How does a mare and a Stud mate so that she could become Pregnant?


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A stud animal is a registered animal retained for breeding. The terms for the male of a given animal species (stallion, bull, rooster, etc.) usually imply that the animal is entire—that is, not castrated—and therefore capable of siring offspring. A specialized vocabulary exists for de-sexed animals and those animals used in grading up to a purebred status. Stud females are generally used to breed further stud animals, but stud males may be used in crossbreeding programs. Both sexes of stud animals are regularly used in artificial breeding programs. A stud farm, in animal husbandry, is an establishment for selective breeding using stud animals. This results in artificial selection. A stud fee is a price paid by the owner of a female animal, such as a horse or a dog, to the owner of a male animal for the right to breed to it. Service fees can range from a small amount for a local male animal of unknown breeding to several hundred thousand dollars for the right to breed to a champion Thoroughbred race horse such as Storm Cat, who has stood at stud fees of up to US$500,000. Many owners of high-quality stallions also offer a live foal guarantee with a breeding, usually defined as a guarantee that once the mare leaves the stud farm confirmed to be in foal by a veterinarian, she will give birth to a foal that stands and nurses, or else the stud farm will re-breed the mare for no stud fee the following season. Most stud fees do not include the costs of boarding the female animal at the location of the stud animal, or of the cost of collecting and shipping semen if artificial insemination is used in lieu of live cover. Any veterinary expenses or medications are also an additional cost to the owner of the female animal. Jared Horton
A mare is an adult female horse or other equine. In most cases, a mare is a female horse over the age of three, and a filly is a female horse age three and younger. However, in Thoroughbred horse racing, a mare is defined as a female horse more than four years old. The word can also be used for other female equine animals, particularly mules and zebras, though a female donkey is usually called a "jenny." A broodmare is a mare used for breeding. A horse's female parent is known as its dam. An adult male horse is called a stallion, or, if castrated, a gelding. Occasionally the term "horse" is used in a restrictive sense to designate only a male horse. Mares carry their young, called foals, for approximately 11 months from conception to birth. (Average range 320–370 days.) Usually just one young is born; twins are rare. When a domesticated mare foals, she nurses the foal for at least four to six months before it is weaned, though mares in the wild may allow a foal to nurse for up to a year. The estrous cycle, also known as "season" or "heat" of a mare occurs roughly every 19–22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn. As the days shorten, most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period. The reproductive cycle in a mare is controlled by the photoperiod (length of the day), the cycle first triggered when the days begin to lengthen. As the days shorten, the mare returns to the anestrus period when she is not sexually receptive. Anestrus prevents the mare from conceiving in the winter months, as that would result in her foaling during the harshest part of the year, a time when it would be most difficult for the foal to survive. However, for most competitive purposes, foals are given an official "birthday" of January 1 (August 1 in the Southern hemisphere), and many breeders want foals to be born as early in the year as possible. Therefore, many breeding farms begin to put mares "under lights" in late winter in order to bring them out of anestrus early and allow conception to occur in February or March. One exception to this general rule is the field of endurance riding, which requires horses to be 60 true calendar months old (5 years) before competing at longer distances. Fillies are sexually mature by age two and are sometimes bred at that age, but generally should not be bred until they themselves have stopped growing, usually by age four or five. A healthy, well-managed mare can produce a foal every year into her twenties, though not all breeders will breed a mare every year. In addition, many mares are kept for riding and so are not bred annually, as a mare in late pregnancy or nursing a foal is not able to perform at as athletic a standard as one who is neither pregnant nor lactating. In addition, some mares become anxious when separated from their foals, even temporarily, and thus are difficult to manage under saddle until their foals are weaned. Mares are considered easier to handle than stallions. However, geldings have no hormone-driven behavior patterns at all, thus sometimes they are preferred to both mares and stallions. Mares have a notorious, if generally undeserved, reputation for being "marish," meaning that they can be cranky or unwilling when they come into season. However, there is considerable evidence that much "marish" behavior is mostly the result of humans expecting or allowing the mare to misbehave. Because horses in general are very attuned to the emotional state of their riders, expectation by a rider of difficult manners during estrus can create a