Select call tone desired. 1. Select Add/Remove Numbers 2. Select Add Numbers. 3. Enter the 10 digin number to assign the tone to.
In tonal languages, tone names are the names given to the tones these languages use.
Tone sandhi is a phonological change occurring in tonal languages, in which the tones assigned to individual words or morphemes change based on the pronunciation of adjacent words or morphemes. It usually simplifies a bidirectional tone into a one-direction tone. It is a type of sandhi, or fusional change, from the Sanskrit word for "joining".
Tone sandhi occurs to some extent in nearly all tonal languages, manifesting itself in different ways. Tonal languages, characterized by their use of pitch to affect meaning, appear all over the world, especially in the Niger-Congo language family of Africa, and the Sino-Tibetan language family of East Asia, as well as other East Asian languages such as Tai-Kadai, Vietnamese, and Papuan languages. Tonal languages are also found in many Oto-Manguean and other languages of Central America, as well as in parts of North America (such as Athapaskan in British Columbia, Canada), and Europe.
Many North American and African tonal languages undergo "syntagmatic displacement," as one tone is replaced by another in the event that the new tone is present elsewhere in the adjacent tones. Usually, these processes of assimilation occur from left to right. In the Bantu languages of West Africa, for example, an unaccented syllable takes the tone from the closest tone to its left. However, in East and Southeast Asia, "paradigmatic replacement" is a more common form of tone sandhi, as one tone changes to another in a certain environment, whether or not the new tone is already present in the surrounding words or morphemes.
Many languages spoken in China have tone sandhi, some of it quite complex. Amoy Min has a complex system, with every one of its tones changing into a different tone when it occurs before another, and which tone it turns into depends on the final consonant of the syllable that bears it.
Amoy has five tones, which are reduced to two in checked syllables (which end in a stop consonant—these are numbered 4 and 8 in the diagram above). Within a phonological word, all syllables but the last change tone. Among unchecked syllables (that is, those that do not end in a stop), tone 1 becomes 7, 7 becomes 3, 3 becomes 2, and 2 becomes 1. Tone 5 becomes 7 or 3, depending on dialect. Stopped syllables ending in , , or take the opposite tone (phonetically, a high tone becomes low, and a low tone becomes high), whereas syllables ending in a glottal stop (written h in the diagram above) drop their final consonant to become tone 2 or 3.
The seven or eight tones of Hmong demonstrate several instances of tone sandhi. In fact the contested distinction between the seventh and eighth tones surrounds the very issue of tone sandhi (between glottal stop (-m) and low rising (-d) tones). High and high-falling tones (marked by -b and -j in the RPA orthography, respectively) trigger sandhi in subsequent words bearing particular tones. A frequent example can be found in the combination for numbering objects (ordinal number + classifier + noun): ib (one) + tus (classifier) + dev (dog) => ib tug dev (note tone change on the classifier from -s to -g).
Tone sandhi is compulsory as long as the environmental conditions that trigger it are met. It is not to be confused with tone changes that are due to derivational or inflectional morphology. For example, in Cantonese, the word "sugar" (糖) is pronounced tòng ( or , with low (falling) tone), whereas the derived word "candy" (also written 糖) is pronounced tóng (, with mid rising tone). Such a change is not triggered by the phonological environment of the tone, and therefore is not an example of sandhi. Changes of morphemes in Mandarin to the neutral tone are also not examples of tone sandhi.
In Hokkien (Taiwanese), the words kiaⁿ (high tone, meaning "afraid") and lâng (curving upward tone, meaning "person") combine to form two different compound words with different tones. When combined via sandhi rules, kiaⁿ is spoken in basic tone and lâng in original tone (written in POJ as kiaⁿ-lâng). This means "frightfully dirty" or "filthy". This follows the basic tone sandhi rules. However, when kiaⁿ is spoken in original high tone, and lâng rendered in low tone (written kiaⁿ--lâng), it means "frightful". This derivational process is distinct from the semantically empty change of tone that automatically occurs when kiaⁿ is followed by lâng, and so is not tone sandhi.
Mandarin features several sandhi tone rules.
