How does a college football game go into overtime?


If two teams are tied at the end of regulation, the game goes into overtime. Both teams get a possession from their opponent's 25 yard line in overtime.

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Demaryius Antwon Thomas (born December 25, 1987) is an American football wide receiver for the Denver Broncos of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Thomas led the team in receiving in all three of his seasons at Tech. He was selected by the Denver Broncos with the 22nd overall selection in the 2010 NFL Draft. Thomas is known for his physical style of play and run after catch ability. He was 2nd in the NFL for catches over 20+ yards and 5th in yards after catch in 2012. Thomas was born on December 25, 1987 to parents Bobby and Katina Thomas in Montrose, Georgia. By all accounts a shy and introverted child, Thomas grew up with his aunt and uncle after his mother was sent to prison. He was nicknamed "Bay-Bay" in reference to his father's nickname, "Boo-Boo." Thomas attended West Laurens High School where he played basketball and football as a wide receiver. As a junior in 2004, he recorded 32 receptions for 330 yards and three touchdowns. Thomas was named an all-region and all-Heart of Georgia player. The following season, he recorded 82 receptions for 1,234 yards and ten touchdowns. After the season, he participated in the North-South All-Star game. Thomas was again selected as an all-region and all-Heart of Georgia, and the Atlanta Journal Constitution named him to its Class AA all-state first team and PrepStar to its All-Region team. assessed him as the 22nd-ranked college prospect in the state of Georgia, and rated him the 34th-ranked such prospect. He received scholarship offers from Duke, Georgia, and Georgia Tech. He chose to attend the Georgia Institute of Technology where he majored in management. Thomas sat out the 2006 season as a redshirt. In 2007, he saw action in all 13 games including 10 starts, and recorded 35 receptions for 558 yards, which ranked second on the team. In the 2007 Humanitarian Bowl, he made four receptions for 69 yards and a touchdown. The Sporting News named Thomas to its freshman All-Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) first team and a freshman All-America honorable mention. In 2008, Paul Johnson was hired as the head coach and implemented the run-heavy triple option offense. Thomas considered transferring but decided against it. During the season, he recorded 39 receptions for 627 yards and three touchdowns as the leading receiver. Despite being a heavily run-oriented system, as one of the team's few experienced players, Thomas recorded relatively high numbers. Still, compared with other receivers in the Atlantic Coast Conference, such as leader D. J. Boldin of Wake Forest, Thomas' statistics were much smaller. He said, "Sometimes I think about [not getting many passes], but most of the time I just want to win." Thomas' mark was the best of any wide receiver from the school since Calvin Johnson in 2006. Against Duke, he caught nine receptions for 230 yards, the second-most in a single game in school history. In 2009, during his Junior (redshirt) year at GT, Thomas had a breakout season with 46 receptions for 1,154 yards and 8 touchdowns. This earned him 1st team All-ACC honors. He finished his career at Georgia Tech with 120 catches for 2,339 and 14 TDs. Many draft experts had him gaining momentum with NFL scouts going into the last couple weeks leading up to the draft and most had him as the number one or two-rated wide receiver along with Dez Bryant in the 2010 NFL Draft, including Sporting News. On January 8, 2010, he declared his entrance to the 2010 NFL Draft. Thomas was drafted by the Denver Broncos 22nd overall in the 2010 NFL Draft. Thomas had 8 receptions for 97 yards and scored one touchdown in his NFL debut against the Seattle Seahawks. He was just the 9th player in the NFL (since 1970) to record at least 8 catches in his first game. This was also the 2nd most catches by a rookie in franchise history. The highlight of Thomas' season came when he beat all-pro cornerback Darrelle Revis for a touchdown when the Broncos hosted the New York Jets on 17 October 2010. Unfortunately, Thomas was plagued by injuries during his rookie season. He first missed playing time due to a forearm injury and a concussion; an ankle injury also rendered him inactive for five more games late in the season. Thomas ended his first season having played in 10 games, with 22 receptions for 283 yards and 2 touchdowns. On February 10, 2011 it was announced that Thomas had torn his achilles tendon while working out and was expected to miss a majority, if not the entirety, of the 2011 season. However, Thomas was surprisingly activated from the Physically Unable to Perform List prior to the start of the season; Broncos GM Brian Xanders said Thomas had responded to rehab well and was "ready to go." However, Thomas broke his left pinkie finger during his very first practice back, which caused him to miss the first 5 games of the season. Thomas made his season debut on October 23 2011 against the Miami Dolphins. He linked up with quarterback Tim Tebow for the Broncos' first score of the game which Denver would go on to win in overtime. Despite this early promise, he only had 4 receptions in the next 5 games as the Broncos moved towards a run-heavy option offense. Demaryius broke out in a match against the Minnesota Vikings on December 4 2011, recording 144 yards and 2 touchdowns on just 4 receptions. He would end the season strongly, emerging as Tebow's favourite receiver and setting a franchise record by leading the Broncos in both receiving and targets over the final 7 games. But it was during the first round of the playoffs that Thomas truly made his presence felt. On January 8, 2012 Thomas caught the game-winning, 80-yard