self-fulfilling prophecy and a cranky mare.][ While a few mares may be somewhat more distractible or irritable when in heat, they are far less easily distracted than a stallion at any time. Solid training usually minimizes hormonal behavior. For competitive purposes, mares are sometimes placed on hormone therapies, such as the drug Regumate, to help control hormonally based behavior. Some riders also use various herbal remedies, most of which have not been extensively tested for effectiveness. Some mare owners claim that mares are more intelligent and courageous and will work harder for their owners, and there are many stories and legends about the loyalty of a mare to her rider. Conversely, others claim that mares are more nervous and high-strung. In short, much lore about "marish" mares is due to simple anthropomorphism, attributing stereotypically "female" behavior to mares.][ Mares and geldings can be pastured together. However, mares may be a bit more territorial than geldings, even though they are far less territorial than stallions. Sex-segregating herds may make for less infighting, especially if kept in close quarters. However, studies also have shown that when a "lead mare" or "boss mare" is in charge of a herd, all remaining animals rest for longer periods and seem more at ease than do those in herds led by a gelding. In wild herds, a "boss mare" or "lead mare" leads the band to grazing, to water, and away from danger. She eats and drinks first, decides when the herd will move and to where. The herd stallion usually brings up the rear and acts as a defender of the herd against predators and other stallions. Mares are used in every equestrian sport and usually compete equally with stallions and geldings in most events, though some competitions may offer classes open only to one sex of horse or another, particularly in breeding or "in-hand" conformation classes. In horse racing, mares and fillies have their own races and only a small percentage compete against male horses. However, a few fillies and mares have won classic horse races against colts, including the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, the Belmont Stakes, the Melbourne Cup and the Breeders' Cup Classic. Mares are used as dairy animals in some cultures, especially by the nomads and formerly nomadic peoples of Central Asia. Fermented mare's milk, known as kumis, is the national drink of Kyrgyzstan. Some mares, usually of draft horse breeding, are kept in North America for the production of their urine. Pregnant mares' urine is the source of the active ingredient in the hormonal drug Premarin (derived from Pregnant mares' urine). Until the invention of castration and even later where there was less cultural acceptance of the practice, mares were less difficult to manage than stallions and thus preferred for most ordinary work. Historically, the Bedouin nomads of the Arabian peninsula preferred mares on their raids, because stallions would nicker to the opposing camps' horses, whereas mares would be quiet. However, other cultures preferred male horses over mares either due to a desire for more aggressive behavior in a fighting animal, or to not be inconvenienced with a loss of work ability due to a mare's pregnancy, parturition and lactation. The word mare, meaning "female horse," took several forms prior to A.D. 900. In Old English the form was mere or mȳre, the feminine forms for mearh (horse). The Old German form of the word was Mähre. Similarly, in Irish and Gaelic, the word was marc, in Welsh, march, in Cornish "margh", and in Breton marc'h. The word is "said to be of Gaulish origin." The word has no known cognates beyond Germanic and Celtic. One possible derived term is a mare's nest, an expression for "excitement over something which does not exist" The term nightmare, is not directly connected etymologically with the word for female horse, but rather to homophones that meant "incubus" or "goblin."
The Anglo-Arabian or Anglo-Arab is a crossbred horse that now also has its own status as a horse breed. It is a Thoroughbred (thus, the prefix "Anglo") crossed with an Arabian. The cross can be made between a Thoroughbred stallion and an Arabian mare, or vice-versa. It can also be a cross between either an Anglo-Arab and a Thoroughbred or, alternatively, an Anglo-Arab and an Arabian. Another permitted cross is between two Anglo-Arabians. No matter the cross, a horse must have a minimum 12.5% of Arabian blood to be considered an Anglo-Arabian. France is one of the greatest producers of Anglo-Arabians. The French Anglo-Arab traces back to two stallions: the Arabian stud Massoud and Aslam, a "Turkish" horse, probably of the now-extinct Turkoman or "Turkmene" breed. These Syrian imports were then crossed with a trio of Thoroughbreds, specifically, the Comus Mare, the Selim Mare, and Daer. Some years later, three of their daughters — Clovis, Danae, and Delphine — formed the foundation of the French Anglo-Arabian breeding program. The program's primary Anglo-Arab breeding farm, Pompadour National Anglo-Arab Stud, is located in Arnac-Pompadour, a commune of central France's Corrèze department, home to the famous Château de Pompadour. In addition, the area serves as the French National Stud's headquarters. The Anglo-Arabian possesses one of France's oldest studbooks, and the Selle Francais, the country's leading sport horse, still bears the stamp of significant Anglo-Arab