need to pay overtime payments to employees as required in the law. Generally speaking, standard working hours of countries worldwide are around 40 to 44 hours per week, and the additional overtime payments are around 25% to 50% to the normal hourly payments. Maximum working hours refers to the maximum working hours of an employee. The employee cannot work more than the level specified in the maximum working hours law.
The workweek and weekend are those complementary parts of the week devoted to labour and rest, respectively. The legal working week (British English), or workweek (U.S. English), is the part of the seven-day week devoted to labour. In most Western countries it is Monday to Friday; the weekend is a time period including Saturday and Sunday. Some people extend the weekend to Friday nights as well. In some Christian traditions, Sunday is the "Lord's Day" and the day of rest and worship. In other Christian traditions, they recognize the solar calendar and their day of rest is from noon on Saturday to noon on Sunday]citation needed[. Jewish Shabbat or Biblical Sabbath lasts from sunset on Friday to the fall of full darkness on Saturday, leading to a Friday-Saturday weekend in Israel. Muslim-majority countries usually have a Thursday-Friday or Friday-Saturday weekend. The French Revolutionary Calendar had ten-day weeks (called décades) and allowed décadi, one out of the ten days, as a leisure day.
The present-day concept of the weekend first arose from the Dies Solis (Day of the Sun) decreed by Emperor Constantine and from the Biblical Sabbath.]citation needed[ The Christian Sabbath itself was just one day each week, but the preceding day (the Jewish Sabbath) came to be taken as a holiday as well in the twentieth century. This shift has been accompanied by a reduction in the total number of hours worked per week, following changes in employer expectations. Proposals have continued to be put forward for further reductions in the number of days or hours worked per week, on the basis of predicted social and economic benefits.