Make sure both devices are in discovery mode. Full instructions are contained in your user manual.
The Olivetti Envision (400/P75) was an Italian multimedia personal computer produced in 1995. It came with a choice of 2 processors: one based on the Intel 486 DX4 100mhz processor and one based on the Intel Pentium P75 processor. It had an infrared keyboard and an internal modem, and it was compatible with audio CDs, CD-ROMs, Photo CDs and Video CDs. It came with preinstalled programs that would allow it work as a fax, an answering machine when connected to the telephone line. It had three possible operating modes: simple mode (limited to the use of an infrared remote control to control the volume and the reproduction of photo, video or audio CDs); intermediate mode (with a simplified Windows shell replacement called Olipilot that gave access to a limited set of programs); advanced (the standard Windows 95 graphical user interface).
The declared goal for this device was to convince non-computer-savvy people that computers are not impossibly hard to use and can be bought and used like normal home appliances. For this reason, it was intentionally designed to resemble a videocassette recorder more than a computer and it was equipped with two SCART sockets (to connect it to a TV set), a TV-like remote control and a slot that would host a satellite decoder card.
The Olivetti Envision was discontinued in 1996 due to poor sales, caused by its excessive price, many software bugs and limited expandability.
is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.
Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which has more than 18,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. Bluetooth was standardized as IEEE 802.15.1
, but the standard is no longer maintained. The SIG oversees the development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. To be marketed as a Bluetooth device, it must be qualified to standards defined by the SIG.]
[ A network of patents is required to implement the technology, which is licensed only for that qualifying device.
The word "Bluetooth" is an anglicized version of the Scandinavian Blåtand
, the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald I of Denmark and parts of Norway who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom. The idea of this name was proposed by Jim Kardach who developed a system that would allow mobile phones to communicate with computers (at the time he was reading Frans Gunnar Bengtsson's historical novel The Long Ships
about Vikings and king Harald Bluetooth). The implication is that Bluetooth does the same with communications protocols, uniting them into one universal standard.
The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune merging the Younger Futhark runes
(Hagall) (ᚼ) and
(Bjarkan) (ᛒ), Harald's initials.
Bluetooth operates in the range of 2400–2483.5 MHz (including guard bands). This is in the globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency band. Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum. The transmitted data is divided into packets and each packet is transmitted on one of the 79 designated Bluetooth channels. Each channel has a bandwidth of 1 MHz. The first channel starts at 2402 MHz and continues up to 2480 MHz in 1 MHz steps. It usually performs 1600 hops per second, with Adaptive Frequency-Hopping (AFH) enabled.
Originally Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK) modulation was the only modulation scheme available; subsequently, since the introduction of Bluetooth 2.0+EDR, π/4-DQPSK and 8DPSK modulation may also be used between compatible devices. Devices functioning with GFSK are said to be operating in basic rate (BR) mode where an instantaneous data rate of 1 Mbit/s is possible. The term Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) is used to describe π/4-DPSK and 8DPSK schemes, each giving 2 and 3 Mbit/s respectively. The combination of these (BR and EDR) modes in Bluetooth radio technology is classified as a "BR/EDR radio".
Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol with a master-slave structure. One master may communicate with up to 7 slaves in a piconet; all devices share the master's clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.5 µs intervals. Two clock ticks make up a slot of 625 µs; two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 µs. In the simple case of single-slot packets the master transmits in even slots and receives in odd slots; the slave, conversely, receives in even slots and transmits in odd slots. Packets may be 1, 3 or 5 slots long but in all cases the master transmit will begin in even slots and the slave transmit in odd slots.
Bluetooth provides a secure way to connect and exchange information between devices such as faxes, mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, digital cameras, and video game consoles. It was principally designed as a low-bandwidth technology.
A master Bluetooth device can communicate with a maximum of seven devices in a piconet (an ad-hoc computer network using Bluetooth technology), though not all devices reach this maximum. The devices can switch roles, by agreement, and the slave can become the master (for example, a headset initiating a connection to a phone will necessarily begin as master, as initiator of the connection; but may subsequently prefer to be slave).
The Bluetooth Core Specification provides for the connection of two or more piconets to form a scatternet, in which certain devices simultaneously play the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another.
At any given time, data can be transferred between the master and one other device (except for the little-used broadcast mode]
[). The master chooses which slave device to address; typically, it switches rapidly from one device to another in a round-robin fashion. Since it is the master that chooses which slave to address, whereas a slave is (in theory) supposed to listen in each receive slot, being a master is a lighter burden than being a slave. Being a master of seven slaves is possible; being a slave of more than one master is difficult.]
[ The specification is vague as to required behavior in scatternets.
Many USB Bluetooth adapters or "dongles" are available, some of which also include an IrDA adapter. Older (pre-2003) Bluetooth dongles, however, have limited capabilities, offering only the Bluetooth Enumerator and a less-powerful Bluetooth Radio incarnation.]
[ Such devices can link computers with Bluetooth with a distance of 100 meters, but they do not offer as many services as modern adapters do.]
Bluetooth is a standard wire-replacement communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent, but effective ranges vary in practice; see table below) based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. Because the devices use a radio (broadcast) communications system, they do not have to be in visual line of sight of each other, however a quasi optical
wireless path must be viable.
The effective range varies due to propagation conditions, material coverage, production sample variations, antenna configurations and battery conditions. In most cases the effective range of Class 2 devices is extended if they connect to a Class 1 transceiver, compared to a pure Class 2 network. This is accomplished by the higher sensitivity and transmission power of Class 1 devices.
While the Bluetooth Core Specification does mandate minima for range, the range of the technology is application specific and is not limited. Manufacturers may tune their implementations to the range needed for individual use cases.
To use Bluetooth wireless technology, a device has to be able to interpret certain Bluetooth profiles, which are definitions of possible applications and specify general behaviors that Bluetooth enabled devices use to communicate with other Bluetooth devices. These profiles include settings to parametrize and to control the communication from start. Adherence to profiles saves the time for transmitting the parameters anew before the bi-directional link becomes effective. There are a wide range of Bluetooth profiles that describe many different types of applications or use cases for devices.
Bluetooth and Wi-Fi (the brand name for products using IEEE 802.11 standards) have some similar applications: setting up networks, printing, or transferring files. Wi-Fi is intended as a replacement for cabling for general local area network access in work areas. This category of applications is sometimes called wireless local area networks (WLAN). Bluetooth was intended for portable equipment and its applications. The category of applications is outlined as the wireless personal area network (WPAN). Bluetooth is a replacement for cabling in a variety of personally carried applications in any setting and also works for fixed location applications such as smart energy functionality in the home (thermostats, etc.).
Wi-Fi is a wireless version of a common wired Ethernet network, and requires configuration to set up shared resources, transmit files, and to set up audio links (for example, headsets and hands-free devices). Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth, but with higher power, resulting in higher bit rates and better range from the base station. The nearest equivalents in Bluetooth are the DUN profile, which allows devices to act as modem interfaces, and the PAN profile, which allows for ad-hoc networking.]
Bluetooth exists in many products, such as telephones, tablets, media players, Lego Mindstorms NXT, PlayStation 3, PS Vita, the Nintendo Wii, and some high definition headsets, modems, and watches. The technology is useful when transferring information between two or more devices that are near each other in low-bandwidth situations. Bluetooth is commonly used to transfer sound data with telephones (i.e., with a Bluetooth headset) or byte data with hand-held computers (transferring files).
Bluetooth protocols simplify the discovery and setup of services between devices. Bluetooth devices can advertise all of the services they provide. This makes using services easier because more of the security, network address and permission configuration can be automated than with many other network types.
A personal computer that does not have embedded Bluetooth can be used with a Bluetooth adapter that will enable the PC to communicate with other Bluetooth devices (such as mobile phones, mouse and keyboards). While some desktop computers and most recent laptops come with a built-in Bluetooth radio, others will require an external one in the form of a dongle.
Unlike its predecessor, IrDA, which requires a separate adapter for each device, Bluetooth allows multiple devices to communicate with a computer over a single adapter.
Apple products have worked with Bluetooth since Mac OS X v10.2 which was released in 2002.
For Microsoft platforms, Windows XP Service Pack 2 and SP3 releases work natively with Bluetooth 1.1, 2.0 and 2.0+EDR. Previous versions required users to install their Bluetooth adapter's own drivers, which were not directly supported by Microsoft. Microsoft's own Bluetooth dongles (packaged with their Bluetooth computer devices) have no external drivers and thus require at least Windows XP Service Pack 2. Windows Vista RTM/SP1 with the Feature Pack for Wireless or Windows Vista SP2 work with Bluetooth 2.1+EDR. Windows 7 works with Bluetooth 2.1+EDR and Extended Inquiry Response (EIR).
