Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.
It is vital to systematically explain a gross appearance of a pathological state, for example, a malignant tumor. One should note the site, size, shape, consistency, presence of a capsule and appearance on cut section whether well circumscribed or diffusely infiltrating, homogeneous or variegated, cystic, necrotic, hemorrhagic areas, as well as papillary projections.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the body nervous system. Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves can result in a range of symptoms. Examples of symptoms include paralysis, muscle weakness, poor coordination, loss of sensation, seizures, confusion, pain and altered levels of consciousness.There are many recognized neurological disorders, some relatively common, but many rare. They may be assessed by neurological examination, and studied and treated within the specialities of neurology and clinical neuropsychology.
Interventions for neurological disorders include preventative measures, lifestyle changes, physiotherapy or other therapy, neurorehabilitation, pain management, medication, or operations performed by neurosurgeons. The World Health Organization estimated in 2006 that neurological disorders and their sequelae (direct consequences) affect as many as one billion people worldwide, and identified health inequalities and social stigma/discrimination as major factors contributing to the associated disability and suffering.
The periapical cyst (also termed Radicular cyst, and to a lesser extent Dental cyst) is the most common odontogenic cyst. It is caused by pulpal necrosis secondary to dental caries or trauma. The cyst lining is derived from the cell rests of Malassez. Usually, the periapical cyst is asymptomatic, but a secondary infection can cause pain. On radiographs, it appears a radiolucency (dark area) around the apex of a tooth's root.
Radicular Cyst is the most common odontogenic cystic lesion of inflammatory origin. It is also known as Periapical Cyst, Apical Periodontal Cyst, Root End Cyst or Dental Cyst. It arises from epithelial residues in periodontal ligament as a result of inflammation. The inflammation usually follows death of dental pulp. Radicular cysts are found at root apices of involved teeth. These cysts may persists even after extraction of offending tooth, such cysts are called Residual Cysts.
A breast cyst is a fluid-filled sac within the breast. One breast can have one or more breast cysts. They're often described as round or oval lumps with distinct edges. In texture, a breast cyst usually feels like a soft grape or a water-filled balloon, but sometimes a breast cyst feels firm.
Breast cysts can be painful and may be worrisome but are generally benign. They are most common in pre-menopausal women in their 30s or 40s. They usually disappear after menopause, but may persist or reappear when using hormone therapy. Breast cysts can be part of fibrocystic disease. The pain and swelling is usually worse in the second half of the menstrual cycle or during pregnancy.
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or Anatomic pathology (U.S.) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and rarely whole bodies (autopsy). Its modern beginner was the Italian scientist Giovan Battista Morgagni from Forlì.
Anatomical pathology is one of two branches of pathology, the other being clinical pathology, the diagnosis of disease through the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids and/or tissues. Often, pathologists practice both anatomical and clinical pathology, a combination known as general pathology. Similar specialties exist in veterinary pathology.