influence. In the past, the Anglo-Arab has been used for military purposes. However, at present, its most prominent occupation is that of a general riding or sport horse. The breed does well in eventing, due to its stamina, speed, and jumping ability. In the United States, the Anglo-Arabian is considered a "part-bred" Arabian and, consequently, is registered within a separate section of the Arabian Horse Association. As a result of different crosses that can produce an Anglo-Arabian, the size and appearance is noticeably variable. However, on average, an Anglo-Arabian is a bit taller than the average Arabian and of somewhat less refined type. The largest horses are usually produced by breeding a Thoroughbred mare to an Arabian stallion. The best examples of this breed inherit the refinement, good bone, and endurance of the Arabian, as well as the speed and scope of the Thoroughbred. Anglo-Arabians average 15.2–16.3  hands (62–67 inches, 157–170 cm) high. The most common colors are chestnut, bay (sometimes called "brown") or gray. The breed ideal is for a horse to have conformation that more strongly resembles the Arabian, though they should not look entirely like either a Thoroughbred or an Arabian. They have a long neck, prominent withers, a compact and strong body (sturdier than the Thoroughbred), a deep chest, and solid bone. Anglo-Arabians should have small, fine heads, similar to an Arabian, but they should not be overly "dished" in profile.
A foal is an equine, particularly a horse, that is one year old or younger. More specific terms are colt for a male foal and filly for a female foal, but these terms are used until the horse is age three or four. When the foal is nursing from its dam (mother), it may also be called a suckling. After the young horse has been weaned from its dam, it may be called a weanling. When a mare is pregnant, she is said to be "in foal." After a horse is one year old, it is no longer a foal, and is called a yearling. There are no special age-related terms for young horses older than yearlings. When young horses reach breeding maturity, the terms change: a filly over the age of three (four in horse racing) is called a mare and a colt over the age of three is called a stallion. A castrated male horse is called a gelding, regardless of age, though colloquially the term "gelding colt" is sometimes used until a young gelding is three or four years old.][ (There is no specific term for a spayed female horse, they are simply "spayed mares".) Horses that mature at a small size are called ponies and are occasionally confused with foals. However, body proportions are very different. An adult pony can be ridden and put to work, while a foal, regardless of size, is too young to be ridden or used as a working animal. Foals, whether they grow up to be horse or pony-sized, can be distinguished from adult horses by their extremely long legs and small, slim bodies. Their heads and eyes also exhibit juvenile characteristics. Although ponies exhibit some neoteny with the wide foreheads and small size, their body proportions are similar to that of an adult horse. Pony foals are proportionally smaller than adults, but like horse foals, are slimmer and proportionally longer-legged than their adult parents. Foals are born after a gestation period of approximately 11 months. Birth takes place quickly, consistent with the status of a horse as a prey animal, and more often at night than during the day. Foals are born with an ability to quickly escape from predators; normally a foal will stand up and nurse within the first hour after it is born, can trot and canter within hours, and most can gallop by the next day. A newborn foal's legs are almost as long (90%) as those of an adult horse. Healthy foals grow quickly and can put on up to three pounds or over a kilo a day. A sound diet improves growth and leads to a healthier adult animal, although genetics also plays a part. In the first weeks of life the foal gets everything it needs from the mare's milk. Like a human infant, it receives nourishment and antibodies from the colostrum in milk that is produced within the first few hours or days following parturition. The mare needs additional water to help her produce milk for the foal and may benefit from supplementary nutrition. A foal may start to eat solids from ten days of age, after eight to ten weeks it will need more nutrition than the mare's milk can supply; supplementary feeding is required by then. It is important when adding solid food to the foal's diet to not feed the foal excessively or feed an improperly balanced diet. This can trigger one of several possible growth disorders that can cause lifelong soundness problems. On the other hand, insufficient nutrition to mare or foal can cause stunted growth and other health problems for the foal as it gets older. It is typical for foals under human management to be weaned between four and six months of age, though under natural conditions, they may nurse for longer, occasionally until the following year when the mare foals again. A foal that has been weaned but is less than one year old is called a weanling. Mare's milk is not a significant source of nutrients for the foal after about four months, though it does no harm to a healthy mare for a foal to nurse a month or two longer and may be of some psychological benefit to the foal. A mare that is both nursing and pregnant will