The Windows XP and Windows Vista/Windows 7 Bluetooth stacks support the following Bluetooth profiles natively: PAN, SPP, DUN, HID, HCRP. The Windows XP stack can be replaced by a third party stack which may support more profiles or newer versions of Bluetooth. The Windows Vista/Windows 7 Bluetooth stack supports vendor-supplied additional profiles without requiring the Microsoft stack to be replaced.
Linux has two popular Bluetooth stacks, BlueZ and Affix. The BlueZ stack is included with most Linux kernels and was originally developed by Qualcomm. The Affix stack was developed by Nokia. FreeBSD features Bluetooth since its 5.0 release. NetBSD features Bluetooth since its 4.0 release. Its Bluetooth stack has been ported to OpenBSD as well.
A Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone is able to pair with many devices. To ensure the broadest feature functionality together with compatibility with legacy devices, the Open Mobile Terminal Platform (OMTP) forum has published a recommendations paper, entitled "Bluetooth Local Connectivity".
The Bluetooth specification was developed as a cable replacement in 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson, who were working for Ericsson in Lund, Sweden. The specification is based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology.
The specifications were formalized by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The SIG was formally announced on 20 May 1998. Today it has a membership of over 17,000 companies worldwide. It was established by Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba and Nokia, and later joined by many other companies.
All versions of the Bluetooth standards are designed for downward compatibility. That lets the latest standard cover all older versions.
Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had many problems, and manufacturers had difficulty making their products interoperable. Versions 1.0 and 1.0B also included mandatory Bluetooth hardware device address (BD_ADDR) transmission in the Connecting process (rendering anonymity impossible at the protocol level), which was a major setback for certain services planned for use in Bluetooth environments.
This version is backward compatible with 1.1 and the major enhancements include the following:
This version of the Bluetooth Core Specification was released in 2004 and is backward compatible with the previous version 1.2. The main difference is the introduction of an Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) for faster data transfer. The nominal rate of EDR is about 3 Mbit/s, although the practical data transfer rate is 2.1 Mbit/s. EDR uses a combination of GFSK and Phase Shift Keying modulation (PSK) with two variants, π/4-DQPSK and 8DPSK. EDR can provide a lower power consumption through a reduced duty cycle.
The specification is published as "Bluetooth v2.0 + EDR" which implies that EDR is an optional feature. Aside from EDR, there are other minor improvements to the 2.0 specification, and products may claim compliance to "Bluetooth v2.0" without supporting the higher data rate. At least one commercial device states "Bluetooth v2.0 without EDR" on its data sheet.
Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2.1 + EDR is fully backward compatible with 1.2, and was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on 26 July 2007.
The headline feature of 2.1 is secure simple pairing (SSP): this improves the pairing experience for Bluetooth devices, while increasing the use and strength of security. See the section on Pairing below for more details.
2.1 allows various other improvements, including "Extended inquiry response" (EIR), which provides more information during the inquiry procedure to allow better filtering of devices before connection; and sniff subrating, which reduces the power consumption in low-power mode.
Version 3.0 + HS of the Bluetooth Core Specification was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on 21 April 2009. Bluetooth 3.0+HS provides theoretical data transfer speeds of up to 24 Mbit/s,
though not over the Bluetooth link itself. Instead, the Bluetooth link is used for negotiation and establishment, and the high data rate traffic is carried over a collocated 802.11 link.
The main new feature is AMP (Alternate MAC/PHY), the addition of 802.11 as a high speed transport. The High-Speed part of the specification is not mandatory, and hence only devices sporting the "+HS" will actually support the Bluetooth over 802.11 high-speed data transfer. A Bluetooth 3.0 device without the "+HS" suffix will not support High Speed, and needs to only support a feature introduced in Core Specification Version 3.0 or earlier Core Specification Addendum 1.
The high speed (AMP) feature of Bluetooth v3.0 was originally intended for UWB, but the WiMedia Alliance, the body responsible for the flavor of UWB intended for Bluetooth, announced in March 2009 that it was disbanding, and ultimately UWB was omitted from the Core v3.0 specification.
On 16 March 2009, the WiMedia Alliance announced it was entering into technology transfer agreements for the WiMedia Ultra-wideband (UWB) specifications. WiMedia has transferred all current and future specifications, including work on future high speed and power optimized implementations, to the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), Wireless USB Promoter Group and the USB Implementers Forum. After the successful completion of the technology transfer, marketing and related administrative items, the WiMedia Alliance will cease operations.
In October 2009 the Bluetooth Special Interest Group suspended development of UWB as part of the alternative MAC/PHY, Bluetooth v3.0 + HS solution. A small, but significant, number of former WiMedia members had not and would not sign up to the necessary agreements for the IP transfer. The Bluetooth SIG is now in the process of evaluating other options for its longer term roadmap.
The Bluetooth SIG completed the Bluetooth Core Specification version 4.0 and has been adopted as of 30 June 2010. It includes Classic Bluetooth
, Bluetooth high speed
and Bluetooth low energy
protocols. Bluetooth high speed is based on Wi-Fi, and Classic Bluetooth consists of legacy Bluetooth protocols.
Bluetooth low energy (BLE), previously known as WiBree, is a subset of Bluetooth v4.0 with an entirely new protocol stack for rapid build-up of simple links. As an alternative to the Bluetooth standard protocols that were introduced in Bluetooth v1.0 to v3.0, it is aimed at very low power applications running off a coin cell. Chip designs allow for two types of implementation, dual-mode, single-mode and enhanced past versions. The provisional names Wibree
and Bluetooth ULP
(Ultra Low Power) were abandoned and the BLE name was used for a while. In late 2011, new logos “Bluetooth Smart Ready” for hosts and “Bluetooth Smart” for sensors were introduced as the general-public face of BLE.
Cost-reduced single-mode chips, which enable highly integrated and compact devices, feature a lightweight Link Layer providing ultra-low power idle mode operation, simple device discovery, and reliable point-to-multipoint data transfer with advanced power-save and secure encrypted connections at the lowest possible cost.
General improvements in version 4.0 include the changes necessary to facilitate BLE modes, as well the Generic Attribute Profile (GATT) and Security Manager (SM) services with AES Encryption.
Core Specification Addendum 2 was unveiled in December 2011; it contains improvements to the audio Host Controller Interface and to the High Speed (802.11) Protocol Adaptation Layer.
Bluetooth is defined as a layer protocol architecture consisting of core protocols, cable replacement protocols, telephony control protocols, and adopted protocols. Mandatory protocols for all Bluetooth stacks are: LMP, L2CAP and SDP. In addition, devices that communicate with Bluetooth almost universally can use these protocols: HCI and RFCOMM.
The Link Management Protocol
(LMP) is used for set-up and control of the radio link between two devices. Implemented on the controller.
A/V Remote Control Profile. Commonly used in car navigation systems to control streaming Bluetooth audio. Adopted versions 1.0, 1.3 & 1.4
The Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol
(L2CAP) Used to multiplex multiple logical connections between two devices using different higher level protocols. Provides segmentation and reassembly of on-air packets.
mode, L2CAP provides packets with a payload configurable up to 64 kB, with 672 bytes as the default MTU, and 48 bytes as the minimum mandatory supported MTU.
In Retransmission and Flow Control
modes, L2CAP can be configured either for isochronous data or reliable data per channel by performing retransmissions and CRC checks.
Bluetooth Core Specification Addendum 1 adds two additional L2CAP modes to the core specification. These modes effectively deprecate original Retransmission and Flow Control modes:
Reliability in any of these modes is optionally and/or additionally guaranteed by the lower layer Bluetooth BDR/EDR air interface by configuring the number of retransmissions and flush timeout (time after which the radio will flush packets). In-order sequencing is guaranteed by the lower layer.
Only L2CAP channels configured in ERTM or SM may be operated over AMP logical links.
The Service Discovery Protocol
(SDP) allows a device to discover services offered by other devices, and their associated parameters. For example, when you use a mobile phone with a Bluetooth headset, the phone uses SDP to determine which Bluetooth profiles the headset can use (Headset Profile, Hands Free Profile, Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP) etc.) and the protocol multiplexer settings needed for the phone to connect to the headset using each of them. Each service is identified by a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID), with official services (Bluetooth profiles) assigned a short form UUID (16 bits rather than the full 128).
Radio Frequency Communications
(RFCOMM) is a cable replacement protocol used to create a virtual serial data stream. RFCOMM provides for binary data transport and emulates EIA-232 (formerly RS-232) control signals over the Bluetooth baseband layer, i.e. it is a serial port emulation.
RFCOMM provides a simple reliable data stream to the user, similar to TCP. It is used directly by many telephony related profiles as a carrier for AT commands, as well as being a transport layer for OBEX over Bluetooth.
Many Bluetooth applications use RFCOMM because of its widespread support and publicly available API on most operating systems. Additionally, applications that used a serial port to communicate can be quickly ported to use RFCOMM.
The Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol
(BNEP) is used for transferring another protocol stack's data via an L2CAP channel. Its main purpose is the transmission of IP packets in the Personal Area Networking Profile. BNEP performs a similar function to SNAP in Wireless LAN.
