Walmart carries most brands of hair removal creams, Nair and Veet being the most well known. They are usually located with the shave creams/gels and razors.
A lotion is a low- to medium-viscosity topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin. By contrast, creams and gels have higher viscosity.
Lotions are applied to external skin with bare hands, a clean cloth, cotton wool or gauze. Many lotions, especially hand lotions and body lotions are formulated not as a medicine delivery system, but simply to smooth, re-hydrate, and soften the skin. These are particularly popular with the aging and aged demographic groups, and in the case of face usage, can also be classified as a cosmetic in many cases, and may contain fragrances.
Most lotions are oil-in-water emulsions using a substance such as cetearyl alcohol to keep the emulsion together, but water-in-oil lotions are also formulated. The key components of a skin care lotion, cream or gel emulsion (that is mixtures of oil and water) are the aqueous and oily phases, an emulgent to prevent separation of these two phases, and, if used, the drug substance or substances. A wide variety of other ingredients such as fragrances, glycerol, petroleum jelly, dyes, preservatives, proteins and stabilizing agents are commonly added to lotions. Lotions can be used for the delivery to the skin of medications such as:
It is not unusual for the same drug ingredient to be formulated into a lotion, cream and ointment. Creams are the most convenient of the three but are inappropriate for application to regions of hairy skin such as the scalp, while a lotion is less viscous and may be readily applied to these areas (many medicated shampoos are in fact lotions). Historically, lotions also had an advantage in that they may be spread thinly compared to a cream or ointment and may economically cover a large area of skin, but product research has steadily eroded this distinction. Non-comedogenic lotions are recommended for use on acne prone skin.
Since thickness and consistency are key factors in lotions and creams, it is important to understand the manufacturing process that determines viscosity.
Manufacturing lotions and creams can be completed in two cycles: 1. Emollients and lubricants are dispersed in oil with blending and thickening agents. 2. Perfume, color and preservatives are dispersed in the water cycle. Active ingredients are broken up in both cycles depending on the raw materials involved and the desired properties of the lotion or cream.
A typical oil-in-water manufacturing process might go like this:
• Step 1: Add flake/powder ingredients to the oil being used to prepare the oil phase.
• Step 2: Disperse active ingredients.
• Step 3: Prepare the water phase containing emulsifiers and stabilizers.
• Step 4: Mix the oil and water to form an emulsion. (Note: This is aided by heating to between 110-185 F (45-85 C) depending on the formulation and viscosity desired.)
• Step 5: Continue mixing until the end product is uniform.
Careful note should be taken in choosing the right mixing equipment for lotion manufacturing to avoid agglomerates and long processing times. It can make all the difference in manufacturing time and costs. Conventional agitators can present a number of problems including agglomerates and longer processing times. On the other hand, high shear in-line mixers can produce quality lotions and creams without many of the complications encountered with conventional mixers.
Shaving cream or shaving foam is cream applied to the face, or wherever else hair grows, to facilitate shaving. They achieve three purposes, lubricate the cutting process, swell keratin, and desensitize skin. Shaving creams commonly consist of an emulsion of oils, soaps or surfactants, and water.
A rudimentary form of shaving cream was documented in Sumer around . This substance combined wood alkali and animal fat and was applied to a beard as a shaving preparation.
Until the early 20th century, bars or sticks of hard shaving soap were used. Later, tubes containing compounds of oils and soft soap were sold. Newer creams introduced in the 1940s neither produced lather nor required brushes, often referred to as brushless creams.
Soaps are used by wetting a shaving brush, which is made out of either boar hair or badger hair, and swirling the brush on the soap, then painting the face with the brush. Brushless creams do not produce a lather, thereby removing its ability to protect the skin against cuts. Traditional soaps remain available.
Modern commercial creams are often sold in spray cans, but can also be purchased in tubs or tubes. Shaving creams in a can are commonly dispensed as a foam or a gel. Creams that are in tubes or tubs are commonly used with a shaving brush to produce a rich lather (most often used in wet shaving).