have increased nutritional demands made upon her in the last months of pregnancy, and therefore most domesticated foals are weaned sometime in the autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. Weanlings are not capable of reproduction. Puberty occurs in most horses during their yearling year. Therefore, some young horses are capable of reproduction prior to full physical maturity, though it is not common. Two year olds sometimes are deliberately bred, though doing so, particularly with fillies, may put undesirable stress on their still-growing bodies. As a general rule, breeding young horses prior to the age of three is considered undesirable. In spite of rapid growth, a foal is too young to be ridden or driven. However, foals usually receive very basic horse training in the form of being taught to accept being led by humans, called halter-breaking. They may also learn to accept horse grooming, hoof trimming by a farrier, having hair trimmed with electric clippers, and to become familiar with things it will have to do throughout life, such as loading into a horse trailer or wearing a horse blanket. One of the most important aspects of working with foals is to remember that horses in general have excellent memories, so a foal must not be taught anything as a young horse that would be undesirable for it to do as a full-grown animal. There is tremendous debate over the proper age to begin training a foal. Some advocate beginning to accustom a foal to human handling from the moment of birth, using a process termed imprinting or "imprint training". Others feel that imprint training of a foal interferes with the mare and foal bond and prefer to wait until the foal is a few days old, but do begin training within the first week to month of life. Yet other horse breeding operations wait until weaning, theorizing that a foal is more willing to bond to a human as a companion at the time it is separated from its mother. Regardless of theory, most modern horse breeding operations consider it wise to give a foal basic training while it is still young, and consider it far safer than trying to tame a semi-feral adult-sized horse. Horses are not fully mature until the age of four or five, but most are started as working animals much younger, though care must be taken not to over-stress the "soft" bones of younger animals. Yearlings are generally too young to be ridden at all, though many race horses are put under saddle as "long" yearlings, in autumn. Physiologically young horses are still not truly mature as two-year olds, though some breeders and most race horse trainers do start young horses in a cart or under saddle at that age. The most common age for young horses to begin training under saddle is the age of three. A few breeds and disciplines wait until the animal is four.
Live foal guarantee is a common provision in horse breeding contracts. It is a form of a warranty offered to the mare owner by the stallion owner. Basically, it says that if the mare fails to produce a live foal from the breeding, the stallion owner will breed the same mare again without charging another stud fee. Each specific breeding contract can have different details regarding a live foal guarantee. These are some of the common provisions, and some typical details. Commonly defined as one that stands & nurses from the mare unassisted. If the foal miscarries, is stillborn, or is unable to stand & nurse, it is not considered a live foal, and the mare owner is entitled to a re-breeding. If the foal does stand after birth and nurses from the mare, it is considered a live foal, even if it dies soon after. Some contracts are more generous, specifying that the foal must survive for at least 12 or 24 hours after first nursing. If the foal survives this long and then dies, it was still a live foal, and the mare owner is not entitled to a re-breeding. (But many stallion owners will offer a reduced stud fee in such cases, for goodwill reasons.) Normally, the re-breeding must take place within the same breeding season, though some breeding contracts extend this to allow it during the next years' breeding season. Normally, the re-breeding must be to the same mare. Sometimes the contract allows substitution of a different mare, either under specific circumstances (death, disability or infertility of the original mare) or just upon approval of the stallion owner. Sometimes the breeding contract will specify how many times the live foal guarantee may be used. If it doesn't, a 'reasonable number' is assumed. Typically, after 3 unsuccessful tries, the stallion owner will either require substitution of another mare, or will return the stud fee. Or the contract may allow the stallion owner to simply keep the stud fee after this many tries. Often, before re-breeding, the stallion owner will require a veterinary report, giving the cause for the problem. This is to ensure that the mare is healthy & able to carry a foal, and to check for genetic incompatibilities. (There are certain genetic crosses that are lethal to the foal.) There is no point to re-breeding in such cases, so the stallion owner will allow substitution of another mare, or will return the stud fee. The guarantee applies only to the stud fee, which will not be charged for the re-breeding. But other incidental expenses, such as mare care & board, shipping costs for AI semen, etc. will have to be paid again by the mare owner.