The Audio/Video Control Transport Protocol
(AVCTP) is used by the remote control profile to transfer AV/C commands over an L2CAP channel. The music control buttons on a stereo headset use this protocol to control the music player.
The Audio/Video Distribution Transport Protocol
(AVDTP) is used by the advanced audio distribution profile to stream music to stereo headsets over an L2CAP channel. Intended to be used by video distribution profile in the bluetooth transmission.
The Telephony Control Protocol – Binary
(TCS BIN) is the bit-oriented protocol that defines the call control signaling for the establishment of voice and data calls between Bluetooth devices. Additionally, "TCS BIN defines mobility management procedures for handling groups of Bluetooth TCS devices."
TCS-BIN is only used by the cordless telephony profile, which failed to attract implementers. As such it is only of historical interest.
Adopted protocols are defined by other standards-making organizations and incorporated into Bluetooth’s protocol stack, allowing Bluetooth to create protocols only when necessary. The adopted protocols include:
Depending on packet type, individual packets may be protected by error correction, either 1/3 rate forward error correction (FEC) or 2/3 rate. In addition, packets with CRC will be retransmitted until acknowledged by automatic repeat request (ARQ).
Any Bluetooth device in discoverable mode
will transmit the following information on demand:
Any device may perform an inquiry to find other devices to connect to, and any device can be configured to respond to such inquiries. However, if the device trying to connect knows the address of the device, it always responds to direct connection requests and transmits the information shown in the list above if requested. Use of a device's services may require pairing or acceptance by its owner, but the connection itself can be initiated by any device and held until it goes out of range. Some devices can be connected to only one device at a time, and connecting to them prevents them from connecting to other devices and appearing in inquiries until they disconnect from the other device.
Every device has a unique 48-bit address. However, these addresses are generally not shown in inquiries. Instead, friendly Bluetooth names are used, which can be set by the user. This name appears when another user scans for devices and in lists of paired devices.
Most phones have the Bluetooth name set to the manufacturer and model of the phone by default. Most phones and laptops show only the Bluetooth names and special programs are required to get additional information about remote devices. This can be confusing as, for example, there could be several phones in range named T610 (see Bluejacking).
Many of the services offered over Bluetooth can expose private data or allow the connecting party to control the Bluetooth device. For security reasons it is necessary to be able to recognize specific devices and thus enable control over which devices are allowed to connect to a given Bluetooth device. At the same time, it is useful for Bluetooth devices to be able to establish a connection without user intervention (for example, as soon as they are in range).
To resolve this conflict, Bluetooth uses a process called bonding
, and a bond is created through a process called pairing
. The pairing process is triggered either by a specific request from a user to create a bond (for example, the user explicitly requests to "Add a Bluetooth device"), or it is triggered automatically when connecting to a service where (for the first time) the identity of a device is required for security purposes. These two cases are referred to as dedicated bonding and general bonding respectively.
Pairing often involves some level of user interaction; this user interaction is the basis for confirming the identity of the devices. Once pairing successfully completes, a bond will have been formed between the two devices, enabling those two devices to connect to each other in the future without requiring the pairing process in order to confirm the identity of the devices. When desired, the bonding relationship can later be removed by the user.
During the pairing process, the two devices involved establish a relationship by creating a shared secret known as a link key
. If a link key is stored by both devices they are said to be paired
. A device that wants to communicate only with a bonded device can cryptographically authenticate the identity of the other device, and so be sure that it is the same device it previously paired with. Once a link key has been generated, an authenticated Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL) link between the devices may be encrypted so that the data that they exchange over the airwaves is protected against eavesdropping.
Link keys can be deleted at any time by either device. If done by either device this will implicitly remove the bonding between the devices; so it is possible for one of the devices to have a link key stored but not be aware that it is no longer bonded to the device associated with the given link key.
Bluetooth services generally require either encryption or authentication, and as such require pairing before they allow a remote device to use the given service. Some services, such as the Object Push Profile, elect not to explicitly require authentication or encryption so that pairing does not interfere with the user experience associated with the service use-cases.
Pairing mechanisms have changed significantly with the introduction of Secure Simple Pairing in Bluetooth v2.1. The following summarizes the pairing mechanisms:
SSP is considered simple for the following reasons:
Prior to Bluetooth v2.1, encryption is not required and can be turned off at any time. Moreover, the encryption key is only good for approximately 23.5 hours; using a single encryption key longer than this time allows simple XOR attacks to retrieve the encryption key.
Link keys may be stored on the device file system, not on the Bluetooth chip itself. Many Bluetooth chip manufacturers allow link keys to be stored on the device; however, if the device is removable this means that the link key will move with the device.
The protocol operates in the license-free ISM band at 2.402–2.480 GHz. To avoid interfering with other protocols that use the 2.45 GHz band, the Bluetooth protocol divides the band into 79 channels (each 1 MHz wide) and changes channels, generally 1600 times per second. Implementations with versions 1.1 and 1.2 reach speeds of 723.1 kbit/s. Version 2.0 implementations feature Bluetooth Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) and reach 2.1 Mbit/s. Technically, version 2.0 devices have a higher power consumption, but the three times faster rate reduces the transmission times, effectively reducing power consumption to half that of 1.x devices (assuming equal traffic load).
Bluetooth implements confidentiality, authentication and key derivation with custom algorithms based on the SAFER+ block cipher. Bluetooth key generation is generally based on a Bluetooth PIN, which must be entered into both devices. This procedure might be modified if one of the devices has a fixed PIN (e.g., for headsets or similar devices with a restricted user interface). During pairing, an initialization key or master key is generated, using the E22 algorithm. The E0 stream cipher is used for encrypting packets, granting confidentiality, and is based on a shared cryptographic secret, namely a previously generated link key or master key. Those keys, used for subsequent encryption of data sent via the air interface, rely on the Bluetooth PIN, which has been entered into one or both devices.
An overview of Bluetooth vulnerabilities exploits was published in 2007 by Andreas Becker.
In September 2008, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) published a Guide to Bluetooth Security that will serve as reference to organizations on the security capabilities of Bluetooth and steps for securing Bluetooth technologies effectively. While Bluetooth has its benefits, it is susceptible to denial-of-service attacks, eavesdropping, man-in-the-middle attacks, message modification, and resource misappropriation. Users/organizations must evaluate their acceptable level of risk and incorporate security into the lifecycle of Bluetooth devices. To help mitigate risks, included in the NIST document are security checklists with guidelines and recommendations for creating and maintaining secure Bluetooth piconets, headsets, and smart card readers.
Bluetooth v2.1 – finalized in 2007 with consumer devices first appearing in 2009 – makes significant changes to Bluetooth's security, including pairing. See the pairing mechanisms section for more about these changes.
Bluejacking is the sending of either a picture or a message from one user to an unsuspecting user through Bluetooth
wireless technology. Common applications include short messages (e.g., "You’ve just been bluejacked!"). Bluejacking does not involve the removal or alteration of any data from the device. Bluejacking can also involve taking control of a mobile device wirelessly and phoning a premium rate line, owned by the bluejacker.
In 2001, Jakobsson and Wetzel from Bell Laboratories discovered flaws in the Bluetooth pairing protocol and also pointed to vulnerabilities in the encryption scheme. In 2003, Ben and Adam Laurie from A.L. Digital Ltd. discovered that serious flaws in some poor implementations of Bluetooth security may lead to disclosure of personal data. In a subsequent experiment, Martin Herfurt from the trifinite.group was able to do a field-trial at the CeBIT fairgrounds, showing the importance of the problem to the world. A new attack called BlueBug was used for this experiment. In 2004 the first purported virus using Bluetooth to spread itself among mobile phones appeared on the Symbian OS. The virus was first described by Kaspersky Lab and requires users to confirm the installation of unknown software before it can propagate. The virus was written as a proof-of-concept by a group of virus writers known as "29A" and sent to anti-virus groups. Thus, it should be regarded as a potential (but not real) security threat to Bluetooth technology or Symbian OS since the virus has never spread outside of this system. In August 2004, a world-record-setting experiment (see also Bluetooth sniping) showed that the range of Class 2 Bluetooth radios could be extended to 1.78 km (1.11 mi) with directional antennas and signal amplifiers. This poses a potential security threat because it enables attackers to access vulnerable Bluetooth devices from a distance beyond expectation. The attacker must also be able to receive information from the victim to set up a connection. No attack can be made against a Bluetooth device unless the attacker knows its Bluetooth address and which channels to transmit on.
In January 2005, a mobile malware worm known as Lasco.A began targeting mobile phones using Symbian OS (Series 60 platform) using Bluetooth enabled devices to replicate itself and spread to other devices. The worm is self-installing and begins once the mobile user approves the transfer of the file (velasco.sis) from another device. Once installed, the worm begins looking for other Bluetooth enabled devices to infect. Additionally, the worm infects other .SIS files on the device, allowing replication to another device through use of removable media (Secure Digital, Compact Flash, etc.). The worm can render the mobile device unstable.