touchdown pass from Tebow on the opening play of overtime to beat the Pittsburgh Steelers in the AFC Wild Card game, 29-23. This was the first non-sudden death playoff game in NFL history but Denver's score ended the game because the rules only allowed the other team a possession if the coin-toss winner proceeded to kick a field goal or scored zero points. The entire play took 11 seconds, and is the fastest ending to an overtime in NFL history to date. It is also the longest playoff overtime touchdown in NFL history. Thomas ended with a stat-line of 4 receptions, 204 yards and 1 touchdown in his playoff debut. It marked the most receiving yards by a Bronco in playoff history and the 2nd-highest receiving average (51.0) in a single game in NFL annals. Thomas caught 6 balls for 93 yards the following week against the New England Patriots. He ended the 2011 season with 32 receptions, 551 yards and 4 touchdowns (excluding playoffs). Thomas was coming off surgery to remove pins in his left pinkie when quarterback Peyton Manning signed with the Broncos during the 2012 off season. This meant that, unlike fellow receiver Eric Decker, he was unable to participate in workouts with Manning. Thomas, however, made an effort to improve his route-running and quickly caught up. Manning noted during training camp that Thomas' "size, strength and speed just allow you to do certain things with him that other players just can't do." Despite reports describing the connection between Thomas and Manning as "balky", Thomas found success again in the Broncos' very first game of the season against the Pittsburgh Steelers. Down 13 to 7, Thomas, in a move reminiscent of his game-winning touchdown in the playoffs, burned the Steelers with a 71-yard catch-and-run. The touchdown was notable because it was the first touchdown Manning had thrown in the NFL for a team other than the Indianapolis Colts, and it was also the 400th of Manning's career, making him the 3rd player in NFL history to reach that milestone. Thomas set regular-season career highs in both catches (9) and yards (180) at New England on October 7, 2012. He tied his career high in catches in games against the Carolina Panthers and the Cleveland Browns. Thomas would go on to have an absolute breakout year in 2012, recording 94 receptions for 1,434 yards and 10 touchdowns. He led the team in targets, receptions and yards, and ranked 8th in the league with 94 catches, 4th in yards and 7th in touchdowns. Demaryius was selected to his first pro bowl in the 2012 season after Wes Welker withdrew due to injury. In 2010, a woman contacted Denver police suspecting she was drugged and raped after a night out with Thomas and Bronco's teammate Perrish Cox. A DNA test later proved she was pregnant with Cox's child. Thomas was a prosecution witness and testified that Cox proposed that he (Thomas) have sex with the girl, claiming, "she's ready." However, Thomas decided it would be a bad idea because the woman was drunk, and did not pursue it. Although Cox was eventually acquitted, the woman filed a civil suit against both Thomas and Cox, suing them, inter alia, for battery, conspiracy and negligence. The claims against Thomas have since been dismissed.
The National Football League (NFL), known from 1920–21 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA), is an American football league based in the United States. In the NFL, a tied game occurs when a regular season game ends with both teams having an equal score. If a game is tied after regulation (60 minutes, divided into four quarters of 15 minutes), a 15-minute sudden-death overtime period is held. Under current overtime rules adopted in 2012, "teams... have the opportunity to possess the ball at least once in the extra period unless the team that receives the [first] overtime kickoff scores a touchdown on its first possession". If that team instead scores a field goal, the other team has an opportunity to tie or surpass that score. Prior to the rule change, any score by either team in overtime would end the game. Ties have counted as a half-win and half-loss in league standings since 1972; before that, ties were not counted in the standings at all. Tie games were once frequent in the NFL, but have become increasingly uncommon due to a rule change in 1974 that extended the existing sudden-death overtime for post-season games into the regular season. Only six ties have occurred since the 1989 season, a statistic that has been attributed to the increasing accuracy of kickers. Unlike in association football (soccer), where teams routinely play for ties due to the benefit of a point in the standings, NFL teams never play for ties; the sudden-death overtime system does not provide for an easy way to finish in a tie. Instead, ties are almost always the result of mishaps or mistakes from the teams involved. Tied games are considered to be the least desired outcome a football game can produce, in part due to an American cultural aversion to ties. Due to the rarity of tied games, some players (such as former Philadelphia Eagles quarterback Donovan McNabb) that have participated in one have recounted that they did not think a tie was a possible result for an NFL game. From 1920 to 1973, the NFL had a total of 256 tied games. Only three seasons (1934, 1950, 1952) went without a tied game, while five seasons (1920, 1923, 1926, 1929, 1932) had at least ten ties. The most ties, 17, occurred in the 1920 season. Since 1974, there have only been 18 tied games, the most recent occurring in the 2012 season when the San Francisco 49ers and St. Louis Rams played to a 24–24 draw. The highest-scoring tie game since the rule change was the first one, a 1974 game where the Pittsburgh Steelers and Denver Broncos tied 35–35. The Green Bay Packers and Philadelphia Eagles share the lead for the most tied games since the rule change, with each team having played in four tied games.

