Cardiac dysrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia or irregular heartbeat) is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. The heartbeat may be too fast (over 100 beats per minute) or too slow (less than 60 beats per minute), and may be regular or irregular. A heart beat that is too fast is called tachycardia and a heart beat that is too slow is called bradycardia. Although many arrhythmias are not life-threatening, some can cause cardiac arrest.
Arrhythmias can occur in the upper chambers of the heart, (atria), or in the lower chambers of the heart, (ventricles). Arrhythmias may occur at any age. Some are barely perceptible, whereas others can be more dramatic and can even lead to sudden cardiac death.
The circulatory system is an organ system that permits blood and lymph circulation to transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to nourish it and help to fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and to maintain homeostasis.
This system is often seen as strictly as a blood distribution network, but some consider the circulatory system to be composed collectively the cardiovascular system, which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph. Blood is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues. Lymph is essentially recycled excess blood plasma after it has been filtered from the interstitial fluid (between cells) and returned to the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular (from Latin words meaning 'heart'-'vessel') system comprises the blood, heart, and blood vessels. The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels form the lymphatic system, which returns filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid (between cells) as lymph.
Heart rate refers to the speed of the heartbeat, specifically the number of heartbeats per unit of time. The heart rate is typically expressed as beats per minute (bpm). The heart rate can vary according to the body's physical needs, including the need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide. Activities that can provoke change include physical exercise, sleep, illness, ingesting, and drugs.
The normal human heart rate ranges from 60–100 bpm. Bradycardia refers to a slow heart rate, defined as below 60 bpm. Tachycardia refers to a fast heart rate, defined as above 100 bpm. When the heart is not beating in a regular pattern, this is referred to as an arrhythmia. These abnormalities of heart rate sometimes, but not always, indicate disease.
Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a condition presenting as a rapid heart rhythm originating at or above the atrioventricular node. Supraventricular tachycardias can be contrasted with the potentially more dangerous ventricular tachycardias—rapid rhythms that originate within the ventricular tissue.
Although "SVT" can be due to any supraventricular cause, the term is most often used to refer to a specific example, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), two common types being atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia and AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. In the older adult population atrial fibrillation becomes a common type of supraventricular arrhythmias—though it is typically considered separately. SVT is generally not life threatening, though it may cause worsening heart function if prolonged.
Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.