In April 2005, Cambridge University security researchers published results of their actual implementation of passive attacks against the PIN-based pairing between commercial Bluetooth devices, confirming the attacks to be practicably fast and the Bluetooth symmetric key establishment method to be vulnerable. To rectify this vulnerability, they carried out an implementation which showed that stronger, asymmetric key establishment is feasible for certain classes of devices, such as mobile phones.
In June 2005, Yaniv Shaked and Avishai Wool published a paper describing both passive and active methods for obtaining the PIN for a Bluetooth link. The passive attack allows a suitably equipped attacker to eavesdrop on communications and spoof, if the attacker was present at the time of initial pairing. The active method makes use of a specially constructed message that must be inserted at a specific point in the protocol, to make the master and slave repeat the pairing process. After that, the first method can be used to crack the PIN. This attack's major weakness is that it requires the user of the devices under attack to re-enter the PIN during the attack when the device prompts them to. Also, this active attack probably requires custom hardware, since most commercially available Bluetooth devices are not capable of the timing necessary.
In August 2005, police in Cambridgeshire, England, issued warnings about thieves using Bluetooth enabled phones to track other devices left in cars. Police are advising users to ensure that any mobile networking connections are de-activated if laptops and other devices are left in this way.
In April 2006, researchers from Secure Network and F-Secure published a report that warns of the large number of devices left in a visible state, and issued statistics on the spread of various Bluetooth services and the ease of spread of an eventual Bluetooth worm.
In October 2007, at the Luxemburgish Hack.lu Security Conference, Kevin Finistere and Thierry Zoller demonstrated and released a remote root shell via Bluetooth on Mac OS X v10.3.9 and v10.4. They also demonstrated the first Bluetooth PIN and Linkkeys cracker, which is based on the research of Wool and Shaked.
Bluetooth uses the microwave radio frequency spectrum in the 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz range. Maximum power output from a Bluetooth radio is 100 mW for class 1, 2.5 mW for class 2, and 1 mW for class 3 devices. Even the maximum power output of class 1 is a lower level than the lowest powered mobile phones. UMTS & W-CDMA outputs 250 mW, GSM1800/1900 outputs 1000 mW, and GSM850/900 outputs 2000 mW.
Innovation World Cup, a marketing initiative of the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), is an international competition encouraging the development of innovations for applications leveraging the Bluetooth
low energy wireless technology in sports, fitness and health care products. The aim of the competition is to stimulate new markets. The initiative will take three years, having started 1 June 2009.
Bluetooth Innovation World Cup 2009
The first international Bluetooth
Innovation World Cup 2009 drew more than 250 international entries, including Nokia, Freescale Semiconductor, Texas Instruments, Nordic Semiconductor, STMicroelectronics and Brunel.
Bluetooth Innovator of the Year 2009
On 8 February 2010, Edward Sazonov, Physical Activity Innovations LLC, was awarded the title of Bluetooth
Innovator of the Year for 2009. Sazonov received this recognition at a ceremony held at the Wearable Technologies Show at ispo 2010, a trade show for sporting goods. The award includes a cash prize of €5,000 and a Bluetooth
Qualification Program voucher (QDID) valued at up to US$ 10,000. Sazonov’s idea, The Fit Companion, is a small, unobtrusive sensor that, when clipped-on to a user’s clothing or integrated into a shoe, provides feedback about physical activity. The data, transmitted via Bluetooth, can help individuals to lose weight and achieve optimal physical activity. Intended for use in both training and daily activities like walking or performing chores, this simple measuring device may offer a solution for reducing obesity.
Bluetooth Innovation World Cup 2010
The Bluetooth SIG announced the start of the second Innovation World Cup on 1 June 2010, with a focus on applications for the sports & fitness, health care, and home information and control markets. The competition closed for registration on 15 September 2010.
The Chevrolet Tahoe (and very similar GMC Yukon) are full-size SUVs from General Motors. Chevrolet and GMC sold two different-sized SUVs under their Blazer/Jimmy model names through the early 1990s. This situation changed when GMC rebadged the full-size Jimmy as the Yukon in 1992. Chevrolet waited until 1995 to rebadge the redesigned mid-size S-10 Blazer as the Blazer, renaming the full-size Blazer as the Tahoe. The Tahoe and Yukon gained a new 4-door model slotting in size between the 2-door models and the longer wheelbase and higher passenger capacity Chevrolet Suburban and newly named Yukon XL.
The Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon currently serve as a part of General Motors' full-size SUV family. Lengthened wheelbase models are available for both as the Suburban for Chevrolet and Yukon XL for GMC. A luxury Denali model joined the Yukon lineup in 1998. As of 2002, a Denali version of the Yukon XL has also been available as the Yukon XL Denali. The Cadillac Escalade is closely related to the Denali models of the Yukon.
The new GMC Yukon was introduced for 1992, while Chevrolet continued calling their version the Blazer. All were 2-door models through 1994. In 1995 the Chevy changed the name of the Blazer to Tahoe and introduced a 4-door version. The Tahoe was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 1996.
The Tahoe/Yukon were shorter than the Suburban on which they were based, but shared that vehicle's GMT400 platform. This was a true truck chassis, and was based on that used in the Chevrolet Silverado full-size pickup truck. Both two-door and four-door models were produced, as well as rear- and four-wheel drive. The two-door weighs roughly 4,500 lb (2,041 kg) while the four-door weighs approximately 5,500 lb (2,495 kg). "AutoTrac" full-time all-wheel drive and a programmable Homelink transmitter were added for 1998. The upscale Denali trim line to the Yukon appeared around this time as the vehicles became popular with wealthy families.
The standard engine was Chevrolet's 5.7 L (350 cu in) LO5 small-block V8, while a turbocharged 6.5 L (395 cu in) Detroit Diesel V8 was available beginning in 1994.
In Mexico, the Tahoe 2-door was released in 1995, called the Chevrolet Silverado, and in 1998 the 4-door was released as the Silverado 4-door, and both were available in Base, LS and luxury LT trim lines. In Venezuela, the Tahoe 2-door was released in 1993 (Only 4WD), called the Chevrolet Grand Blazer, and in 1996 the 4-door was released as the Grand Blazer 4-door (2WD). In 1996 the 2 Doors was discontinued. In 1996 only Grand Blazer 4-doors 4WD is available. In Bolivia, 1995 the 4-door was released as the Tahoe 4-door (4WD) build in USA.
It was released in 1992 in Europe.
Beginning in 1994, GM began making numerous annual changes to the Blazer/Yukon, including:
When the GMT800 platform based Chevrolet Tahoe/GMC Yukon was released for the 2000 model year, a 2WD Tahoe Limited and 4WD Tahoe Z71 remained in production on the GMT400 platform as special edition vehicles. These special edition vehicles were produced in the Arlington, Texas assembly plant for the 2000 model year only.
The Chevrolet Tahoe Limited was based on the Chevrolet Tahoe SS concept vehicle introduced in 1996 that never made it to production. It is reported that GM disliked the idea of an SS badged vehicle at a time when insurance companies were already demanding higher premiums for SUVs. The Tahoe SS prototype vehicles made in 1996 were painted either an unspecified metallic green or metallic blue, but the Tahoe Limited was produced only in black onyx metallic. The Tahoe Limited had a distinctive exterior appearance that included a factory equipped ground effects, a monochromatic theme with bumpers and grille painted in the same high gloss black as the body, removal of the roof rack, and fog lamps integrated into the front bumper. Other notable features of the Tahoe Limited included the Z60 high-performance chassis package (commonly known as the police package) which places the body of the vehicle 2 in (51 mm) lower than the 4WD Tahoe, two tone gray and charcoal leather interior seating surfaces, a 120 mph (190 km/h) gauge cluster, 46 mm (1.8 in) Bilstein shock absorbers, a 3.42 or optional 3.73 rear gear ratio, a limited slip rear differential, an engine oil cooling system, and distinctive 16 in Ronal R36 five-spoke aluminum wheels.
The Chevrolet Tahoe Z71 also exhibited a monochromatic appearance similar to the Tahoe Limited, but instead of black onyx metallic the Tahoe Z71 was offered in either light pewter metallic, victory red, emerald green metallic, or indigo blue metallic. Features of the Tahoe Z71 were similar to those of the Tahoe Limited with a few key differences to distinguish the 2WD Tahoe Limited from the 4WD Tahoe Z71. Features that differ from those previously mentioned on the Tahoe Limited included the Z71 off road chassis package (3/4 ton suspension/springs, 46 mm (1.8 in) Bilstein shock absorbers, a standard 3.73 rear gear ratio G80 locking differential), body colored wheel flares, trim, grille and bumpers, inset driving lights built into the center of the front bumper), oversized two row radiator, two tone leather seating surfaces in either a gray or neutral theme, distinctive tail lamp lens covers, black tubular side assist step bars, black brush guard, and distinctive 16 inch Alcoa five spoke 6 bolt polished aluminum wheels.
