Heat of combustion is the amount of heat released when a given amount (usually 1 mole ) of a combustible pure substance, MORE?
Chemical engineering is a branch of chemistry and engineering that applies the physical sciences (e.g., chemistry and physics) and/or life sciences (e.g. biology, microbiology and biochemistry) together with mathematics and economics to production, transformation, transportation and proper usage of molecules, chemicals, materials and energy. Modern chemical engineers are concerned with processes that convert raw-materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. In addition, they are also concerned with pioneering valuable materials and related techniques – which are often essential to related fields such as nanotechnology, fuel cells and biomedical engineering. Within chemical engineering, two broad subgroups include design, manufacture, and operation of plants and machinery in industrial chemical and related processes ("chemical process engineers") and development of new or adapted substances for products ranging from foods and beverages to cosmetics to cleaners to pharmaceutical ingredients, among many other products ("chemical product engineers").
The heat of combustion () is the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions. The chemical reaction is typically a hydrocarbon reacting with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, water and heat. It may be expressed with the quantities:
The heat of combustion is conventionally measured with a bomb calorimeter. It may also be calculated as the difference between the heat of formation of the products and reactants. Heat
The fire triangle or combustion triangle is a simple model for understanding the necessary ingredients for most fires.
The triangle illustrates the three elements a fire needs to ignite: heat, fuel, and an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen). A fire naturally occurs when the elements are present and combined in the right mixture, and a fire can be prevented or extinguished by removing any one of the elements in the fire triangle. For example, covering a fire with a fire blanket removes the "oxygen" part of the triangle and can extinguish a fire.
A calorimeter (from Latin calor, meaning heat) is an object used for calorimetry, or the process of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. Differential scanning calorimeters, isothermal microcalorimeters, titration calorimeters and accelerated rate calorimeters are among the most common types. A simple calorimeter just consists of a thermometer attached to a metal container full of water suspended above a combustion chamber.
To find the enthalpy change per mole of a substance A in a reaction between two substances A and B, the substances are added to a calorimeter and the initial and final temperatures (before the reaction started and after it has finished) are noted. Multiplying the temperature change by the mass and specific heat capacities of the substances gives a value for the energy given off or absorbed during the reaction. Dividing the energy change by how many moles of A were present gives its enthalpy change of reaction. This method is used primarily in academic teaching as it describes the theory of calorimetry. It does not account for the heat loss through the container or the heat capacity of the thermometer and container itself. Chemistry