Question:

How are lymph, lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes related?

Answer:

They're all art of the lymphoid system, part of the immune system comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph toward the heart. A lymph node is an organized collection of lymphoid tissue, through which the lymph passes on its way to returning to the blood. AnswerParty on!

More Info:

A lymph node or lymph gland is an oval-shaped organ of the immune system, distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes are garrisons of B, T, and other immunity cells. Lymph nodes act as filters or traps for foreign particles and are important in the proper functioning of the immune system. They are packed tightly with the white blood cells called lymphocytes and macrophages.

Lymph nodes also have clinical significance. They become inflamed or enlarged in various conditions, which may range from trivial, such as a throat infection, to life-threatening such as cancers. In the latter, the condition of lymph nodes is so significant that it is used for cancer staging, which decides the treatment to be employed, and for determining the prognosis. When swollen, inflamed or enlarged, lymph nodes can be hard, firm or tender.

The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin lympha "water goddess") directionally towards the heart. The lymphatic system was first described in the seventeenth century independently by Olaus Rudbeck and Thomas Bartholin. The lymph system is not a closed system. The circulatory system processes an average of 20 litres of blood per day through capillary filtration which removes plasma while leaving the blood cells. Roughly 17 litres of the filtered plasma actually get reabsorbed directly into the blood vessels, while the remaining 3 litres are left behind in the interstitial fluid. The primary function of the lymph system is to provide an accessory route for these excess 3 litres per day to get returned to the blood. Lymph is essentially recycled blood plasma.

Lymphatic organs play an important part in the immune system, having a considerable overlap with the lymphoid system. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs, particularly the lymph nodes, and in the lymphoid follicles associated with the digestive system such as the tonsils. Lymphoid tissues contain lymphocytes, but they also contain other types of cells for support. The system also includes all the structures dedicated to the circulation and production of lymphocytes (the primary cellular component of lymph), which includes the spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and the lymphoid tissue associated with the digestive system.

In anatomy, lymph vessels (or lymphatic vessels) are thin walled, valved structures that carry lymph. As part of the lymphatic system, lymph vessels are complementary to the cardiovascular system. Lymph vessels are lined by endothelial cells, and have a thin layer of smooth muscles, and adventitia that bind the lymph vessels to the surrounding tissue. Lymph vessels are devoted to propulsion of the lymph from the lymph capillaries, which are mainly concerned with absorption of interstitial fluid from the tissues. Lymph capillaries are slightly larger than their counterpart capillaries of the vascular system. Lymph vessels that carry lymph to a lymph node are called the afferent lymph vessel, and one that carries it from a lymph node is called the efferent lymph vessel, from where the lymph may travel to another lymph node, may be returned to a vein, or may travel to a larger lymph duct. Lymph ducts drain the lymph into one of the subclavian veins and thus return it to general circulation.

Generally, lymph flows away from the tissues to lymph nodes and eventually to either the right lymphatic duct or the largest lymph vessel in the body, the thoracic duct. These vessels drain into the right and left subclavian veins respectively.

lymph

A lymph node or lymph gland is an oval-shaped organ of the immune system, distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes are garrisons of B, T, and other immunity cells. Lymph nodes act as filters or traps for foreign particles and are important in the proper functioning of the immune system. They are packed tightly with the white blood cells called lymphocytes and macrophages.

Lymph nodes also have clinical significance. They become inflamed or enlarged in various conditions, which may range from trivial, such as a throat infection, to life-threatening such as cancers. In the latter, the condition of lymph nodes is so significant that it is used for cancer staging, which decides the treatment to be employed, and for determining the prognosis. When swollen, inflamed or enlarged, lymph nodes can be hard, firm or tender.

The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin lympha "water goddess") directionally towards the heart. The lymphatic system was first described in the seventeenth century independently by Olaus Rudbeck and Thomas Bartholin. The lymph system is not a closed system. The circulatory system processes an average of 20 litres of blood per day through capillary filtration which removes plasma while leaving the blood cells. Roughly 17 litres of the filtered plasma actually get reabsorbed directly into the blood vessels, while the remaining 3 litres are left behind in the interstitial fluid. The primary function of the lymph system is to provide an accessory route for these excess 3 litres per day to get returned to the blood. Lymph is essentially recycled blood plasma.