The L31 5.7 L Vortec V8 powerplant and 4L60E four-speed automatic transmission shared with other GMT400 Chevrolet Tahoe vehicles were not modified in these special edition vehicles, and as such these special editions were mostly appearance packages.][
Other than the Tahoe Limited Edition, the vehicle was redesigned for the 2000 model year on the new GMT800 platform, still shared with the full-sized pickups. Two new engines replaced the old 5.7 L (350 cu in) small-block V8, and while both were smaller, both produced more power. The manual transmission was dropped, leaving only the automatic transmission. In Mexico, the GMT800 Chevy Tahoe is called a Chevrolet Sonora. A 2-door GMT800 Tahoe prototype was made but never entered production.
Both vehicles received significant updates with only the grille and headlights distinguishing one from the other. Both vehicles now featured softer lines as part of a more aerodynamic design. The interior was also updated with new seats, dashboard, and door panels.
"StabiliTrak" stability control was offered for the first time in 2003, as were XM Satellite Radio, Bose audio, and a DVD entertainment system as the models continued to climb upmarket. Both engines received 10 hp (7 kW) more for 2003 and 2004. The Flex Fuel engine became available first in the 2002 model.
General Motors redesigned the Tahoe and Yukon on the new GMT900 platform in late 2005 as a 2007 model. A hybrid version of the Yukon, which uses the shared GM/Chrysler Advanced Hybrid System 2, followed with the 2008 models. The GMT900 based Tahoe and Yukon exceeded initial sales expectations and continue to sell well despite a weakening market for large SUVs. For the first time, GM used the Tahoe name in Mexico.
For 2007 the GMC Yukon and Chevrolet Tahoe received different front fascias and hood. The GMC Yukon features a monolithic grille and headlights, while the Chevrolet Tahoe grille is divided by a body colored bar similar to the chrome bar found on most GMT800 Tahoes. While the Tahoe's hood now features a design attribute][ obtruding from its otherwise smooth contour, the Yukon features a smooth hood with two slight curves on both sides of the hood. Both the new Yukon and Tahoe feature a more angular design that gives the vehicles a more upscale appearance. The interior was significantly redesigned as well. It features a new real wooded trim dashboard with new chrome accented instrument controls. New door panels as well as new seats were also added to the interior.
Short-wheelbase and police Tahoe production began at Arlington Assembly on December 1, 2005.][ SWB Yukon production began in early 2006, with Janesville Assembly coming on line as well. Long-wheelbase versions began at Janesville and Silao Assembly in March.
Highway mileage has improved from 19 mpg-US (12 L/100 km; 23 mpg-imp) to 21 to 22 mpg-US (11 to 11 L/100 km; 25 to 26 mpg-imp) with the addition of Active Fuel Management cylinder deactivation. Both the old and new versions get 15 to 16 mpg-US (16 to 15 L/100 km; 18 to 19 mpg-imp) in town.][
The 2007 Tahoe was featured on, and promoted through Donald Trump's The Apprentice, where the two teams put together a show for the top General Motors employees to learn about the new Tahoe. Also, The Apprentice sponsored an online contest where entrants could create their own commercial for the new Tahoe.
For 2009, the 6.2 L engine in the Yukon Denali got a power increase to 403 hp (301 kW), while a 395 hp (295 kW) 6.2 L was added as an option for the Tahoe LTZ. A 6-speed 6L80 automatic transmission replaced the 4-speed on all trucks except 2WD models with the 4.8 L engine.
2010 models underwent a mild mid-cycle refresh including a slightly raised bumper, revised door trim, improved side structure, and side torso air bags.
For 2012, the companion, the GMC Yukon, underwent minor changes: the SLE and SLT grades were discontinued, in favor of appearance packages.
The Chevrolet Tahoe, Chevrolet Suburban, GMC Yukon, GMC Yukon XL, Cadillac Escalade, and Cadillac Escalade ESV will have a shortened 2014 model year starting in June 2013, and will be replaced with a new version beginning in the first quarter of 2014 as a 2015 model. The 2015 Tahoe/Yukon will be based on the next-generation Chevrolet Silverado, which was introduced in May 2013. Rumor was that the vehicles could go to monocoque crossovers; those were shelved, as General Motors plans to add to the traditional body-on-frame truck-based SUV, as the 2012 Chevrolet Colorado-based Trailblazer is debuting in 2013 for international markets, and the Colorado debuting in 2013 for North America, and truck owners wanting a smaller truck-based SUV, instead of the monocoque crossover.
The GMC Denali nameplate started as the luxury version of the Yukon for the 1998 model year. The Denali trim is as in the GMC Envoy available on both standard and XL versions.
In 1998, at the time of its introduction, the Yukon Denali was GM's answer to the Lincoln Navigator, but then GM introduced a clone to the Yukon Denali and rebadged it "Escalade" under the Cadillac nameplate. The Yukon Denali's exterior was shared with the Cadillac Escalade, with the entire front clip and lower side body panels differing from the standard Yukon. In the interior, however, the Denali features luxury options not available in the Yukon. These included an upgraded leather interior, power seats, heated seats front and rear, Bose stereo system, and some woodgrain on the dashboard.
Even though the Yukon was redesigned alongside the Chevrolet Suburban and Tahoe in 2000, the Denali and Escalade retained their 1990s base design. It was not until 2001 that the Denali and Escalade were redesigned. While the Escalade departed from its Yukon based exterior design scheme in attempt to hide its roots, the Yukon Denali's exterior is almost the same as that of a post-2000 GMT400 model year Yukon. Embossed side body panels and slightly reworked headlights with projector-beam lenses along with 17" polished wheels and different grille and front bumper differentiate the Yukon Denali from the regular Yukon. 2001 also saw the introduction of the billet grille which now has become the hallmark of the Denali nameplate.
The Yukon Denali was redesigned for the 2007 model year alongside the regular mainstream Yukon. The biggest change was in the styling, such as the flattened tailgate reminiscent of the new Tahoe, and particularly the grill and headlight shapes, which made the Yukon look less aggressive than previous models. The only exterior difference between the Yukon Denali and the standard Yukon are the chrome grille and extensive use of chrome accents; and of course the insignias, embeveled rockerpanels, chromed headlights and the Vortec 6200 engine which it shares with the Cadillac Escalade.
The Tahoe made its hybrid electric debut in fall 2007. In January, 2008, starting price was US$50,540. The starting price of the 2009 model was increased to US$51,405.
The Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid uses a combination of its dual displacement 3.0/6.0 L V8 engine and two 60 kW (80 hp) (continuous) electric motors that charge a 300-volt nickel-metal hydride battery. The vehicle can run on either gasoline, electricity or a mixture of the two using automatic Two-Mode Hybrid system that monitors the vehicle's torque, and state of the battery to choose the most efficient source of power. The battery is charged either directly by generating electricity through driving one or both electric motors using the gasoline engine (while the vehicle is coasting or being driven by the gasoline engine), or by the wheels driving one or both electric motors through what is called "Regenerative braking" when the vehicle is decelerating, thus regaining some of the energy invested in forward momentum. The Tahoe is considered a strong or full hybrid, in that it can run entirely on the battery (for a limited range) at low speeds. In city driving, the EPA rating of fuel consumption for the 2WD version of the hybrid is 21 mpg-US (11 L/100 km; 25 mpg-imp). In comparison, non-hybrid varieties of the Tahoe are rated no higher than 15 mpg-US (16 L/100 km; 18 mpg-imp) in city driving. In highway driving, the EPA rating is 22 mpg-US (11 L/100 km; 26 mpg-imp).
The 2007 Tahoe was featured on and promoted through Donald Trump's TV series, The Apprentice, where the two teams put together a show for the top General Motors employees to learn about the new Tahoe. Also, The Apprentice sponsored an online contest in which anyone could create a commercial for the new Tahoe by entering text captions into the provided video clips; the winner's ad would air on national television. This viral marketing campaign initially appeared to backfire however, when hundreds of environmentally conscious parodies flooded YouTube and Chevy's website critiquing the vehicle for its low gas mileage. Over 400 negative ads were created in total, however over 20,000 positive ads were created making the campaign, according to Chevrolet, a success, despite the negative media attention.
In Brazil the Tahoe GMT400 was sold under the name of "Grand Blazer". The GMT400 is used by Brazilian elite police units, such as the BOPE (Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais) in Rio de Janeiro and the ROTA (Rondas Ostensivas Tobias de Aguiar) and GATE (Grupo de Ações Taticas Especiais) in São Paulo. It is also used by the São Paulo State Police and the Rio Grande do Sul State Police. But as the cars grew old, the great majority of them were substituted, mainly by smaller Chevrolet Blazers, the only midsize SUV currently offered by GM in Brazil. The Tahoe name was most likely not used in Brazil because it comes from the name of a lake in Nevada and California, which would be unfamiliar to most Brazilians.