The first can of pressurized shaving cream was Rise shaving cream, which was introduced by Carter-Wallace in 1949. By the following decade this format attained two-thirds of the American market for shaving preparations. The gas in shaving cream canisters originally contained chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), but this substance was increasingly believed to be detrimental to the Earth's ozone layer. This led to restrictions or reductions in CFC use, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency ban in the late 1970s. Gaseous hydrocarbon propellants such as mixtures of pentane, propane, butane and isobutane could be used instead of the CFCs. Because of the large proportion of water in pressurized shaving cream, the risk from the normally flammable hydrocarbons was reduced. The logic behind a canned shaving cream is this: by canning the lather rather than the cream or soap the shaver can save time by not having to build the lather. While this is true, it is often argued][ that this method removes a lot of the original purpose behind the cream and/or soap in the process. By canning the cream, it can no longer protect the face because it doesn't lather, or so it is argued. Canned cream's sole purpose, is to lubricate the face so that the blades can cut the hairs since they no longer provide any protection from cuts.][
In the 1970s, shaving gel was developed that is dispensed from a pressurized can. In 1993, The Procter & Gamble Company patented a post-foaming gel composition, which turns the gel into a foam after application to the skin, combining properties of both foams and gels.
Aeroshave, the first instant shaving cream in a pressurized can, was introduced in 1947][.
Shaving is the removal of hair, by using a razor or any other kind of bladed implement, to slice it down to the level of the skin. Shaving is most commonly practiced by men to remove their facial hair and by women to remove their leg and underarm hair. A man is called clean-shaven if he has had his beard entirely removed.
Both men and women sometimes shave their undercheek hair, chest hair, abdominal hair, leg hair, underarm hair, pubic hair or any other bodily hair. Head shaving is much more common among men. It is often associated with religious practice, the armed forces and some competitive sports such as swimming, running and extreme sports. Historically, head shaving has also been used to humiliate, punish and show submission to an authority, and also as part of a fund-raising efforts, particularly for cancer research organizations and charitable organizations that serve cancer patients. The shaving of head hair is also sometimes done by cancer patients when their treatment may result in partial hair loss. It has become common for men with partial male pattern baldness.][
Before the advent of razors, hair was sometimes removed using two shells to pull the hair out or using water and a sharp tool. In some Native American tribes, at the time of contact with British colonists, it was customary for men and women to remove all bodily hair using these methods. Later, around 3000 BC when copper tools were developed, copper razors were invented. The idea of an aesthetic approach to personal hygiene may have begun at this time, though Egyptian priests may have practiced something similar to this earlier. Alexander the Great strongly promoted shaving during his reign in the 4th century BCE to avoid "dangerous beard-grabbing in combat", and because he believed it looked tidier.
Shaving can be done with a straight razor or safety razor (called 'manual shaving' or 'wet shaving') or an electric razor (called 'dry shaving').
The removal of a full beard often requires the use of scissors or an electric (or beard) trimmer to reduce the mass of hair, simplifying the process.
There are two types of manual razors: straight razor and safety razors. Safety razors are further subdivided into double-edged razors, single edge, injector razors, cartridge razors and disposable razors.
In the twentieth century, Gillette razors were the most prevalent. Double-edge razors are currently readily available and are manufactured by Merkur in Germany, Edwin Jagger in Great Britain, Kiwishaver in New Zealand, Parker in India, Feather in Japan, Hart Steel and Weber Razor in the United States and Weishi in China. Double-edge razors are named so because the blade that they use has two sharp edges on opposite sides of the blade. Current multi-bladed cartridge manufacturers attempt to differentiate themselves by having more or fewer blades than their competitors, each arguing that their product gives a greater shave quality at a more affordable price.
Before wet shaving, the area to be shaved is usually doused in warm to hot water or covered for several minutes with a hot wet towel to soften the skin and hairs. A lathering or lubricating agent such as cream, soap, gel, foam or oil is normally applied after this. Lubricating and moisturizing the skin to be shaved helps to prevent a painful razor burn. Many razor cartridges include a lubricating strip, made of polyethylene glycol, to function instead of or in supplement to extrinsic agents. It also lifts and softens the hairs, causing them to swell. This enhances the cutting action and sometimes permits cutting the hairs slightly below the surface of the skin. Additionally, during shaving, the lather indicates areas that have not been addressed. When soap is used, it is generally applied with a shaving brush, which has long soft bristles. It is worked up into a usable lather by the brush, either against the face, in a shaving mug, bowl, scuttle, or palm of the hand.
