Outdoor recreation or outdoor activity is leisure pursuits engaged in the outdoors, often in natural or semi-natural settings out of town. Examples include adventure racing, backpacking, cycling, camping, canoeing, canyoning, caving, fishing, hiking, horseback riding, hunting, kayaking, mountaineering, photography, adventure park, rock climbing, running, sailing, skiing, and surfing. Outdoor recreation may also refer to a team sport game or practice held in an outdoor setting.
The two primary purposes for outdoor recreation are beneficial use and pleasurable appreciation.
Outdoor education usually refers to organized learning that takes place in the outdoors. Outdoor education programs sometimes involve residential or journey-based experiences in which students participate in a variety of adventurous challenges is outdoor activities such as hiking, climbing, canoeing, ropes courses and group games. Forest Schools and the John Muir Award are amongst organizations which encourage and provide opportunities for outdoor learning. Outdoor education draws upon the philosophy, theory, and practices of experiential education and environmental education.
Scouting has sometimes become entangled in social controversies such as the civil rights struggle in the American South and in nationalist resistance movements in India. Scouting was introduced to Africa by British officials as an instrument of colonial authority]citation needed[ but became a subversive challenge to the legitimacy of British imperialism as Scouting fostered solidarity amongst African Scouts. There are also controversies and challenges within the Scout Movement itself such as current efforts to turn Scouts Canada into a democratic organization (see also Non-aligned Scouting and Scout-like organisations).
This article discusses historical and contemporary Scouting controversies and difficulties, with examples from various countries.