The Tersk Stud was officially established on February 11, 1921, on the orders of Marshal Semyon Budyonny. The breeding farm was used to restore the Russian horse population, which suffered heavy losses during the Russian Revolution. In the 1880s, Count Sergei Aleksandrovich Stroganov and his brother-in-law Prince Aleksandr Grigorievich Shcherbatov found a spot at the foot of Mount Zmeika (“small snake” in Russian) in the Northern Caucasus they felt was ideal for establishing a horse breeding farm. The two traveled to the Middle East in 1889 and purchased several purebred Arabian horses for use in their new breeding program. Stroganov also purchased horses from Crabbet Arabian Stud in England, including the mares Makbula and Sobha, and the stallion Mesaoud, who came from Crabbet Stud by way of Kleniewski Stud in modern-day Poland. Shcherbatov died in 1915. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Stroganov fled to Paris where he remained with his family until he died in 1923. The Stroganov estate was seized by Russian revolutionaries and none of the Arabians of the Stroganov and Shcherbatov programs are known to have survived the Russian Revolution. In 1921 Marshal Semyon Budyonny, an accomplished horseman and cavalry officer, ordered two farms near Mineralnye Vody, the former Stroganov breeding farm and the nearby farm of White Army General Sultan Ghirey-Klych to be renamed and used for restoring the devastated Russian horse population. Today the stud is known as Tersky Horse-Breeding Farm No. 169. There is no indication Stroganov and Shcherbatov or their breeding stock had any involvement in the founding of the Soviet-run Tersk Stud. Arabians were re-introduced to the new Tersk Stud in 1925 and the first French Arabian imports arrived in 1930. These included the stallion Kann and six mares, most notable of which was Carabine. Koheilan IV was imported from Hungary. The French horses had generally good conformation but were lacking Arabian type, so the stud’s managers searched for quality breeding stock with the characteristic Arabian refinement. In 1936, a shipment of 25 horses came from Crabbet Arabian Stud in England, some of which were descended from horses that had lived at the Stroganov and Shcherbatov stud and perished during the revolution. There were six stallions in the purchase, of which Naseem (a son of Skowronek and great-grandson of Mesaoud) was the most influential. Among the mares, Rissalma, Rixalina, and Star of the Hills left a significant impression on the breed. Tersk attempted to purchase Skowronek himself from Crabbet Stud, but he was not for sale. World War II added significant bloodstock to Tersk, at the expense of Poland’s Arabian breeding program. In 1939 the Soviets removed many of the best Arabians bred at Janów Podlaski Stud in Poland and marched them the 1,000 miles back to Tersk Stud. Among the horses making the trek was Mammona, a bay suckling filly whose name meant “treasure” in Polish. Mammona’s sire, Ofir, was also in the group of horses moved to Tersk. He had already left his mark on the breed by siring the famous "three Ws" in Poland: Witraz (the sire of *Bask), *Witez II, and Wielki Szlem. Ofir did not sire the same caliber of horses at Tersk as he did in Poland. In 1941, to evade the advancing German troops, the Tersk horses were evacuated to western Kazakhstan where they faced harsh weather and terrain. However, they returned to Tersk in 1943 with few losses. The Ofir daughter, Mammona, had an extensive influence upon the Tersk breeding program. She produced the stallion Pomeranets, who influenced both the Arabian and Trakehner breeds; the mares Nomenklatura (dam of Nabeg), Monopolia (dam of Monogramma), Metropolia (dam of *Menes), Malpia (dam of *Muscat, 1980 U.S. & Canadian National Champion Stallion, and *Moment), and *Magnolia (dam of *Marsianin, 1981 U.S. National Champion Stallion). Aside from Ofir, other notable stallions brought to Tersk from Poland included Piolun, the sire of Priboj (out of Rissalma, who had been purchased from Crabbet Arabian Stud); and Taki Pan, the sire of the mare Taktika, who produced the mare Ptashka and the stallions *Pietuszok and Topol (all by Priboj). Topol's son Naftalin sired very good racehorses, including Aspect, who won an amazing 28 of 39 races. *Pietuszok was exported to Poland in 1958, where he sired successful racehorses like Wosk, *Orzel, and Wilma (the dam of *Wiking, whose offspring have earned over $8 million in purses). Another of the confiscated Polish mares, Taraszcza, was bred to the Crabbet-bred stallion Naseem at Tersk and foaled a grey colt named Negativ in 1945. Negativ sired 12 foal crops in Russia, but because they did not excel on the racetrack he was sold to Poland in 1962, renamed “Negatiw,” and sired better racehorses out of the Polish mares. Negativ’s best-siring sons at Tersk were Suvenir and *Salon, the latter the sire of both the U.S. and Canadian National Champion Stallion *Muscat and Tersk head sire *Moment. Another Negativ son, Nabor (later renamed *Naborr when he was imported to the U.S.), sired just 9 registered foals at Tersk, apparently because his offspring were considered too delicate for the Tersk program, and was exported to Poland in 1955. The Poles sought a stallion of the Ibrahim sire line, and had hoped to purchase