When there are two 3rd tones in a row, the first one becomes 2nd tone, and the second one becomes a half-third tone. E.g. 你好 (nǐ + hǎo = ní hǎo)
The neutral tone is pronounced "low" when following the 1st, 2nd, and 4th tones, and pronounced "high" following the 3rd tone.] [
不 (bù) is 4th tone except when followed by another 4th tone, when it becomes second tone. E.g. 不對|不对 (bù + duì = bú duì)
一 (Yī) is 1st tone when it represents the ordinal "first," Examples: 第一个 (dìyīgè). It changes when it represents the cardinal number "1" following a pattern of 2nd tone when followed by a 4th tone, and 4th tone when followed by any other tone. Examples: 一个 (yī + gè = yí gè), 一次 (yī + cì = yí cì), 一半 (yī + bàn = yí bàn), 一般 (yī + bān = yì bān), 一毛 (yī + máo = yì máo), 一会儿 (yī + huìr = yí huìr).
Zapotec, an Oto-Manguean language (or group of closely related languages) spoken in Central America, has three tones: high, middle and low. The three tones, along with separate classifications for morpheme categories, contribute to a somewhat more complicated system of tone sandhi than in Mandarin. There are two main rules for Zapotec tone sandhi, which apply in this order:
1) (This rule only applies to class B morphemes.) A low tone will change to a mid tone when it precedes either a high or a mid tone: /yèn nājō/ → yēn nājō ‘neck we say’
2) A mid tone will change to a high tone when it is after a low or mid tone, and occurs at the end of a morpheme not preceding a pause: /ẓīs gōlī/ → ẓís gōlī ‘old stick’
Akan, a Niger-Congo language spoken in Ghana, has two tones: high and low. The low tone is default. In Akan, tones at morpheme boundaries assimilate to each other through tone sandhi, the first tone of the second morpheme changing to match the final tone of the first morpheme.
àkókɔ́ + òníní --> àkókɔ́óníní 'cockerel'
ǹsóró + m̀má --> ǹsóróḿmá 'star(s)'
Molinos Mixtec, another Oto-Manguean language, has a much more complicated system of tone sandhi. The language has three tones (high, mid, or low, or 1, 2, or 3, respectively), and all roots are disyllabic, meaning that there are nine possible combinations of tones for a root or "couplet". The tone combinations are expressed here as a two digit number (high-low is represented as 13). Couplets are also classified into either class A or B, as well as verb or non-verb. A number of specific rules depending on these three factors determine tone change. One example of a rule follows:
"Basic 31 becomes 11 when following any couplet of Class B but does not change after Class A (except that after 32(B') it optionally remains 31”
ža²ʔa² (class B) 'chiles' + ži³či¹ (class A)'dry' --> ža²ʔa²ži¹či¹ 'dry chiles'
A tone contour is a tone in a tonal language which shifts from one pitch to another over the course of the syllable or word. Tone contours are especially common in East and Southeast Asia, but occur elsewhere, such as the Kru languages of Liberia and the Ju languages of Namibia.
When the pitch descends, the contour is called a falling tone; when it ascends, a rising tone; when it descends and then returns, a dipping or falling-rising tone; and when it ascends and then returns, it is called a peaking or rising-falling tone. A tone in a contour-tone language which remains at approximately an even pitch is called a level tone. Tones which are too short to exhibit much of a contour, typically because of a final plosive consonant, may be called checked, abrupt, clipped, or stopped tones.
There are three phonetic conventions for transcribing tone contours.
Cantonese changed tones (also called pinjam; traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: biànyīn; Jyutping: bin3jam1, Yale: binyàm) occur when a word's tone becomes a different tone due to a particular context or meaning. The changed tone is the tone of the word when read in a particular lexical or grammatical context, while the base (or underlying) tone is usually the tone of the word when read in citation. In its most common form, it occurs on the final syllable of either a compound word, a reduplicated word, or specific examples of vocatives, especially in direct address to family members.
It usually takes the form of a non-high level, non-mid rising tone (i.e. tones 3, 4, 5, and 6 in Jyutping and Yale; see Cantonese phonology for further information on the tones in Cantonese) transforming into a mid-rising tone (tone 2); in some speakers, this changed tone is slightly lower than the citation mid-rising tone. In speakers with the high falling tone, this may also become the high level tone via the same process. In many speakers, another form of a changed tone used in specific vocatives that may also result in a high level tone (tone 1), rather than in a mid-level tone. It is distinct from tone sandhi, which are automatic modifications of tone created by their phonetic environment, without regard to meaning.