Since cuts are more likely when using safety razors and straight razors, wet shaving is generally done in more than one pass with the blade. The goal is to reduce the amount of hair with each pass, instead of trying to eliminate all of it in a single pass. This also reduces the risks of cuts, soreness, and ingrown hairs. Alum blocks and styptic pencils are used to close cuts resulting from the shave.
Men may use an aftershave lotion after they have finished shaving. It may contain an antiseptic agent such as isopropyl alcohol to prevent infection from cuts, a perfume, and a moisturizer to soften the facial skin.
The electric razor (electric shaver) consists of a set of oscillating or rotating blades, which are held behind a perforated metal screen which prevents them from coming into contact with the skin and behaves much like the second blade in a pair of scissors. When the razor is held against the skin, the whiskers poke through the holes in the screen and are sliced by the moving blades. In some designs the blades are a rotating cylinder. In others they are one or more rotating disks or a set of oscillating blades. Each design has an optimum motion over the skin for the best shave and manufacturers provide guidance on this. Generally, circular or cylindrical blades (rotary-type shaver) move in a circular motion and oscillating blades (foil-type shaver) move left and right. Hitachi has produced foil-type shavers with a rotary blade that operates similarly to the blade assembly of a reel-type Lawn mower. The first electric razor was built by Jacob Schick in 1928.
The main disadvantages of electric shaving are that it may not cut the whiskers as closely as razor shaving does and it requires a source of electricity. The advantages include fewer cuts to the skin, quicker shaving and no need for a water/lather supply. The initial cost of electric shaving is higher, due to the cost of the shaver itself, but the long-term cost can be significantly lower, since the cutting parts do not need replacement for approximately 18 months and a lathering product is not required. Some people also find they do not experience ingrown hairs (pseudofolliculitis barbae, also called razor bumps), when using an electric shaver.
In contrast to wet shaving, electric shave lotions are intended to stiffen the whiskers. Stiffening is achieved by dehydrating the follicles using solutions of alcohols and a degreaser such as isopropylmyristate. Lotions are also sold to reduce skin irritation, but electric shaving does not usually require the application of any lubrication.
Mechanical shavers powered by a spring motor have been manufactured, although in the late 20th century they became rare. Such shavers can operate for up to two minutes each time the spring is wound and do not require an electrical outlet or batteries. Such type of shaver, the "Monaco" brand, was used on American space flights in the 1960s and 1970s, during the Apollo missions.
The shaving products that are marketed nowadays can be broken into three categories, pre, during and after-shave. For the sake of the skin, it is recommended that shaving is always accompanied by the pre-shaving and after-shaving processes.
Pre-shaving mainly consists of getting the skin and hairs ready for the blade. The shaving products that one can find for this particular action are oils, creams and shaving soaps. These products come in various formulations which are designed for a particular type of skin or beard. They may also be chosen according to the instrument which is going to be used for shaving. The market provides pre-shaving products intended for individuals who shave with hand razors or for those who prefer an electric razor. Although pre-shave oils may result in a smoother shave, these products are not so popular. Individuals that use a manual razor tend to skip this step because the soap or cream which is used for shaving provides the same benefit as a pre-shave product.
There are mainly three types of manual razors that can be found on the market. One of the oldest types is the straight razor. These razors have two parts, the blade and the handle. The blade has different sizes and it may be folded into the handle. They can be made of different materials, but the best quality ones are made from steel. One of the most popular types of straight razors is those manufactured by Sheffield, Eng. The price of these razors depends on the quality of the material they are made of and ranges from as low as a little over $10 to more than $100. The brand may also influence the price of the razor.
By far the most common type of razor in the developed world is the disposable. These minimize the risk of injury for inexperienced or hurried shavers and they are commonly used by both men and women. The primary disadvantages that come with the use of disposable razors are the lower quality shave, and the skin irritation or in-grown hairs that may result afterward. These razors are commonly found with between one and five blades, and opinions differ regarding which setup provides the best shave.