Negativ from Tersk but were unable at the time, but were satisfied to own his son Nabor instead. Nabor was exported to the U.S. in 1963, becoming the first Tersk-bred Arabian to go to the States. *Naborr was owned in the United States by Anne McCormack, and then upon her death was purchased at auction by Tom Chauncey and entertainer Wayne Newton. None of Negativ’s Tersk-bred daughters had a significant influence on the Tersk program. After World War II, Tersk imported a few stallions from Poland: Arax in 1958, Semen in 1962, and Elfur (a full brother to *El Paso) in 1972. Of these stallions, Arax had the greatest impact on Tersk’s program, siring the influential stallion Nabeg and a number of quality daughters. Nabeg's most influential daughters include the U.S. National Top Ten Mare *Poznan, and Pesnianka, a dam of race and show champions in Europe. Nabeg’s sons include the stallions *Menes, *Pesniar, and *Nariadni, all three imported to the U.S. Peleng, another son, was sold for $3.2 million but tested positive for piroplasmosis (Equine babesiosis) and was never permitted to enter the U.S. Nabeg can also be found in Trakehner pedigrees through some of his sons and daughters. Unfortunately Nabeg died young, having left only eight foal crops. In 1958, the Sid Abouhom son Nil (named Azmy in Egypt) was a gift to the Soviet Union from Egypt in appreciation for the USSR’s assistance in funding the Aswan Dam. Nil sired only 16 foals before his untimely death in 1960, but still left a lasting impression on the Tersk program. His loss was unfortunate because, based on his structure and brief siring record, Nil could have been as significant to Tersk as his successor. In 1963, the Egyptian government gave another stallion to the Soviet Union, Raafat by Nazeer, who was renamed Aswan by the Soviets in honor of the dam project. Aswan had a profound influence on the Tersk breeding program. As a whole, the broodmare band at Tersk had generally good structure but lacked some elements of Arabian type. Aswan introduced a more extreme dished head with large nostrils, large expressive eye, long level croup, and high tail carriage. He also had obvious faults, such as offset front knees, post-legged back legs, a long low back, a "wasp-waist," and a thick neck and throatlatch. But because Aswan’s faults were different than the Tersk mares’ faults, they often complemented each other well. Aswan sired 299 offspring over 20 seasons at Tersk, more than any other stallion in the stud’s history. Some of Aswan’s best-known sons included Palas (out of a daughter of Nil, the first stallion given to the USSR by Egypt), who was exported to Poland and became a head sire at Janow Podlaski for many years; Kilimanjaro, a German National Reserve Champion who sired champions in North America and Europe; Patron, who sired the U.S. and Canadian National Champion Stallion *Padron before his untimely death; and Plakat, a European champion who sired many champions himself. Aswan excelled at siring broodmares. Examples include Pesnia, the dam of *Pesniar, who was purchased for $1 million and imported to the U.S. in 1981; Molva, called Aswan’s most beautiful and best-producing daughter by former Tersk director Alexander Ponomarev and the dam of Wympel; and Karinka, a full sister to Kilimanjaro, an accomplished race mare and the dam of Russian Derby winner and European Champion Stallion Drug. The *Menes son Balaton, out of the Aswan daughter Panagia, was foaled in 1982 at Tersk and was immediately identified as the stud’s next great hope. Balaton became one of the youngest stallions to become a head sire at Tersk at just three years of age, and Tersk Director Alexander Ponomarev called him "the horse of the century at Tersk" after his first foal crop arrived. The Balaton son Kubinec, out of the *Muscat daughter Kosmetika, was foaled at Tersk in 1987. A chestnut with a wide blaze going all the way over his nose and lips, Kubinec’s white markings weren't considered acceptable in the Tersk breeding program. According to Dr. O.A. Balakshin of the All Russian Research Institute of Horse Breeding, “Too many horses now have white markings on their head and legs. This is undesirable and should be eliminated by selection.”. Kubinec was sold in 1991 and began making his mark in European show rings. He was named German National, European, and World Champion Stallion as well as European Conference of Arab Horse Organizations (ECAHO) "Five Star Stallion" and his offspring are desirable around the world today. In the mid-1980s, Tersk Stud introduced a few different outcross stallions, such as the Polish imports Gvizd ("Gwizd" in Poland) and Harfiaj ("Harfiarz" in Poland) and the English-bred pure Spanish Esplendor. Gvizd, Harfiaj, and Esplendor left Tersk but some of their descendants were used in the Tersk breeding program. Of the three outcross stallions, Gvizd had the greatest influence through a few of his daughters and his son, Negasimyi, who later became a sire of racehorses at Tersk in the mid-1990s. Gvizd's daughter Purga produced the stallion Padishah (by race winner Drug), who won several halter championships in Europe in the early 2000s. Gvizd also sired Pogojii, winner of four stakes races in Russia. The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought Tersk's future into question.
