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The Mach number (M) refers to the method of measuring airspeed that was developed by the Austrian physicist Ernst Mach.A speed of Mach 2 is twice the speed of sound. Because the speed of sound varies, a particular speed at sea level expressed..More?

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**Ernst Mach**
**Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach** (German: [ˈɛɐnst max]; February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves. As a philosopher of science, he was a major influence on logical positivism and through his criticism of Newton, a forerunner of Einstein's relativity.

**Fluid mechanics**
**Fluid mechanics** is the branch of physics that studies fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; fluid kinematics, the study of fluids in motion; and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion. It is a branch of continuum mechanics, a subject which models matter without using the information that it is made out of atoms, that is, it models matter from a macroscopic viewpoint rather than from a microscopic viewpoint. Fluid mechanics, especially fluid dynamics, is an active field of research with many unsolved or partly solved problems. Fluid mechanics can be mathematically complex, and can best be solved by numerical methods, typically using computers. A modern discipline, called computational fluid dynamics (CFD), is devoted to this approach to solving fluid mechanics problems. Particle image velocimetry, an experimental method for visualizing and analyzing fluid flow, also takes advantage of the highly visual nature of fluid flow.

**Fluid dynamics**
In physics, **fluid dynamics** is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with **fluid flow**—the natural science of fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. It has several subdisciplines itself, including **aerodynamics** (the study of air and other gases in motion) and **hydrodynamics** (the study of liquids in motion). Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft, determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines, predicting weather patterns, understanding nebulae in interstellar space and reportedly modelling fission weapon detonation. Some of its principles are even used in traffic engineering, where traffic is treated as a continuous fluid.

Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure—which underlies these practical disciplines—that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems. The solution to a fluid dynamics problem typically involves calculating various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, as functions of space and time.

**Mach number**
In fluid mechanics, **Mach number** (**M** or **Ma**) // is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local speed of sound.

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**Ernst Mach**
**Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach** (German: [ˈɛɐnst max]; February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves. As a philosopher of science, he was a major influence on logical positivism and through his criticism of Newton, a forerunner of Einstein's relativity.

**Speed of sound**
The **speed of sound** is the distance travelled during a unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. In dry air at 20 °C (68 °F), the speed of sound is 343.2 metres per second (1,126 ft/s). This is 1,236 kilometres per hour (768 mph), or about a kilometre in three seconds or a mile in five seconds.

In fluid dynamics, the speed of sound in a fluid medium (gas or liquid) is used as a relative measure of speed itself. The speed of an object divided by the speed of sound in the fluid is called the Mach number. Objects moving at speeds greater than *Mach1* are traveling at supersonic speeds.

**Aerospace engineering**
**Aerospace engineering** is the primary branch of engineering concerned with the research, design, development, construction, testing, science and technology of aircraft and spacecraft. It is divided into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The former deals with aircraft that operate in Earth's atmosphere, and the latter with spacecraft that operate outside it.

Aerospace engineering deals with the design, construction, and study of the science behind the forces and physical properties of aircraft, rockets, flying craft, and spacecraft. The field also covers their aerodynamic characteristics and behaviors, airfoil, control surfaces, lift, drag, and other properties.

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