The Utah teapot or Newell teapot is a 3D computer model which has become a standard reference object (and something of an in-joke) in the computer graphics community. It is a mathematical model of an ordinary teapot of fairly simple shape, which appears solid, cylindrical and partially convex. A teapot primitive is considered the equivalent of a "hello world" program, as a way to create an easy 3D scene with a somewhat complex model acting as a basic geometry reference for scene and light setup. Many libraries will even have functions dedicated to drawing teapots.
The teapot model was created in 1975 by early computer graphics researcher Martin Newell, a member of the pioneering graphics program at the University of Utah.
A Windermere kettle is a form of steam-operated tea urn or samovar installed on some steam launches. They are a metal vessel containing a few pints of water. Inside the vessel is a steam heating coil. When hot or boiling water is required, a valve is opened and steam from the boat's propulsion boiler is passed through the coil, heating the water. Their exhaust is either overboard or up the funnel, as convenient. Windermere kettles are rapid boilers and can heat enough water to make a pot of tea in only a few seconds.
Their name is derived from the popularity of steam launches on Windermere, a lake in the English Lakes, during the Victorian and Edwarian periods. Many of these launches were equipped with such kettles.
A phase transition is the transformation of thermodynamic system from one phase or state of matter to another.
A phase of a thermodynamic system and the states of matter have uniform physical properties.