Lymphatic organs play an important part in the immune system, having a considerable overlap with the lymphoid system. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs, particularly the lymph nodes, and in the lymphoid follicles associated with the digestive system such as the tonsils. Lymphoid tissues contain lymphocytes, but they also contain other types of cells for support. The system also includes all the structures dedicated to the circulation and production of lymphocytes (the primary cellular component of lymph), which includes the spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and the lymphoid tissue associated with the digestive system.

lymph

The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin lympha "water goddess") directionally towards the heart. The lymphatic system was first described in the seventeenth century independently by Olaus Rudbeck and Thomas Bartholin. The lymph system is not a closed system. The circulatory system processes an average of 20 litres of blood per day through capillary filtration which removes plasma while leaving the blood cells. Roughly 17 litres of the filtered plasma actually get reabsorbed directly into the blood vessels, while the remaining 3 litres are left behind in the interstitial fluid. The primary function of the lymph system is to provide an accessory route for these excess 3 litres per day to get returned to the blood. Lymph is essentially recycled blood plasma.

Lymphatic organs play an important part in the immune system, having a considerable overlap with the lymphoid system. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs, particularly the lymph nodes, and in the lymphoid follicles associated with the digestive system such as the tonsils. Lymphoid tissues contain lymphocytes, but they also contain other types of cells for support. The system also includes all the structures dedicated to the circulation and production of lymphocytes (the primary cellular component of lymph), which includes the spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and the lymphoid tissue associated with the digestive system.

Anatomy Biology

The circulatory system is an organ system that permits blood and lymph circulation to transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to nourish it and help to fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and to maintain homeostasis.

This system is often seen as strictly as a blood distribution network, but some consider the circulatory system to be composed collectively of the cardiovascular system, which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph. Blood is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues. Lymph is essentially recycled excess blood plasma after it has been filtered from the interstitial fluid (between cells) and returned to the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular (from Latin words meaning 'heart'-'vessel') system comprises the blood, heart, and blood vessels. The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels form the lymphatic system, which returns filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid (between cells) as lymph.

In anatomy, lymph vessels (or lymphatic vessels) are thin walled, valved structures that carry lymph. As part of the lymphatic system, lymph vessels are complementary to the cardiovascular system. Lymph vessels are lined by endothelial cells, and have a thin layer of smooth muscles, and adventitia that bind the lymph vessels to the surrounding tissue. Lymph vessels are devoted to propulsion of the lymph from the lymph capillaries, which are mainly concerned with absorption of interstitial fluid from the tissues. Lymph capillaries are slightly larger than their counterpart capillaries of the vascular system. Lymph vessels that carry lymph to a lymph node are called the afferent lymph vessel, and one that carries it from a lymph node is called the efferent lymph vessel, from where the lymph may travel to another lymph node, may be returned to a vein, or may travel to a larger lymph duct. Lymph ducts drain the lymph into one of the subclavian veins and thus return it to general circulation.

Generally, lymph flows away from the tissues to lymph nodes and eventually to either the right lymphatic duct or the largest lymph vessel in the body, the thoracic duct. These vessels drain into the right and left subclavian veins respectively.

Lymph nodes or 'glands' or nodes or lymphoid tissue.are nodular bodies located throughout the body but clustering in certain areas such as the armpit, back of the neck and the groin. They are part of the lymphatic system.

The lymphatic system is part of the body's immune surveillance system. Blood contains fluid and blood cells. The fluid, which may contain suspended foreign material such as bacteria and viruses, seeps through blood vessel walls into the tissues, where it bathes the body cells and exchanges substances with them. Some of this fluid is then taken up by lymphatic vessels and passed back to the heart, where it is again mixed with the blood. On its way the fluid passes through the lymph nodes. If nodes detect something foreign passing through them such as a bacterium or a cancer cell they will swell up. This is called lymphadenopathy or swollen glands. Usually this is localised (for example an infected spot on the scalp will cause lymph nodes in the neck on that same side to swell up), but when it is in two or more regions, it is called generalized lymphadenopathy.

While discussing types of muscles we considered the cardiac muscle, which is a very special type of muscle. It is peculiar in having some features of skeletal and some features of smooth muscles. Then we discussed the hearts of some vertebrates like human and some invertebrate animals like the octopus and apple snail.

By and large when we talk of heart/s we talk about the hearts which pump blood. But do you know that there are special types of hearts in some animals that pump lymph? An Example of these animals are listed below.

Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.

Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.

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