The Mean Green's contest with the Florida International Golden Panthers lasted overtime periods before North Texas kicker Denis Hopovac made his fifth field goal of the night to bring the team ahead 25–22. Hopovac's nine attempts tied an NCAA FBS record for field goal attempts in a game.

The following is a list of NCAA Division 1-FBS teams based on their records in overtime play. (As of 2008 NCAA Football Season)
The 2003 Arkansas vs. Kentucky football game was a college football game played on November 1, 2003 between the University of Arkansas and the University of Kentucky; it tied a NCAA record for the longest football game ever played. The game included seven overtime periods. Arkansas led the game all but a few minutes of regulation until a Kentucky touchdown drive in the last few minutes. Both teams had a blocked punt recovered for a touchdown, another rarity.The game ended in the seventh overtime period when Kentucky quarterback Jared Lorenzen fumbled the football on a quarterback keeper play, ending the game. Coincidentally, Arkansas played a 7 overtime game against Ole Miss on November 3, 2001 - winning that game 58-56. Arkansas also lost a 6 overtime game to Tennessee in 2002, 41-38. Former Arkansas head coach Houston Nutt has been recorded as saying about overtime, "Winning is always fun, but when you win in overtime, where your players had to go that extra mile, it’s really gratifying and special." Nutt continued to say, "I always like our chances in overtime." Kentucky's head man Rich Brooks has said of overtime, "[Nutt has] obviously been through a lot of them, and when you get through them and know you’ve had success and your team knows you’ve had success, I think mentally that goes a long ways in helping you get the victory ultimately whether it goes one, two, three, four or seven overtimes." Kentucky was 1-1 in overtime coming into this contest, beating Alabama and losing to Louisville both by the score of 40-34, both being only one overtime affairs. The game began at 7:00 pm eastern time on November 1, 2003, but would continue into November 2. The game opened with three punts before Decori Birmingham ran for a ten yard score for Arkansas to give the Hogs a 7-0 lead. Another three punts before Arkansas' had their punt blocked, to be recovered by Kentucky's Andrew Hopewell for a touchdown to tie the game 7-7. Arkansas quarterback Matt Jones threw a 26-yard touchdown strike to Richard Smith to open the scoring in the second period. It wasn't long before Arkansas' special teams returned the favor to Kentucky, blocking a Wildcat punt and scoring to push the Razorback advantage to 21-7. A promising drive was ended when an errant pass by Jared Lorenzen was intercepted by Ahmad Carroll, but the Razorbacks failed to capitalize, missing the 40-yard field goal before heading into the locker room for halftime. The Wildcats came out and scored on the first second half possession, a 51-yard touchdown toss by Lorenzen to fullback Alexis Bwenge, cutting into the Razorbacks cushion. Cedric Cobbs of Arkansas fumbled at the end of the third quarter, but after recovering Kentucky was forced to punt, down 21-14. Both teams swapped field goals before Lorenzen hit Chris Bernard to tie the game at 24. Arkansas had a chance at a game-winning drive with the ball with 1:30 left and two timeouts, but the drive ended in a punt with fourteen ticks left on the clock. College football overtime differs from overtime in the NFL dramatically. In college football, both teams start on the opponent's twenty-five yard line and try to score. These overtimes repeat until a winner is decided. (The NFL uses a 'sudden death' format in which the first team to score is the victor.) This system was adopted in 1996. Birmingham started off the extra frame with three straight rushes and a first down. Matt Jones added an 11-yard completion before fullback Mark Pierce scored from one yard out. Kentucky's drive was helped out by Arkansas, with ten and seven yard penalties bringing the Wildcats seventeen of the twenty five yards required to score a touchdown. A two-yard touchdown run from Alexis Bwenge, with complete extra point from placekicker Taylor Begley knotted the game at 31. Kentucky began on the offensive end in the second overtime, and scored on their second play. First, a 18 yard hookup from Lorenzen to Jeremiah Drobney before Alexis Bwenge again scored the go-ahead touchdown to give the Wildcats a 38-31 lead. Arkansas ran the ball five times before calling a timeout with a third down on the Kentucky two-yard line. Arkansas came out of the time out and committed a penalty costing the Razorbacks five precious yards, but Matt Jones completed his pass across the middle to Jason Peters to force a third overtime which gave the Jason Peters Kentucky overtime goal field. As per NCAA rules, beginning with the third overtime teams must go for a two-point conversion instead of kicking an extra point, but both Arkansas and Kentucky could only manage field goals on their possessions. Matt Jones began with a 13-yard completion, but the Arkansas drive stalled and Chris Balseiro had to kick a 25-yard field goal. Similar to Arkansas' first overtime drive, Kentucky ran the ball five times before calling a timeout on a third down on the Arkansas two-yard line. The Razorback defense kept Ronald (Rock) Johnson out of the end zone, forcing a Taylor Begley field goal and tying the game at 41. Lorenzen completed two passes on the drive, and finally ran in for the score in the fourth overtime. The two point play was a Jared Lorenzen completion to Derek Abney. Arkansas moved to the Kentucky two before Matt Jones fumbled. Jones recovered his own miscue. After a timeout, an incomplete Jones pass meant Arkansas must either score on the fourth down play or drop a fourth straight game. Jones scrambled into the end zone, and then completed a pass to Mark Pierce to draw to a 49-49 tie heading into the fifth overtime. After an 11 yard Birmingham run, Jones slung a 15-yard touchdown pass to take the lead into the fifth overtime, but the two point