In North America, the Tahoe is used by many law enforcement agencies, fire departments, and EMS agencies. During the 1997 model year, the Tahoe was offered with the 9C1 police option using suspension components from the discontinued 454SS truck - the first Tahoe 9C1s were available only in 2WD until the GMT400 was phased out. Plans for outfitting the Tahoe with the 9C1 police package originated around the 1994 model year when GM broke news about phasing out its B-platform sedans (Caprice, Impala SS, Roadmaster) at the end of the 1996 model year where a replacement was imminent since GM ended production of its body-on-frame passenger sedans due to SUV sales. Since the introduction of the GMT900, Chevrolet currently offers two versions of the police package Tahoe; a four-wheel-drive version and a two-wheel-drive version.
Chevrolet refers to the four-wheel drive (4WD) version as "Special Service Vehicle" (SSV). This version of the Tahoe can be used for all purposes except pursuits and high speed responses due to its high center of gravity, thus having a higher probability of rolling-over at high speeds. This version is preferred by agencies where snow, ice, flooding, rough terrain, and ground clearance are common issues.
Chevrolet refers to the two-wheel drive (2WD) version - also known as the rear-wheel drive (RWD) version - as "Police Pursuit Vehicle" (PPV). This version of the Tahoe can be used for all purposes including pursuits and high speed responses. The center of gravity in this vehicle is lower than that of the four-wheel-drive version and the ground clearance is about 1 in (25 mm) less, with a standard rear bumper replacing the tow hitch on civilian Tahoes. Highway patrol agencies prefer the two-wheel-drive version, where pursuits and long distance responses are more common. It should be noted that the two-wheel-drive Chevrolet Tahoe is the only pursuit-rated SUV on the market today, and as of the 2012 model year, the last body-on-frame, rear-wheel drive police vehicle manufactured for the United States market since Ford phased out its aging Panther platform. Other SUVs like the Ford Expedition are used by many law enforcement and EMS agencies, but are not pursuit rated.
Cabir (also known as Caribe, SybmOS/Cabir, Symbian/Cabir and EPOC.cabir) is the name of a computer worm developed in 2004 that is designed to infect mobile phones running Symbian OS. It is believed to be the first computer worm that can infect mobile phones. When a phone is infected with Cabir, the message "Caribe" is displayed on the phone's display, and is displayed every time the phone is turned on. The worm then attempts to spread to other phones in the area using wireless Bluetooth signals.
The worm was not sent out into the wild, but sent directly to anti-virus firms, who believe Cabir in its current state is harmless. However, it does prove that mobile phones are also at risk from virus writers. Experts also believe that the worm was developed by a group who call themselves 29A, a group of international hackers, as a "proof of concept" worm in order to catch world attention.
The worm can attack and replicate on Bluetooth enabled Series 60 phones. The worm tries to send itself to all Bluetooth enabled devices that support the "Object Push Profile", which can also be non-Symbian phones, desktop computers or even printers. Symantec reports that the worm spreads as a .SIS file installed in the Apps directory. Cabir does not spread if the user does not accept the file-transfer or does not agree with the installation, though some older phones would keep on displaying popups, as Cabir re-sent itself, rendering the UI useless until yes is clicked. F-Secure reports that some phones, at least, warn the user about an unverified supplier. So, like many other worms, this sample also needs a good portion of social engineering to reach its goal.
While the worm is considered harmless because it replicates but does not perform any other activity, it will result in shortened battery life on portable devices due to constant scanning for other Bluetooth enabled devices.
Mabir, a variant of Cabir, is capable of spreading not only via Bluetooth but also via MMS. By sending out copies of itself as a .sis file over cellular networks, it can affect even users who are outside the 10m range of Bluetooth.
Bluechat is a direct text chat between two or more users, where every participant uses a bluetooth device (i.e. a modern mobile phone or a PDA) and names it (it will be the user's nickname). The device is generally used in a public and populated space (like a pub, a street, plaza and so on).
To initiate chat one goes to the connectivity menu on one's device and turns on the bluetooth port. Next, one should discover new bluetooth devices (to add one's bluetooth co-chatters). To send the messages, one goes to the organizer program, creates a new note and sends it via Bluetooth to the other device/user.
In any case, the device can be visibly hidden and vibrating alert feature used.
It is common for users to put presentation items (age or age range, sex, sexual orientation, language, and so on) in their nicknames or, if too long, in a general profile note. Users can also send contact items, for example e-mail addresses.
On some premises, the admin can create a bluechat-LAN (i.e. in a hotel, hospital and so on), for a wider bluechat network.
Palm OS based devices have a Bluechat application. For Pocket PC OS and Windows Mobile some freeware is available. Java enabled mobiles can also be use and it is possible to chat using Easy Jack.
The iPhone also has a Bluechat application, called Proximity Messaging System.
Bluetooth devices can talk to any other Bluetooth device with a range of a few meters. This means that complete strangers can communicate with others using Bluetooth devices. The term "Bluejacking" has been coined to refer to people who send irrelevant, surprising, or shocking messages to strangers in their vicinity.
Devices with a Wi-Fi port also includes Wifichat.
A Bluetooth profile is a specification regarding an aspect of Bluetooth-based wireless communication between devices. In order to use Bluetooth technology, a device must be compatible with the subset of Bluetooth profiles necessary to use the desired services. A Bluetooth profile resides on top of the Bluetooth Core Specification and (optionally) additional protocols. While the profile may use certain features of the core specification, specific versions of profiles are rarely tied to specific versions of the core specification. For example, there are Hands-Free Profile (HFP) 1.5 implementations using both Bluetooth 2.0 and Bluetooth 1.2 core specifications.
The way a device uses Bluetooth technology depends on its profile capabilities. The profiles provide standards which manufacturers follow to allow devices to use Bluetooth in the intended manner. For the Bluetooth low energy stack according to Bluetooth V4.0 a special set of profiles applies.
At a maximum, each profile specification contains information on the following topics:
This article summarizes the current definitions and possible applications of each profile.
The following profiles are defined and adopted by the Bluetooth SIG:
This profile defines how multimedia audio can be streamed from one device to another over a Bluetooth connection. For example, music can be streamed from a mobile phone, to a wireless headset, hearing aid & cochlear implant streamer, car audio, or from a laptop/desktop to a wireless headset.
The Audio/Video Remote Control (AVRCP) profile is often used in conjunction with A2DP for remote control on devices such as headphones, car audio systems, or stand-alone speaker units. These systems may also include microphones and use Headset (HSP) or Hands-Free (HFP) profiles for voice calling.
A2DP is designed to transfer a uni-directional 2-channel stereo audio stream, like music from an MP3 player, to a headset or car radio. This profile relies on AVDTP and GAVDP. It includes mandatory support for the low-complexity SBC codec (not to be confused with Bluetooth's voice-signal codecs such as CVSDM), and supports optionally: MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, AAC, and ATRAC, and is extensible to support manufacturer-defined codecs, such as apt-X. Some Bluetooth stacks enforce the SCMS-T digital rights management (DRM) scheme. In these cases, it is impossible to connect certain A2DP headphones for high quality audio.
The ATT is a wire application protocol for Bluetooth Low Energy specification. It is closely related to Generic Attribute Profile (GATT).
This profile is designed to provide a standard interface to control TVs, Hi-fi equipment, etc. to allow a single remote control (or other device) to control all of the A/V equipment to which a user has access. It may be used in concert with A2DP or VDP.
It has the possibility for vendor-dependent extensions.
AVRCP has several versions with significantly increasing functionality:
This profile is designed for sending images between devices and includes the ability to resize, and convert images to make them suitable for the receiving device. It may be broken down into smaller pieces:
This allows devices to send text, e-mails, vCards, or other items to printers based on print jobs. It differs from HCRP in that it needs no printer-specific drivers. This makes it more suitable for embedded devices such as mobile phones and digital cameras which cannot easily be updated with drivers dependent upon printer vendors.
This provides unrestricted access to the services, data and signalling that ISDN offers.
This is designed for cordless phones to work using Bluetooth. It is hoped that mobile phones could use a Bluetooth CTP gateway connected to a landline when within the home, and the mobile phone network when out of range. It is central to the Bluetooth SIG's '3-in-1 phone' use case.
This profile allows a device to be identified above and beyond the limitations of the Device Class already available in Bluetooth. It enables identification of the manufacturer, product id, product version, and the version of the Device ID specification being met. It is useful in allowing a PC to identify a connecting device and download appropriate drivers. It enables similar applications to those the Plug-and-play specification allows.
This profile provides a standard to access the Internet and other dial-up services over Bluetooth. The most common scenario is accessing the Internet from a laptop by dialing up on a mobile phone, wirelessly. It is based on Serial Port Profile (SPP), and provides for relatively easy conversion of existing products, through the many features that it has in common with the existing wired serial protocols for the same task. These include the AT command set specified in European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) 07.07, and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).