Double-edge safety razors are not as popular as disposable razors, but they are still an option for those who feel comfortable using them. Although their name suggests that these razors are very safe, they are not entirely without risk because the blade edges of the razor are exposed and can cause cuts if the appropriate technique and sufficient caution are not used. They are, however, considered to be safer than straight razors because there is no actual risk of serious injury as there is with the latter.
Shaving with a hand razor requires either water or the use of a foam, cream or soap. Generally, shaving creams and foams are used with disposable razors and soap is more commonly used with straight razors. These shaving products are intended to smooth the face by lubricating the skin which allows a gentler shave. It seems that individuals who use these products are less likely to cut their skin and the shaved area is smoother by comparison with people who use only water before shaving. Moreover, the shaving products also help in preventing and reducing skin irritation. When shaving with a straight razor, the soap is applied onto the face with the help of a mug and a brush. The use of soap with a brush is thought to result in a superior quality shave as the brush may unclog the hairs that are stuck together.
Shaving with an electric razor can be done with the skin dry, but many individuals apply a commercial pre-shaving lubricant to lessen irritation. Most electric razors come with features which help to raise the hairs, allowing them to be cut more efficiently. This prevents the skin from being irritated by excessive motion from the razor.
Aftershaves and colognes are the main products used after shaving, to smooth the shaved area and for preventing skin irritation. They can also help to sterilize any cuts in the skin.
Shaving can have numerous side effects, including cuts, abrasions, and irritation. Many side effects can be minimized by using a fresh blade, applying plenty of lubrication, and avoiding pressing down with the razor. A shaving brush can also help. The cosmetic market in some consumer economies offers many products to reduce these effects; they commonly dry the affected area, and some also help to lift out the trapped hair(s). Some shavers choose to use only single-blade or wire-wrapped blades that shave farther away from the skin. Others have skin that cannot tolerate razor shaving at all; they use depilatory shaving powders to dissolve hair above the skin's surface, or grow a beard.
Cuts from shaving can bleed for about fifteen minutes. Shaving cuts can be caused by blade movement perpendicular to the blade's cutting axis or by regular / orthogonal shaving over prominent bumps on the skin (which the blade incises). Common methods used to stop shaving-induced bleeding include: (1) pressing any simple alcohol onto the cut until the bleeding stops (e.g. with a cotton swab); (2) placing a small piece of tissue or toilet paper onto the cut; (3) applying styptic pencils and styptic liquids; (4) placing a small amount of petroleum jelly on the cut after most of the bleeding has ended (which can stop the bleeding without forming a scab), or (5) applying a small amount of aluminum chlorohydrate (commonly found in roll-on deodorants such as Ban). Shaving in or just after a cold shower can help prevent bleeding as well, because blood flow to the skin is reduced in these conditions due to vasoconstriction caused by the cold water. Shaving blade disposal in the era of safety razors and double-edged blades was a concern for a man's spouse and children who could easily take a blade, casually cast into the garbage, and in the process of compressing or compacting the garbage, cut themselves seriously. Some razor blade manufacturers include disposal containers or receptacles to avoid injuries.
Razor burn is an irritation of the skin caused by using a blunt blade or not using proper technique. It appears as a mild rash 2–4 minutes after shaving (once hair starts to grow through sealed skin) and usually disappears after a few hours to a few days, depending on severity. In severe cases, razor burn can also be accompanied by razor bumps, where the area around shaved hairs get raised red welts or infected pustules. A rash at the time of shaving is usually a sign of lack of lubrication. Razor burn is a common problem, especially among those who shave coarse hairs on areas with sensitive skin like the bikini line, pubic hair, underarms, chest, and beard. The condition can be caused by shaving too closely, shaving with a blunt blade, dry shaving, applying too much pressure when shaving, shaving too quickly or roughly, or shaving against the grain.
Ways to prevent razor burn include keeping the skin moist, using a shaving brush and lather, using a moisturizing shaving gel, shaving in the direction of the hair growth, resisting the urge to shave too closely, applying minimal pressure, avoiding scratching or irritation after shaving, avoiding irritating products on the shaved area (colognes, perfumes, etc.) and using an aftershave cream with aloe vera or other emollients. Also, it is good to prepare the skin for shaving by cleansing the area to be shaved with a wash containing salicylic acid, to facilitate the removal of oils and dead skin.][ Putting a warm, wet cloth on one's skin helps as well, by softening hairs. This can also be done by using pre-shave oil before the application of shaving cream. One other technique involves exfoliating the skin before and after shaving, using various exfoliating products, included but not limited to, mitts and luffa. This process removes dead skin cells, reducing the potential for ingrown hairs and allowing the razor to glide across the skin smoothly decreasing the risk of the razor snagging or grabbing causing razor burn.