pass to Wilson was incomplete., meaning Kentucky had only to score and make the two-point conversion to end the game. A two-yard run by Derek Abney, followed with a Jared Lorenzen pass across the middle complete to Jeremiah Drobney for 7 yards put the Wildcats in business. "Hefty Lefty" Jared Lorenzen then ran the ball four plays, culminating in fourteen yards total and a touchdown. Tied at 55, Kentucky attempted the two point play that could have finished the game. The pass to Tommy Cook was incomplete, however, sending the game into a sixth overtime. Lorenzen continued his success on the ground with eighteen yards in the sixth overtime, one of his runs a one-yard touchdown run. This time, the pass to Tommy Cook was good, giving the Wildcats a 63-55 advantage. Matt Jones quickly answered with a sixteen-yard pass and seven-yard rush, moving the Hog offense to the two. Mark Pierce rumbled the additional two yards to pay dirt, and Arkansas was a two point play away from a seventh overtime. Jones completed the pass to Wilson to knot the game at 63. Matt Jones threw an incomplete pass before Decori Birmingham scored on a 25-yard touchdown run to give the Hogs a 69-63 advantage. The all-important two-point conversion was a completion to Jason Peters, giving Arkansas a 71-63 cushion. Kentucky first completed a pass for twelve yards, but a fourth and three on the Razorback five proved the game winner, as a Lorenzen fumble was recovered by all-SEC linebacker Tony Bua of Arkansas. The game ended at 12:01 am on November 2, 2003. This game also set an NCAA record for the most points scored in a game (after 1950). Arkansas scored 47 points in overtime, breaking their own record of 41. Both teams combined for 86 overtime points, six more than the 2001 seven overtime affair. The game lasted 4 hours and 56 minutes. Matt Jones went 16 of 25 passing for 260 yards and three TD's, while running for 112 yards and a score. Decori Birmingham, normally a receiver but filling in for injured tailbacks, had 196 yards rushing and two touchdowns for Arkansas. Arkansas wideout George Wilson caught nine passes for 172 yards and a score. For Kentucky, Lorenzen went 28 of 49, throwing for 326 yards, two touchdowns and one interception. Lorenzen also added 39 rushing yards and three rushing TD's to his total. Abney was Lorenzen's favorite target, catching ten balls for 91 yards.
William Harry Hull, Jr. (born August 4, 1940) is a former American football defensive end who played in the American Football League. Hull played college football at Wake Forest and was selected by the National Football League's Chicago Bears in the 3rd round (35th overall) of the 1962 NFL Draft and the AFL's Boston Patriots in the 5th round (38th overall) of the 1962 AFL Draft but did not play for either team. He played only one season professionally with the AFL's Dallas Texans. He intercepted George Blanda late in the first overtime of professional football's longest championship game. In that 1962 American Football League Championship game against the Houston Oilers, Hull's interception allowed the Texans to start the second overtime with two runs by Jack Spikes to move the ball to the Oilers' 25-yard line, and Tommy Brooker kicked a field goal to give the Texans the win, 20 - 17. Hull was also a collegiate basketball player, and became the first ACC player to ever to start for both the football and basketball team in the same season. In 1992 Hull was inducted into the WakeForest Athletics Hall of fame. Wake Forest Hall of Fame honorees
In a sport or game, sudden death (or a sudden-death round) is a form of competition where play ends as soon as one competitor is ahead of the others, with that competitor becoming the winner. Sudden death is typically used as a tiebreaker when a contest is tied at the end of the normal playing time or the completion of the normal playing task. An alternative tiebreaker method is to play a reduced version of the original; for example, in association football 30 minutes of extra time (overtime) after 90 minutes of normal time, or in golf one playoff round (18 holes) after four standard rounds (72 holes). Sudden-death playoffs typically end more quickly than these reduced replays. Reducing the variability of the event's duration assists those scheduling television time and team travel. Fans may see sudden death as exciting and suspenseful, or they may view the format as insufficiently related to the sport played during regulation time. Sudden death provides a victor for the contest without a specific amount of time being required. It may be called "next score wins" or similar, although in some games, the winner may result from penalization of the other competitor for a mistake. Sudden death may instead be called sudden victory to avoid the mention of death, particularly in sports with a high risk of physical injury. This variant became one of announcer Curt Gowdy's idiosyncrasies in 1971 when the AFC divisional championship game between the Kansas City Chiefs and Miami Dolphins went into overtime. North American professional sports using a sudden-death method of settling a tied game include the National Football League, the National Hockey League and, in a modified sense, the PGA Tour (golf). Baseball uses a unique method of tie-breaking that incorporates elements of sudden death. In some goal-scoring games sudden-death extra time may be given in which the first goal scored wins; in association football it is called the golden goal. In baseball, a winning run scored by the home team in an extra inning is often referred to as a walk-off, as the players can immediately walk off the field. Sudden-death overtime has traditionally been used in playoff and championship games in hockey. It has been used in the National Hockey League throughout the league's history. The first NHL game with sudden-death overtime was game four of the 1919 Stanley Cup Finals. Currently, the NHL, American Hockey League, and ECHL also use the sudden-death system in their regular seasons, playing a five-minute overtime period when the score is