DUN distinguishes the initiator (DUN Terminal) of the connection and the provider (DUN Gateway) of the connection. The gateway provides a modem interface and establishes the connection to a PPP gateway. The terminal implements the usage of the modem and PPP protocol to establish the network connection. In standard phones, the gateway PPP functionality is usually implemented by the access point of the Telco provider. In "always on" smartphones, the PPP gateway is often provided by the phone and the terminal shares the connection.
This profile is intended to provide a well-defined interface between a mobile phone or fixed-line phone and a PC with Fax software installed. Support must be provided for ITU T.31 and / or ITU T.32 AT command sets as defined by ITU-T. Data and voice calls are not covered by this profile.
Provides the capability to browse, manipulate and transfer objects (files and folders) in an object store (file system) of another system. Uses GOEP as a basis.
Provides the basis for A2DP, and VDP.
Provides the basis for all other profiles. GAP defines how two Bluetooth units discover and establish a connection with each other.
Provides profile discovery and description services for Bluetooth Low Energy protocol. It defines how a set of ATT attributes are grouped together to form services.
Provides a basis for other data profiles. Based on OBEX and sometimes referred to as such.
This provides a simple wireless alternative to a cable connection between a device and a printer. Unfortunately it does not set a standard regarding the actual communications to the printer, so drivers are required specific to the printer model or range. This makes this profile less useful for embedded devices such as digital cameras and palmtops, as updating drivers can be problematic.
Profile designed to facilitate transmission and reception of Medical Device data. The API's of this layer interact with the lower level Multi-Channel Adaptation Protocol (MCAP layer), but also perform SDP behavior to connect to remote HDP devices. Also makes use of the Device ID Profile (DIP).
Currently in version 1.6, this is commonly used to allow car hands-free kits to communicate with mobile phones in the car. It commonly uses Synchronous Connection Oriented link (SCO) to carry a monaural audio channel with continuously variable slope delta modulation or pulse-code modulation, and with logarithmic a-law or μ-law quantization. Version 1.6 adds optional support for wide band speech with the mSBC codec, a 16 kHz monaural configuration of the SBC codec mandated by the A2DP profile.
In 2002 Audi, with the Audi A8, was the first motor vehicle manufacturer to install Bluetooth technology in a car, enabling the passenger to use a wireless in-car phone. The following year DaimlerChrysler and Acura introduced Bluetooth technology integration with the audio system as a standard feature in the third-generation Acura TL in a system dubbed HandsFree Link (HFL). Later, BMW added it as an option on its 1 Series, 3 Series, 5 Series, 7 Series and X5 vehicles. Since then, other manufacturers have followed suit, with many vehicles, including the Toyota Prius (since 2004), 2007 Toyota Camry, 2007 Infiniti G35, and the Lexus LS 430 (since 2004). Several Nissan models (Versa, X-Trail) include a built-in Bluetooth for the Technology option. Volvo started introducing support in some vehicles in 2007, and as of 2009 all Bluetooth-enabled vehicles support HFP.
Many manufacturers like Pioneer or JVC build car radios with bluetooth module. This module usually has HSP support.
The Bluetooth car kits allow users with Bluetooth-equipped cell phones to make use of some of the phone's features, such as making calls, while the phone itself can be left in the user's pocket or hand bag. Companies like Johnson Controls, Peiker acustic, RAYTEL, Parrot SA, Novero, S1NN and Motorola manufacture Bluetooth hands-free car kits for well-known brand car manufacturers.
Most bluetooth headsets implement both Hands-Free Profile and Headset Profile, because of the extra features in HFP for use with a mobile phone, such as last number redial, call waiting and voice dialing.
Provides support for devices such as mice, joysticks, keyboards, as well as sometimes providing support for simple buttons and indicators on other types of devices. It is designed to provide a low latency link, with low power requirements. PlayStation 3 controllers and Wii Remotes also use Bluetooth HID.
Bluetooth HID is a lightweight wrapper of the Human Interface Device protocol defined for USB. The use of the HID protocol simplifies host implementation (ex: support by Operating Systems) by enabling the re-use of some of the existing support for USB HID to also support Bluetooth HID.
Keyboard and keypads must be secure. For other HID's security is optional.
This is the most commonly used profile, providing support for the popular Bluetooth Headsets to be used with mobile phones. It relies on SCO for audio encoded in 64 kbit/s CVSD or PCM and a subset of AT commands from GSM 07.07 for minimal controls including the ability to ring, answer a call, hang up and adjust the volume.
This is often referred to as the walkie-talkie profile. It is another TCS (Telephone Control protocol Specification) based profile, relying on SCO to carry the audio. It is proposed to allow voice calls between two Bluetooth capable handsets, over Bluetooth.
LAN Access profile makes it possible for a Bluetooth device to access LAN, WAN or Internet via another device that has a physical connection to the network. It uses PPP over RFCOMM to establish connections. LAP also allows the device to join an ad-hoc Bluetooth network.
The LAN Access Profile has been replaced by the PAN profile in the Bluetooth specification.
Message Access Profile (MAP) specification allows exchange of messages between devices. Mostly used for automotive handsfree use. The MAP profile can also be used for other uses that require the exchange of messages between two devices. The automotive Hands-Free use case is where an on-board terminal device (typically an electronic device as a Car-Kit installed in the car) can talk via messaging capability to another communication device (typically a mobile phone). For example, Bluetooth MAP is used by HP Send and receive text (SMS) messages from a Palm/HP smartphone to an HP TouchPad tablet. Bluetooth MAP is used by Ford in select SYNC Generation 1-equipped 2011 and 2012 vehicles and also by BMW with many of their iDrive systems. The Lexus LX and GS 2013 models both also support MAP as does the Honda CRV 2012, Acura 2013 and ILX 2013. Apple introduced Bluetooth MAP in iOS 6 for the iPhone and iPad.
A basic profile for sending "objects" such as pictures, virtual business cards, or appointment details. It is called push because the transfers are always instigated by the sender (client), not the receiver (server).
OPP uses the APIs of OBEX profile and the OBEX operations which are used in OPP are connect, disconnect, put, get and abort. By using these API the OPP layer will reside over OBEX and hence follow the specifications of the Bluetooth stack.
This profile is intended to allow the use of Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol on Layer 3 protocols for transport over a Bluetooth link.
Phone Book Access (PBA) or Phone Book Access Profile (PBAP) is a profile that allows exchange of Phone Book Objects between devices. It is likely to be used between a car kit and a mobile phone to:
The profile consists of two roles:
The Proximity profile (PXP) enables proximity monitoring between two devices.
This profile is based on ETSI 07,10 and the RFCOMM protocol. It emulates a serial cable to provide a simple substitute for existing RS-232, including the familiar control signals. It is the basis for DUN, FAX, HSP and AVRCP.
SDAP describes how an application should use SDP to discover services on a remote device. SDAP requires that any application be able to find out what services are available on any Bluetooth enabled device it connects to.
This allows devices such as car phones with built-in GSM transceivers to connect to a SIM card in a phone with Bluetooth, thus the car phone itself doesn't require a separate SIM card. This profile is also known as rSAP (remote-SIM-Access-Profile). More information on which phones are supported can be found below:
Currently the following cars by design can work with SIM-Access-Profile:
There are a huge amount of mobile phones who offer support for SAP\rSAP. As of today, all mobile phones which work under unmodified Operating Systems such as Android, iOS, Maemo, MeeGo or Windows Phone 7 should have SAP/rSAP support.
based on Symbian OS:
based on Bada OS:
based on special/dedicated Systems:
This profile allows synchronization of Personal Information Manager (PIM) items. As this profile originated as part of the infrared specifications but has been adopted by the Bluetooth SIG to form part of the main Bluetooth specification, it is also commonly referred to as IrMC Synchronization.
This profile allows the transport of a video stream. It could be used for streaming a recorded video from a PC media center to a portable player, or a live video from a digital video camera to a TV. Support for the H.263 baseline is mandatory. The MPEG-4 Visual Simple Profile, and H.263 profiles 3 and 8 are optionally supported, and covered in the specification.1
This is a profile for carrying Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) over Point-to-Point Protocol over Bluetooth.
These profiles are still not finalised, but are currently proposed within the Bluetooth SIG:
Compatibility of products with profiles can be verified on the Bluetooth Qualification Program website.
Bluetooth low energy (or Bluetooth LE, or BLE) branded as Bluetooth SMART since 2011 is a wireless computer network technology which is aimed at novel applications in the healthcare, fitness, security, and home entertainment industries. Compared to "Classic" Bluetooth, BLE is intended to provide considerably reduced power consumption and lower cost, whilst maintaining a similar communication range (see table below).