By the mid-1980s, Russian Arabians were viewed as an exotic and profitable business in the U.S. Notable examples include *Pesniar, who was purchased from Tersk in 1981 for $1 million, and Peleng, who was purchased for "well in excess of $3 million" in 1985. Before American-purchased Tersk Arabians were eligible for registration in the U.S., Howard F. Kale traded two Standardbred stallions worth $1 million each to Tersk Stud for the stallion *Muscat. Russian horses also retained their value within the U.S. A half-interest in the aged broodmare *Nariadnaia was sold at auction in the U.S. for $580,000 in 1983 and the stallion *Abdullahhh was sold for $3.2 million at a U.S. auction in 1984. The Soviets noticed the inflated prices that westerners were willing to pay for their horses and accordingly set high reserves on their auction lots. Prices began to come down at the annual Tersk auction starting in 1985 and the values of all big-investment Arabian horses dropped dramatically after the U.S. tax laws were changed in 1986. After that point, breeding "straight Russian" Arabians, or horses that were descended only from Tersk-bred horses, was not as common in the U.S. Some American breeders increasingly crossed Russian-bred horses with other lines to produce more exotic type and movement, while Arabian sport horse breeders outcrossed to Russian lines for their athletic ability. The Arabian Horse Registry of America (AHRA) did not approve the Russian Stud Book until 1978, meaning any Arabians imported to the U.S. directly from Tersk Stud were not permitted to be registered. The reason given by the Registry in a letter to Mr. Ed Tweed was “we mustn’t deal with the Russians” after Tweed attempted to register the Tersk-bred mares *Napaika and *Palmira and the stallion *Park in 1963. Tweed argued that the Tersk-bred *Naborr was registered by AHRA that same year with no problems, to which the registry replied that a Russian-bred horse may be registered by AHRA as long as the horse was owned in England or Poland for several years before its sale to the U.S. (*Naborr was sold by Tersk to Poland and used there for a number of years before he was imported to the U.S.) “We (Americans) are not as intimately acquainted with the Russians as the Poles and British, and we need not deal with them.” AHRA eventually accepted and approved the registering of Arabians imported directly from the Soviet Union in 1978, and *Napaika and *Palmira were registered that same year. Tersk Stud is located in the Caucasus Mountains in southern European Russia. The nearby town, Mineralnye Vody, means "mineral waters" and is renowned as a spa town. The abundant natural mineral springs and beautiful scenery draw visitors from around the world. The weather is mild, ranging from 40 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter to nearly 80 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer. While the weather is not harsh, the mares and foals at Tersk Stud live a rugged life outdoors most of the time. There are no fences around the stud, so mounted watchmen follow and monitor the herds night and day. The horses are brought into the barn twice each day to be fed and checked, but otherwise they are free to enjoy the open spaces. Tersk is best known for its purebred Arabian horses, but it has also hosted breeding programs for Akhal-Tekes, Terskys, Kabardins, and Dons. All Terskys were transferred to nearby Stavropol Stud in 1945 to continue the development of the new breed. From the beginning of its history, the stud has tested its horses on the racetrack. Tersk Arabians are sent to the Pyatigorsk racetrack at the age of two and may race one or two seasons. The best performers race on Sundays, with two-year-olds running 1,400 meters and older horses running 1,600 and 1,800 meters. The top individuals may be used for breeding at Tersk or return to the racetrack for another season. Many others will be sold at the age of three. While race records are important to the Tersk breeding program, Dr. Balakshin stated “…good racing results are not the only criterion for selecting young stock for breeding purposes. Excellent runners which deviate from breed type may be used for limited breeding or else they are eliminated from selection.” Any horse used for breeding at Tersk is required to be rated “Elite” or “Grade I” in the Russian Stud Book. Horses that receive lower grades are sent to other studs or sold. The current stud director is Vladimir Tolmachyov.