tied at the end of regulation time. In 2000, the AHL reduced the teams to four players each during the five-minute overtime. (But any two-man advantage is administered with five-on-three play rather than four-on-two.) The ECHL and NHL both changed to the four-on-four overtime format in 2001, with the International Olympic Committee following by no later than 2010. In the SPHL, a class A minor league, the overtime is three-on-three, with the team that would be on the power play given a fourth, and a fifth attacker respectively instead, and any penalty in the final two minutes results in a penalty shot instead of a power play. If neither team scores during this period, the teams use a penalty-shot shootout, consisting of three players in the NHL or five players in the minor leagues, to determine the winner. In the NHL, if no team wins this shootout, a 1-by-1, sudden-death shootout ensues. No player may shoot twice until every non-goaltender on the bench has taken a shot. During championship playoffs, however, all games are played to a conclusion resulting in a victory for one team and a loss for the other. These are true sudden-death games, which have gone on into as many as six additional full 20-minute periods with five players, instead of the five-minute period with four players. International hockey uses a penalty-shot shootout for knockout rounds if neither team scores after one 20-minute, sudden-death overtime period. The shootout is decided round by round (in other words, if one team scores in the first round and the other does not, the game is over, unlike most professional leagues), and players can shoot as many times as the team desires. (There is no overtime in round-robin games.) Sudden death has been perceived as a particularly poor fit for gridiron football because the process gives an inherent advantage to the team who gains possession of the ball: they can score and end the game immediately (even by driving a relatively short distance into field goal range and then kicking a field goal), but the team on defense cannot (other than through far rarer scoring strategies such as the pick-six or the safety) score immediately. All organized forms of American football have abolished pure sudden death for overtime as of the 2011 season. Most levels of the game, including high school football and college football, never used it, instead either allowing ties to stand or using alternatives like the Kansas Playoff. The National Football League was an exception; the league used pure sudden death in its playoffs beginning in 1940 and in regular season matchups in 1974, finally modifying its process for playoffs in 2010 and then regular season games in 2011. Originally, all National Football League games tied at the end of regulation time ended as a tie. Late in the 1940 season, NFL President Carl Storck announced that sudden death periods would be authorized for any playoff game needed to decide either division title. It was emphasized that this did not apply to the final championship game, which would crown co-champions in the event of a tie. Commissioner Elmer Layden approved a similar arrangement for the 1941 season, with the same limitation. Sudden death overtime was finally approved for the NFL championship game in 1946 and has remained in effect ever since. The first playoff game requiring overtime was the 1958 NFL Championship Game. In 1974, the NFL adopted a 15-minute sudden-death overtime period for regular-season games. The game ended as a tie if neither team scores in overtime. When a team gets near the end zone, it typically tried to kick a field goal. An overtime game can also be won by scoring a touchdown. This usually happened on a play that began with field position far enough away from the end zone to make a field goal difficult if not impossible, but it can also result from a team exercising solid ball control and simply never getting to a fourth-down situation. (The touchdown ends the game and no extra point is attempted.) Only twice has an overtime game been won by a safety. In recent years, sportscasters have referred to such scoring plays as "walk-offs," as both teams can walk off the field after the play. Starting with the 2010 playoffs, in the post-season each team was to get one possession to score in overtime, unless the team receiving the kickoff scored a touchdown or if the defence scores a safety on their first possession. True sudden death rules applied if both teams have had their initial possession and the game remains tied. This rule did not actually come into use during the 2011 playoffs, as the sole overtime game that season resulted in the Denver Broncos scoring a long touchdown on their first play from scrimmage against the Pittsburgh Steelers, but nonetheless the rule was adopted for the start of the 2012 regular season shortly afterwards. It was adopted to counter the criticism that the outcome of overtime games was very frequently decided by the coin toss, as the team which won it usually attempted only enough offensive action to maneuver into field goal range and seldom made a real effort to score a touchdown. This means that the only remaining difference between regular season and post-season overtime rules is that in the post-season play will continue indefinitely for a team to score and win the game, whereas in the regular season games still tied after one full quarter of overtime will continue to be allowed to end in a tie. For information on games that have taken a long time under sudden death, see Overtime. In arena football, each team is allowed one overtime possession, after which the team with the most points is the winner. If the score is still tied, however, sudden death goes into effect. (A similar, modified sudden death format, with a 10-minute limit, was used in the NFL Europa League.) This rule was implemented in the 2007 season; prior to this, the league used extra time. In individual match play, players level after the regulation 18 or 36 holes will play extra holes in sudden death. In team tournaments, players may gain half a point each