Bluetooth LE was originally introduced under the name Wibree by Nokia in 2006, but it was merged into the main Bluetooth standard in 2010, when the Bluetooth Core Specification Version 4.0 was adopted.
The Bluetooth low energy protocol is not backward compatible with the previous (often called 'Classic') Bluetooth protocol. The Bluetooth 4.0 specification permits devices to implement either, or both, of the LE and Classic systems. Those that implement both are known as Bluetooth 4.0 dual-mode devices.
Bluetooth LE uses the same 2.4 GHz ISM band radio frequencies as Classic Bluetooth, which allows dual-mode devices to share a single radio antenna. LE does, however, use a simpler modulation system.
In 2011 the Bluetooth SIG announced the Bluetooth SMART logo scheme, intended to clarify compatibility between LE devices.
Note that some 'SMART Ready' devices may need software upgrade to allow full connectivity; for instance, the Samsung Galaxy SIII is listed as SMART ready but Android versions prior to 4.3 do not have Bluetooth LE support.
The Bluetooth SIG identifies a number of markets for Low Energy technology, particularly in the 'Health & Wellness' and 'Sport & Fitness' sectors. The claimed advantages are:
One of the major adopters of the Bluetooth low energy protocol stack is the Continua Health Alliance targeting vital monitoring in healthcare.
In around 2001, researchers at Nokia determined that there were various scenarios that contemporary wireless technologies did not address. The company started the development of a wireless technology adapted from the Bluetooth standard which would provide lower power usage and price while minimizing difference between Bluetooth technology and the new technology. The results were published in 2004 using the name Bluetooth Low End Extension.
After further development with partners, e.g., within EU FP6 project MIMOSA, the technology was released to public in October 2006 with brand name Wibree. After negotiations with Bluetooth SIG members, in June 2007, an agreement was reached to include Wibree in future Bluetooth specification as a Bluetooth ultra-low-power technology, now known as Bluetooth low energy technology.
Integration of Bluetooth low energy technology with version 4.0 of the Core Specification was completed in early 2010. The first device to implement v4.0 spec was the iPhone 4S which came out in October 2011, with a number of other manufacturers bringing out v4.0 devices in 2012.
The Bluetooth SIG defines many profiles for Low Energy devices: a profile is a specification for how a device works in a particular application. Manufacturers are expected to implement the appropriate specification(s) for their device in order to ensure compatibility. Bluetooth 4.0 provides low power conception with higher baud rate.
The GATT profile is a general specification for sending and receiving short pieces of data known as 'attributes' over an LE link. All current Low Energy application profiles are based on GATT.
Note that individual devices may implement more than one profile - e.g. one unit could contain both a heart rate monitor and a temperature sensor.
There are many profiles for Bluetooth LE devices in healthcare applications. The Continua Health Alliance is a consortium which promotes these, in cooperation with the Bluetooth SIG.
Amongst these profiles are:
Profiles for sporting and fitness accessories include:
"Electronic leash" applications are well-suited to the long battery life possible for 'always-on' devices.
Relevant application profiles include:
The Phone Alert Status profile (PASP) and Alert notification profile (ANP) allows a client device (e.g. a wristwatch) to receive notifications from another device (e.g. a phone). This allows the client device to signal to a user that a phone is receiving an incoming call or email message.
The Time Profile (TIP) allows the time (and time zone information) on a 'client' device to be set from a 'server' device. Typically, this is used to allow the current time on a wristwatch to be synchronized to network time as received by a smart phone.
Bluetooth LE integrated circuit implementations were announced by a number of manufacturers (Broadcom, Texas Instruments, CSR and Nordic Semiconductor), starting in late 2009. An IP block implementation was announced by RivieraWaves in 2010. Commonly, these implementations use software radio, so that updates to the specification can be accommodated through a device firmware upgrade.
See http://www.bluetooth.com/Pages/Bluetooth-Smart-Devices-List.aspx for a full list of SMART and SMART Ready devices.
In May 2013, Google announced support for Bluetooth LE in the upcoming Android API Level 18, since released as Android 4.3. No support exists in earlier API levels, although several devices have compatible hardware. Since BLE has been late to be included with Android, several manufacturers(Samsung and HTC) developed their own SDKs for BLE.
Bluetooth low energy technology operates in the same spectrum range (the 2.400GHz-2.4835GHz ISM band) as Classic Bluetooth technology, but uses a different set of channels. Instead of Bluetooth technology's 79 1-MHz wide channels, Bluetooth low energy technology has 40 2-MHz wide channels. Within the channel, data is transmitted using Gaussian frequency shift modulation, similar to Classic Bluetooth's Basic Rate scheme. The bit rate is 1Mbps, and the maximum transmit power is 10mW. Further details are given in Volume 6 Part A (Physical Layer Specification) of the Bluetooth Core Specification V4.0.
Bluetooth low energy technology uses frequency hopping to counteract narrowband interference problems. Classic Bluetooth also uses frequency hopping but the details are difference; as a result, while both FCC and ETSI classify Bluetooth technology as an FHSS scheme, Bluetooth low energy technology is classified as a system using digital modulation techniques or a direct-sequence spread spectrum][.
More technical details may be obtained from official specification as published by the Bluetooth SIG. Note that power consumption is not part of the Bluetooth specification.
Devices using Bluetooth low energy wireless technology are expected to consume a fraction of the power of Classic Bluetooth enabled products for Bluetooth communication. In many cases, products will be able to operate more than a year on a button cell battery without recharging. It will allow sensors such as thermometers to operate continuously, communicating intermittently with other devices such as a mobile phone. This may increase the concerns for privacy, as when the remote, low power, continuously on, sensor would be present in devices with BLE.
Note that the lower power consumption is not achieved by the nature of the active radio transport, but by the design of the protocol to allow low duty cycles, and by the use cases envisaged. A Bluetooth low energy device used for continuous data transfer would not have a lower power consumption than a comparable Bluetooth device transmitting the same amount of data. It would likely use more power, since the protocol is optimised for small bursts.
The basic radio circuitry has almost similar power consumption as for standard Bluetooth radio (in dual-mode devices it is likely to be the same circuitry), but the overall power consumption is aimed to be lower, primarily by having a lower duty cycle. During transmission and reception these devices exhibit peak currents in the tens of milliamps (mA) range in both Bluetooth low energy technology and Bluetooth modes. In sleep modes, the aim is to have current consumption reduced to tens of nanoamps (nA). Because of very low duty cycles (of the order of 0.25%) average currents are therefore in the microamp (μA) range enabling button cell battery power sources to last up to a year.
The Chevrolet Tahoe (and very similar GMC Yukon) are full-size SUVs from General Motors. Chevrolet and GMC sold two different-sized SUVs under their Blazer/Jimmy model names through the early 1990s. This situation changed when GMC rebadged the full-size Jimmy as the Yukon in 1992. Chevrolet waited until 1995 to rebadge the redesigned mid-size S-10 Blazer as the Blazer, renaming the full-size Blazer as the Tahoe. The Tahoe and Yukon gained a new 4-door model slotting in size between the 2-door models and the longer wheelbase and higher passenger capacity Chevrolet Suburban and newly named Yukon XL.
The Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon currently serve as a part of General Motors' full-size SUV family. Lengthened wheelbase models are available for both as the Suburban for Chevrolet and Yukon XL for GMC. A luxury Denali model joined the Yukon lineup in 1998. As of 2002, a Denali version of the Yukon XL has also been available as the Yukon XL Denali. The Cadillac Escalade is closely related to the Denali models of the Yukon. Bluetooth
Bluetooth low energy (or Bluetooth LE, or BLE, marketed as Bluetooth Smart) is a wireless computer network technology designed and marketed by the privately held Bluetooth SIG which is aimed at novel applications in the healthcare, fitness, security, and home entertainment industries. Compared to "Classic" Bluetooth, BLE is intended to provide considerably reduced power consumption and lower cost, while maintaining a similar communication range (see table below).
Bluetooth LE was originally introduced under the name Wibree by Nokia in 2006, but it was merged into the main Bluetooth standard in 2010, when the Bluetooth Core Specification Version 4.0 was adopted.
A Bluetooth stack is software that refers to an implementation of the Bluetooth protocol stack.
Bluetooth stacks can be roughly divided into two: Technology
Telecommunications engineering, or telecom engineering, is an engineering discipline that brings together electrical engineering with computer science to enhance telecommunication systems. The work ranges from basic circuit design to strategic mass developments. A telecommunication engineer is responsible for designing and overseeing the installation of telecommunications equipment and facilities, such as complex electronic switching systems, copper wire telephone facilities, and fiber optics. Telecommunication engineering also overlaps heavily with broadcast engineering.
Telecommunication is a diverse field of engineering which is connected to electronics, civil, structural, and electrical engineering. Ultimately, telecom engineers are responsible for providing the method for customers to have telephone and high-speed data services. It helps people who are closely working in political and social fields, as well accounting and project management. Technology Internet