A dial tone is a telephony signal used to indicate that the telephone exchange is working, has recognized an off-hook condition at the telephone, and is ready to accept a call. The tone stops when the first numeral is dialed. If no digits are forthcoming, the permanent signal procedure is invoked, often eliciting a special information tone and a Intercept message.
Early telephone exchanges signaled the switchboard operator when a subscriber picked up the telephone handset to make a call. The operator answered requesting the destination of the call. When manual exchanges were replaced with automated switching systems, the exchange generated a tone played to the caller when the telephone set was placed off-hook, indicating that the system was live and a telephone number could be dialed. Each digit was transmitted as it was dialed which caused the switching system to select the desired destination circuit. Modern electronic telephones may store the digits as they are entered, and only switch off-hook to complete the dialing when the subscriber presses a "call" or "talk" button.
In the United States, dial tone was introduced in the 1940s, and became widespread in the 1950s. When President Dwight D. Eisenhower retired in 1961 it was nearly universal, but the president himself had not been confronted with a dial tone. When he picked up his own household phone his assistant had to explain what the strange noise was, as well as how to use a rotary dial phone.
Before modern electronic telephone switching systems came into use, dial tones were usually generated by electromechanical means; in the United States, the standard "city" dial tone was a 600 Hz tone that was amplitude-modulated at 120 Hz. Some dial tones were simply adapted from 60 Hz AC line current. In the UK, the standard Post Office dialling tone was 33 Hz; it was generated by a motor-driven ringing machine in most exchanges, and by a vibrating-reed generator in the smaller ones. Some later ringing machines also generated a 50 Hz dial tone.
The modern dial tone varies between countries, being a "buzz" of two interfering tones (350 Hz and 440 Hz, as defined in the Precise Tone Plan) in the North American Numbering Plan (most of North America), and a constant single tone (425 Hz) in most of Europe. Modern UK dialling tone is also 350 plus 440 Hz. Modems, fax machines, and auto dialers must be designed to recognise these so-called call-progress tones, as well as comply with differing standards and regulations.
Digital cellular telephone services, such as the GSM system, do not generate dial tones.
In the US the two frequencies of the dial tone correspond to the standard concert pitch of A440, and approximately the "F".
Private or internal PBX or key phone systems also have their own dial tone, sometimes the same as the external PSTN one, and sometimes different to remind users to dial a prefix for—or select in another way—an outside telephone line.
A secondary dial tone, or second dial tone, is a dial tone-like sound presented to the caller after a call has already been set up. Secondary dial tones are often used in call queuing and call forwarding systems.
Unlike a normal dial tone, a secondary dial tone is provided when a connection has already been established and, except for free calls, is being charged for. Systems using secondary dialtone have been criticized for misleading callers into thinking that they are not yet being charged.
A "stuttered" or interrupted dial tone is often used to indicate that voice mail is waiting (see Message Waiting Indicator), or that a calling feature such as call forwarding has been activated.
A "soft" dial tone, less often called "secondary" dial tone or "express" dial tone, is audibly the same as a regular one, except that there is no actual service active on the line, and normal calls cannot be made. It is maintained only so that an attached phone can dial the emergency telephone number (such as 911, 112 or 999), in compliance with the law in most places. It can sometimes call the business office of the local exchange carrier which owns or last leased the line, such as via 6-1-1. Other functions such as ringback or ANAC may also be accessed by technicians in order to facilitate installation or activation.
Often, a new telephone number is assigned to the line so that it can function, but callback is restricted, and end-users do not know the number. These numbers may be outside the normal range used for regular lines, potentially causing trouble when telephone numbering plans are changed.
Deactivated telephone circuits can also be maintained with no dial tone at all, while still connected to and powered by the switch, in a state sometimes called INB or Installation Busy.
Tone numbers are numerical digits used like letters to mark the tones of a language. The number is usually placed after a romanized syllable. Tone numbers are defined for a particular language, so they have little meaning between languages.