Coolmore Stud, in Fethard, South Tipperary in Ireland, is the world's largest breeding operation of thoroughbred racehorses. It was originally a relatively small farm dedicated to general agriculture, but came into the Vigors family in 1945 when a training operation was established there] What kind of training?[. It was inherited by Tim Vigors, famous fighter pilot in the Battle of Britain and in the Far East. Having left the air force, he firstly joined Goffs bloodstock auctioneers before setting up his own bloodstock agency in 1951. He moved to Coolmore in 1968 and began transforming it into the well known stud farm it is today. Vigors went into partnership with his friend Vincent O'Brien, a leading racehorse trainer, and Robert Sangster, the Vernons pools magnate. He later sold his interest to O'Brien and his son-in-law, John Magnier. Eventually, Magnier became sole owner, and built the farm into a multi-national, multi-billion-euro operation. The original farm is now known as Coolmore Ireland, and has three branches—Ashford Stud, which operates as Coolmore America, near Versailles, Kentucky and Coolmore National Hunt (or Castle Hyde Stud) in Ireland, which specialises in breeding for National Hunt racing. Coolmore has many "shuttle stallions" that cover mares in either Ireland or Kentucky in the northern breeding season and are transported to Argentina and Australia for the southern breeding season. Coolmore Stud is near Jerrys Plains in the Hunter Region of New South Wales is a 3,340 ha farm that has approximately 1,000 horses, including 600 mares that produce about 300 foals there during the spring. Thirteen international quality stallions stand here each spring. At the Fasig-Tipton Florida auction in February 2006, the Stud paid a world record $16 million for a Florida-bred two-year-old colt in training. Named The Green Monkey, he was sired by Forestry who in turn was sired by Storm Cat, the longtime leading sire in North America. The Green Monkey never won a race.
Foal Stud Mare

Horse breeding is reproduction in horses, and particularly the human-directed process of selective breeding of animals, particularly purebred horses of a given breed. Planned matings can be used to produce specifically desired characteristics in domesticated horses. Furthermore, modern breeding management and technologies can increase the rate of conception, a healthy pregnancy, and successful foaling.

The male parent of a horse, a stallion, is commonly known as the sire and the female parent, the mare, is called the dam. Both are genetically important, as each parent provides half of the genetic makeup of the ensuing offspring, called a foal. (Contrary to popular misuse, the word "colt" refers to a young male horse only; "filly" is a young female.) Though many horse owners may simply breed a family mare to a local stallion in order to produce a companion animal, most professional breeders use selective breeding to produce individuals of a given phenotype, or breed. Alternatively, a breeder could, using individuals of differing phenotypes, create a new breed with specific characteristics.


Live foal guarantee is a common provision in horse breeding contracts. It is a form of a warranty offered to the mare owner by the stallion owner. Basically, it says that if the mare fails to produce a live foal from the breeding, the stallion owner will breed the same mare again without charging another stud fee.

Each specific breeding contract can have different details regarding a live foal guarantee. These are some of the common provisions, and some typical details.

In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.

Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement.


Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Greece, Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC. In the Roman Empire, chariot and mounted horse racing were major industries. Thoroughbred racing was, and is, popular with the aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings."

The style of racing, the distances and the type of events vary significantly by the country in which the race is occurring, and many countries offer different types of horse races. There are three major types of racing: flat racing, steeplechasing (racing over jumps), and harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. A major part of horse racing's economic importance lies in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a world-wide market worth around US$115 billion.


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