Atmospheric dynamics (category)
Weather (category) · (portal)
Analysed according to the Köppen system, the climate of India resolves into six major climatic subtypes; their influences give rise to desert in the west, alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, humid tropical regions supporting rain forests in the southwest, and Indian Ocean island territories that flank the Indian subcontinent. Regions have starkly different—yet tightly clustered—microclimates. The nation is largely subject to four seasons: winter (January and February), summer (March to May), a monsoon (rainy) season (June to September), and a post-monsoon period (October to December).
India's geography and geology are climatically pivotal: the Thar Desert in the northwest and the Himalayas in the north work in tandem to effect a culturally and economically break-all monsoonal regime. As Earth's highest and most massive mountain range, the Himalayan system bars the influx of frigid katabatic winds from the icy Tibetan Plateau and northerly Central Asia. Most of North India is thus kept warm or is only mildly chilly or cold during winter; the same thermal dam keeps most regions in India hot in summer.
A Monsoon of the Indian subcontinent is among several geographically distributed observations of global monsoon taking place in the Indian subcontinent. In the subcontinent, it is one of oldest weather observations, an economically important weather pattern and the most anticipated weather event and unique weather phenomenon. Yet it is only partially understood and notoriously difficult to predict. Several theories have been proposed explaining the origin, the process, the strength, the variability, the distribution and the general vagaries of the monsoon of the Indian subcontinent, but understanding of the phenomenon and its predictability are still evolving. The unique geographical features of the subcontinent, along with associated atmospheric, oceanic and geophysical components, are extremely influential in ensuring the anticipated behavior for a monsoon in South Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Due to its effect on agriculture, flora and fauna and the general weather of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, etc., among other economic, social and environmental effects, a monsoon is one of the most anticipated, followed and studied weather phenomena of the Indian subcontinent. It has significant impact on the overall well-being of subcontinent residents and has even been dubbed the "real finance minister of India".
The Climate of Asia is moist across southeast sections, and dry across much of the interior. Some of the largest daily temperature ranges on Earth occur in western sections of Asia. The monsoon circulation dominates across southern and eastern sections, due to the presence of the Himalayas forcing the formation of a thermal low which draws in moisture during the summer. Southwestern sections of the continent are hot. Siberia is one of the coldest places in the Northern Hemisphere, and can act as a source of arctic air masses for North America. The most active place on Earth for tropical cyclone activity lies northeast of the Philippines and south of Japan, and the phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation modulates where in Asia landfall is more likely to occur.
Southern sections of the continent are warm to hot, while far northeastern areas such as Siberia are very cold. East Asia has a temperate climate. The highest temperature recorded within the continent was 53.9 °C (129.0 °F) at Tirat Tsvi, Israel on June 21, 1942. West-central Asia experiences some of the largest diurnal temperature ranges on Earth. The lowest temperature measured was −68 °C (−90 °F) at Verkhoyansk and Oymyakon, both in Sakha Republic of Russia on February 7, 1892 and February 6, 1933 respectively.