for a tie rather than play sudden death; this is the case in the Ryder Cup, for example. In the Presidents Cup, there was provision for a single-player sudden death shootout if the entire competition ended in a tie. When this came to pass in 2003, the tiebreak was unfinished at dusk. There was no provision for an extra day's play, and both team captains agreed to declare the match tied and share the trophy. Traditionally, professional stroke play golf tournaments ending in a tie were played off the next day with an eighteen-hole match. Modern considerations such as television coverage and the tight travel schedule of most leading golfers have led to this practice being almost entirely abandoned, and in all but the most important tournaments, the champion is determined by sudden death. All players tied after the completion of regulation play are taken to a predetermined hole, and then play it and others in order as needed. If more than two players are tied, each player who scores higher on a hole than the other competitors is immediately eliminated, and those still tied continue play until one remaining player has a lower score for a hole than any of the others remaining, and that player is declared the winner. Of the four men's major championships, only The Masters uses a sudden-death playoff format, first used in 1979. The U.S. Open still uses an 18-hole playoff at stroke play on the day after the main tournament, with sudden-death if two (or more) contestants remain tied after 18 holes. First used in 1989, The Open Championship uses a four-hole total-stroke playoff, while the PGA Championship uses a three-hole total-stroke playoff, first used in 2000. The PGA Championship introduced the sudden-death playoff to the majors in 1977 and used it seven times through 1996. Sudden death is used if a tie exists at the end of the scheduled playoff. Baseball and softball are not true sudden-death sports, but they have one comparable situation. Baseball and softball games cannot end until both teams have had an equal number of turns at bat, unless further play (by the home team if they lead after 8 1/2 innings) cannot affect the outcome. In the final scheduled inning (typically, the ninth), if the visitors complete their turn at bat and still trail the hosts, the game ends. If the visitors lead or the game is tied, the hosts take their "last ups" at bat. If the hosts should exceed the visitors' score, the game ends at the conclusion of the play on which the hosts take this insurmountable lead. (If the final scheduled inning ends in a tie, multiple extra innings are played with the same implications as the final scheduled inning.) The ability to bat last is an advantage of being the home team. It is said that "visitors must play to win; hosts need only play to tie" because tying forces an extra inning. A tied game in the bottom of the final scheduled inning puts pressure on the visitors. For example, with a runner on third base and fewer than two outs, the visitors cannot afford even to get certain types of out that would let the game-ending run score after the out. A scoring play that ends the game is called a walk-off, because after the runner scores the winning run everyone can walk off the field. A walk-off home run is an exception to the rule stated above; the game does not end when the winning run scores, but continues until the batter and all runners score (provided they run the bases correctly). Basketball does not traditionally employ sudden death to decide games; it instead uses a timed overtime period to determine the result of games tied after regulation play. The entire overtime is played; if the game remains tied, another overtime period is played. However, one form of basketball does employ a sudden-death overtime. 3x3, a formalized version of the half-court three-on-three game, uses an untimed overtime period that ends by rule once either team has scored 2 points. In this form of the sport, shots taken from behind the "three-point" arc are worth 2 points and all other shots are worth 1 point. Sudden death has a controversial history in soccer (association football). Important matches were traditionally resolved by replaying the entire match, however in the era of television and tight travel schedules this is often impracticable. Replays are still used in some major competitions (like the FA Cup). In many matches, if the score is tied after the full 90 minutes, a draw results; however, if one team must be eliminated, some form of tie-breaking must occur. Originally, two 15-minute halves of extra time were held and if the teams remained equal at the end of the halves, kicks from the penalty mark were held. To try to decrease the chances of requiring kicks from the penalty mark, the IFAB, the world law making body of the sport, experimented with new rules. The golden goal rule transformed the overtime periods into sudden death until the periods were over, where shootouts would occur. As this became unpopular, the silver goal rule was instituted, causing the game to end if the scores were not equal after the first 15 minute period as well as the second. The silver goal has also fallen into disrepute so Euro 2004 was the last event to use it; after which the original tie-breaking methods were restored. The main criticism of golden goal is the quickness of ending the game, and the pressure on coaches and players. Once a goal is scored, the game is over and the opponent cannot attempt to answer the goal within the remaining time. Therefore, teams would place more emphasis on not conceding a goal rather than scoring a goal, and many golden goal extra time periods remained scoreless. Sudden death would have made many legendary matches of the past impossible. Many historical matches have been settled in flamboyant extra-time play, with multiple goals scored by each team, such as the unforgettable "Game of the Century" between Italy and West Germany in Mexico 1970, with Italy winning 4–3 after extra time. Following a 1–1 draw in regular time, the remaining five out of seven scores happened in the