Other means of indicating tone in romanization include diacritics, tone letters, and orthographic changes to the consonants or vowels. For instance, in Mandarin, the syllable (which has a falling-rising tone) is represented in Wade-Giles romanization as ma3, with a tone number; in Hanyu Pinyin as mǎ, with a diacritic; and in Gwoyeu Romatzyh as maa, with a change in the vowel.
In the Chinese tradition, numbers, diacritics, and names are assigned to the historical four tones of Chinese. These are consistent across all Chinese dialects, reflecting the development of tone diachronically. However, it is also common to number the tones of a particular dialect independently of the others. For example, Standard Chinese has four–five tones and the digits 1–5 or 0–4 are assigned to them; Cantonese has 6–9 tones, and the digits from 0 or 1 to 6 or 9 are assigned to them. In this case, Mandarin tone 4 has nothing to do with Cantonese tone 4, as can be seen by comparing the tone charts of Standard Chinese (Mandarin), Cantonese, and Taiwanese Hokkien.
Note: Tone sandhi rules and the unstressed syllable of Mandarin are not listed here for simplicity.
To enhance recognition and learning, color has also been associated with the tones. Although there are no formal standards, the de facto standard has been to use red (tone 1), orange (tone 2), green (tone 3), blue (tone 4) and black (tone 5). This color palette has been implemented in translation tools and online dictionaries
Although such numbers are useless in comparative studies, they are convenient for in-dialect descriptions:
Some romanization schemes, like Jyutping, use tone numbers. Even for Pinyin, tone numbers are used instead when diacritics are not available, as in basic ASCII text.
For the numbers of the traditional tone classes, which are consistent between dialects, see four tones (Chinese).
There are many types and formats of CCIR Selcall. For example CCIR 493-4 is a standard format for HF Selcall for Land Mobile applications. CCIR (Consultative Committee on International Radio) functions have largely been taken over by ITU-R. One common type of CCIR selcall used in VHF and UHF FM two-way radio communications, is a 5-tone selective calling system mainly found in some European countries and used by the Swedish Police and the Turkish Police.
The tone duration of a 5 tone CCIR selcall is 100 milliseconds (± 10 ms) and the tones are transmitted sequentially.
Electronics engineering, or electronic engineering, is an engineering discipline where non-linear and active electrical components such as electron tubes, and semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, are utilized to design electronic circuits, devices and systems, typically also including passive electrical components and based on printed circuit boards. The term denotes a broad engineering field that covers important subfields such as analog electronics, digital electronics, consumer electronics, embedded systems and power electronics. Electronics engineering deals with implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within many related fields, for example solid-state physics, radio engineering, telecommunications, control systems, signal processing, systems engineering, computer engineering, instrumentation engineering, electric power control, robotics, and many others.]verification needed[
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is one of the most important and influential organizations for electronics engineers.
A dial tone is a telephony signal used to indicate that the telephone exchange is working, has recognised an off-hook condition at the telephone, and is ready to accept a call. The tone stops when the first numeral is dialed. If no digits are forthcoming, the permanent signal procedure is invoked, often eliciting a special information tone and an Intercept message.
Early telephone exchanges signaled the switchboard operator when a subscriber picked up the telephone handset to make a call. The operator answered requesting the destination of the call. When manual exchanges were replaced with automated switching systems, the exchange generated a tone played to the caller when the telephone set was placed off-hook, indicating that the system was live and a telephone number could be dialed. Each digit was transmitted as it was dialed which caused the switching system to select the desired destination circuit. Modern electronic telephones may store the digits as they are entered, and only switch off-hook to complete the dialing when the subscriber presses a "call" or "talk" button. Telephony
The Samsung Instinct was an Internet-enabled smartphone designed and marketed by Samsung Mobile. It uses a Haptic touchscreen interface, and three touchscreen buttons (pictured at right, from left to right - [back], [home], [phone]). The Instinct, in addition to being a mobile phone, also functions as a camera phone, portable media player, text messenger, and a complete web browser and e-mail client. The email client allows for access to only the main inbox of any associated account - not to any subfolder. The folders for "drafts", "sent", "deleted", and "outbox" represent only messages originating from the phone.
The MP3 player allows users to listen to music while they exchange text messages. It pauses music when the user answers a call. The Instinct supports uploading music into the music library. The phone does not come with MP3 ringtones.