Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software. In layman's terms, it is the act of using insights to conceive, model and scale a solution to a problem. The first reference to the term is the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference and was meant to provoke thought regarding the perceived "software crisis" at the time. Software development, a much used and more generic term, does not necessarily subsume the engineering paradigm. The generally accepted concepts of Software Engineering as an engineering discipline have been specified in the Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK). The SWEBOK has become an internationally accepted standard ISO/IEC TR 19759:2005.
For those who wish to become recognized as professional software engineers, the IEEE offers two certifications (Certified Software Development Associate and Certified Software Development Professional). The IEEE certifications do not use the term Engineer in their title for compatibility reasons. In some parts of the US such as Texas, the use of the term Engineer is regulated only to those who have a Professional Engineer license. Further, in the United States starting from 2013, the NCEES Professional Engineer exam will be available for Software Engineering.
Pokémon Ruby Version and Sapphire Version (ポケットモンスター ルビー&サファイア Poketto Monsutā Rubī & Safaia, "Pocket Monsters: Ruby & Sapphire") are the third installments of the seriesPokémon of role-playing video games, developed by Game Freak and published by Nintendo for the Game Boy Advance. The games were first released in Japan in late 2002 and internationally in 2003. Pokémon Emerald, a special edition version, was released two years later in each region. These three games (Pokémon Ruby, Sapphire, and Emerald) are part of the third generation of the Pokémon video game series, also known as the "advanced generation".
The gameplay is mostly unchanged from the previous games; the player controls the main character from an overhead perspective, and the controls are largely the same as those of previous games. As with previous games, the main objectives are to catch all of the Pokémon in the games and defeat the Elite Four (a group of Pokémon trainers); also like their predecessors, the games' main subplot involves the main character defeating a criminal organization that attempts to take over the region. New features, such as double battles and Pokémon abilities, have been added. As the Game Boy Advance is more powerful than its predecessors, four players may be connected at a time instead of the previous limit of two. Additionally, the games can be connected to an e-Reader or other advanced generation Pokémon games.