extra time. If sudden death had been in effect, the game would have ended on Gerd Müller's goal at 95', giving West Germany the victory instead of Italy. The use of extra time was a factor in the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup final; had the golden goal been used, the United States would have won, but because extra time was used, Japan had an opportunity to tie the game in the remaining time and, eventually, win the game in a penalty shootout. In NCAA collegiate play in the United States, however, sudden death, adopted in 1999 for all championship play in addition to regular season play, remains. In 2005, the Division II Women's Championship game ended in sudden death as a goal was scored three minutes into the overtime to end the championship match. [1] Sudden death is also prevalent in youth play, for the safety of players. If the teams are still tied after the initial allocated number in a penalty shootout, the game goes to sudden-death penalties, where each team takes a further one penalty each, repeated until only one team scores, resulting in the winning of the game. Drawn National Rugby League and State of Origin games are subject to sudden death extra time after 80 minutes of play, called the golden point. Golden point consists of two five-minute halves, with the teams swapping ends at the end of the first half. Any score (try, penalty goal, or field goal) in golden point wins the game for the scoring team - no conversion is attempted if a try is the winning score. In the NRL, the victor in golden point receives two competition points, the loser none. In the event that no further scoring occurs, the game is drawn, and each team receives one point each. In the knockout stages of rugby competitions, most notably the Rugby World Cup, a match drawn after 80 minutes does not proceed immediately to sudden death conditions. 20 minutes of non-sudden death extra time are played first, if scores are level after 100 minutes then the rules call for 20 minutes of sudden-death extra time to be played. If the sudden-death extra time period results in no scoring a kicking competition is used to determine the winner. However, no match in the history of the Rugby World Cup has ever gone past 100 minutes into a sudden-death extra time period. In contrast with the usual sudden-death procedure of awarding the victory to the next side to score, tennis and volleyball require that the margin of victory be two. A volleyball game tied at the target score continues until one team's score exceeds the other's by two points. The traditional requirement that a tennis set be won by two games sometimes resulted in five-set matches lasting six hours or longer (including an 8-hour 11-minute set at Wimbledon), which is a major disruption to a television schedule. To shorten matches, sets tied at six games each can now be broken by a single tiebreaker game. This is awarded to the first player to score seven points. The winner must lead the loser by two points, so tiebreaker games can become lengthy in their own right. Tiebreakers are not used in major tournaments in the final set, except at the US Open. An individual fencing bout lasts for five touches in a poule match, or 15 touches in a direct elimination (DE) match. In épée and foil, matches are also timed (three minutes for a poule match, and three periods of three minutes for a DE). If neither fencer has reached five or 15 points within the time limit, the leading fencer is deemed the winner. However, if the fencers are tied after the allotted time, one minute of extra time is added. Before resuming the bout, one fencer is randomly awarded "priority". The first fencer to score a valid hit within extra time wins the match; if no valid hits are scored within the time, that fencer with priority is declared the victor. In the normal course of a match, there is a de facto sudden death situation if both fencers are tied at four (or 14) touches each. The final hit is called "la belle". The fencers may salute each other before playing for the final point. Sudden death also occurs in computer gaming when both teams have the same score and a method of breaking a tie is needed. For example, in a Capture the Flag area for Quake III Arena, when neither team has gotten a score, or if no team leads, a sudden death match will decide who will be the victor. All the teams have to do is get the flag and deliver it to the base one time only in order to win automatically. In other games, players have some handicap in order to end the game faster; for example, in a Super Smash Bros. sudden death match, players fight beginning at 300% damage, which usually causes the match to end almost immediately after a blow is dealt. In games where the players normally would respawn, like Team Fortress 2, sudden death often means that respawning is disabled and the last team standing wins. In board games such as chess where there is a time limit, "sudden death" refers to a requirement that all the remaining moves, rather than a fixed number of moves, be played within the remaining time allotted. This ensures an upper limit for how long games can last. Some games are played with an immediate sudden death time control, others have one or more regular time controls before the sudden death control. In most international versions of the game show Duel, if two contestants do not cover the correct answer to a regular question when the duel is in process, the duel goes to a sudden death question called a "Shootout". For this sudden death question, the contestants who are participating get 4 new chips each, and there are no accelerators or presses available. If only one contestant answers correctly, the contestant who has the answer wins. If both contestants get the answer correct, the contestant who covered fewer choices wins, but if both contestants do not cover the correct answer to the shootout question, they are both eliminated (that happens automatically if both contestants are wrong during the duel in international versions that do not have sudden death). In a situation in which