Epistle to the Hebrews, or “Letter to the Hebrews” is the traditional name of a text that the Greek manuscripts of the New Testament simply called “To the Hebrews” (ΠΡΟΣ ΕΒΡΑΙΟΥΣ).
Scholars of Greek consider its writing to be more polished and eloquent than any other book of the New Testament. Since the earliest days of the Church, the authorship and canonicity have been debated. Presumably once known and respected by the epistle's readers, the author became unknown and today is often described as unknowable. The book has earned the reputation of being a "masterpiece". It also has been described as an "intricate" New Testament book.
Jewish history (or the history of the Jewish people) is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures. According to Jewish tradition, Jewish ancestry is traced back to the Biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob who lived in Canaan around the 18th century BCE. Historically, Jews had evolved mostly from the Tribe of Judah and Simeon, and partially from the other Israelite tribes, especially of Binyamin and Levi, who had all together formed the ancient Kingdom of Judah and the ancient Kingdom of Israel. The earliest mention of Israel as a people was found inscribed on the Merneptah Stele dating back to 1213-1203 BCE.
The Gospel of the Hebrews (Greek: τὸ καθ' Ἑβραίους εὐαγγέλιον), or Gospel according to the Hebrews, was a syncretic Jewish–Christian gospel which survives only as brief quotations by the early Church Fathers which preserve fragments of the original text. The fragments contain traditions of Jesus' pre-existence, incarnation, baptism, and probable temptation, along with some of his sayings. Distinctive features include a Christology characterized by the belief that the Holy Spirit is Jesus' Divine Mother and a first resurrection appearance to James, the brother of Jesus, showing a high regard for James as the head of the Jewish Christian church in Jerusalem. It was probably composed in Greek in the first decades of the 2nd century, and is believed to have been used by Greek-speaking Jewish Christians in Egypt during that century.
It is the only Jewish–Christian gospel which the Church Fathers referred to by name, believing there was only one Hebrew Gospel, perhaps in different versions. Passages from the gospel were quoted or summarized by three Alexandrian Fathers – Clement, Origen and Didymus the Blind; it was also quoted by Jerome, either directly or through the commentaries of Origen. The gospel was used as a supplement to the canonical gospels to provide source material for their commentaries based on scripture. Eusebius of Caesarea included it in his list of disputed writings known as the Antilegomena, noting that it was used by "Hebrews" within the Church; it fell out of use when the New Testament canon was codified at the end of the 4th century.