both contestants covered the same amount of choices during sudden death, both contestants win the duel, and one of the contestants, picked at random, must leave the show. In some instances, if a winner cannot be determined on the question (regardless if both contestants tie or would be eliminated), multiple Shootouts may occur until a winner is determined. In that case, the tie-breakers that do not determine a winner may be edited out of the final broadcast. In the game show BrainSurge, the last two players standing will match pictures. When someone gets one wrong, host Jeff Sutphen declares the game to be in "sudden death territory". At that point, the next person to make a valid match wins the game. In The Weakest Link, if the final round of questions ends in a tie (usually after three or five questions), the players will go into a sudden death round. If a player successfully answers a question and the opponent does not in the round, they win the game. If both miss or are successful in a round, they go to another question. Again, tie-breakers that do not produce a winner may be edited out of the final broadcast. On Wheel of Fortune, in the relatively rare event of a tie, the tied contestants square off in a Toss-Up round to determine which player goes on to the bonus round. Previously, in the event of a tie, initially the game was declared a draw and the bonus round was not played with the two players returning for a second episode. In later years before the Toss-Up was installed, a second speed-up round between the two players was played. On Jeopardy! tournament games, the players who tied after Final Jeopardy! participate in a final sudden-death answer. The player who answers correctly advances to the next round of the tournament. (In regular matches, tie games stand, with all tied players returning to the show if there is a score of $1 or higher.) On The Price Is Right, if a Showcase Showdown is tied, the players will spin the wheel once; the higher score wins. If the spin is a tie, the procedure is repeated until a winner is found. In case of a Bonus Spin spinoff, only the first spin is a bonus spin. No bonuses are awarded for subsequent rounds. Many other game shows feature a sudden-death playoff; usually, the next player to answer a question correctly wins. Often, the rules of sudden death provide that in the event a wrong answer is given, the opposing team wins, even though wrong answers may otherwise not be penalized. Occasionally, the format is a numeric question, with the player making the closer guess winning. Sudden death in wrestling is most commonly seen in Real Canadian Wrestling tournament matches, in which a victor must be decided. This happens in the case of a double knockout or double countout. In the United States, Sudden Death rules occurs mainly in an Iron Man match when there is a tie after the time limit have expired. (Most notably at Wrestlemania XII when the match between Shawn Michaels and Bret Hart ended 0-0 after the 60 minute limit) An example that invoked sudden death occurred in the 2005 Royal Rumble. John Cena and Batista were left, and both men's feet touched the ground at the same time. A comparable draw leading to sudden death might happen if the shoulders of a wrestler applying a submission move are on the mat. In the case of a tie in competition judo, the match proceeds to Golden Score, another form of Sudden Death. Sudden Death in competition Judo consists of a 5 minute long match, during which the first competitor to achieve a score is awarded the match. Penalties in Judo award points to the other competitor, making fair-play of absolute importance. If no victor is decided in Golden Score, the match is decided based on a Referee's Decision. A Referee's Decision is a vote amongst the Referee and both Judges of the match. In mixed martial arts competitions that consist of an even number of rounds, a type of sudden death is sometimes used in the event that each competitor wins an equal number of rounds. This is not a true sudden death that ends on the first point scored, since MMA competitions do not generally score individual points. Rather, it is a final round of combat, the winner of which is declared the winner of the match. This particular rule, known as "Sudden Victory", has been commonly seen in previous seasons of the reality television show The Ultimate Fighter when the competition has consisted of two rounds. A sudden victory round rule was also implemented in the tournament to decide Ultimate Fighting Championship's first Flyweight Champion.

College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States.

The Fiesta Bowl is a United States college football bowl game played annually at the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona. Between its origination in 1971 and 2006, the game was hosted in Tempe, Arizona at Sun Devil Stadium.

Since 1996, Frito-Lay has been the bowl's title sponsor through its Tostitos tortilla chip brand. Previous sponsors included Sunkist and IBM.

Game play in American football consists of a series of downs, individual plays of short duration, outside of which the ball is dead or not in play. These can be plays from scrimmage – passes, runs, punts, or field goal attempts – or free kicks such as kickoffs. Substitutions can be made between downs, which allows for a great deal of specialization as coaches choose the players best suited for each particular situation. During a play, each team should have no more than 11 players on the field, and each of them has specific tasks assigned for that specific play.

The objective of this game is to score more points than the other team during the allotted time. The team with the ball (the offense) has 4 tries (downs) to advance at least 10 yards, and can score points once they reach or near the opposite end of the field, called the end zone. If the offense does not advance at least 10 yards during their 4 downs, the team without the ball (the defense) regains control of the ball (called turnover on downs).

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