Pseudofolliculitis barbae is a medical term for persistent inflammation caused by shaving. It is also known by the initials PFB or colloquial terms such as "razor bumps."
Shaving does not cause terminal hair to grow back thicker or coarser or darker. This belief arose because hair that has not been cut has a tapered end (due to wear), whereas, after cutting, there is no taper. Thus, it appears thicker, and feels coarser due to the sharper, unworn edges. The fact that shorter hairs are "harder" (less flexible) than longer hairs also contributes to this effect. Hair can also appear darker after it grows back because hair that has never been cut is often lighter due to sun exposure. In addition, as humans grow older hair tends to grow coarser and in more places on the face and body.][ For example, teenagers may start shaving their face or legs at around 16, but as they age hair will start to grow more abundantly and thicker, leading some to believe this was due to the shaving, but in reality is just part of the aging process.
Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches and some Hindu, Jain and Buddhist (usually only monks or nuns) temples of shaving or plucking the hair from the scalp of priests and nuns as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. Amish men shave their beard until they are married, after which they allow it to grow.
Among Hindus, a child's birth hair is shaved as practice in the religion. This allows for a check to be made of proper fusing of the skull, it is also believed that this allows the hair to grow back thicker and healthier.
In Islam it is habit or usual practice for one to grow a full beard and trim the moustache close, if genetically possible. In addition to the above requirements, Muslim men and women must shave their pubic hair and armpit hair, and not let it grow for more than 40 days. Some Muslims also interpret this as habit, while classical scholars][ have viewed the matter as religious duty][.
Observant Jewish men are subject to restrictions on the shaving of their beards, as the book of Leviticus in the Bible appears to completely forbid the shaving of the corners of the head and prohibits the marring of the corners of the beard. The Hebrew word used in this verse refers specifically to shaving with a blade against the skin][; rabbis at different times and places have interpreted this in many ways. Tools like scissors and electric razors, which cut the hair between two blades instead of between blade and skin, have often been considered more acceptable.
A chemical depilatory is a cosmetic preparation used to remove hair from the skin on the human body. Currently, common active ingredients are calcium thioglycolate or potassium thioglycolate, which breaks down the disulfide bonds in keratin and weakens the hair so that it is easily scraped off where it emerges from the hair follicle.
This break down reaction is affected by the calcium hydroxide or the potassium hydroxide (both alkali). The resulting combinations of calcium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide and thioglycolic acid are calcium thioglycolate(CaTG) or potassium thioglycolate (KTG), respectively. The calcium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide are present in excess to enable the thioglycolic acid to react with the cystine present joining chains in hair protein. The reaction is:
As the epidermis is also rich in keratin, the skin may become irritated and sensitive if the preparation is left on for too long. Chemical depilatories are used primarily for the arms and legs. They should not be used on the face unless specifically listed for that purpose on the product's label.
Chemical depilatories are available in gel, cream, lotion, aerosol, roll-on, and powder forms. Common brands include Nair, Magic Shave and Veet.
Hair Removal Cream Applying to Skin...
Veet, formerly called Neet and Immac, is a current trademark of chemical depilatory internationally-sold products manufactured by Reckitt Benckiser Hair removal creams, mousses and gels, and waxes are produced under this brand. It has previously created similar products under the names Neet and Immac.
Veet's hair removal products contain thioglycolic acid and potassium hydroxide. These ingredients react to generate the depilatory chemical potassium thioglycolate, which according to the company, increases hair loss. The effect is to break the disulfide bonds of the keratin molecules in hair. This reduces the tensile strength of the keratin so greatly that the hair can be wiped away.
Previously called "Neet," the hair removal product was manufactured by Hannibal Pharmaceutical Company and registered as a US trademark in 1919 in Canada and in 1922 in the US. The trademark for Neet was then picked up by the American Home Products Corporation in 1958. Neet was then transferred to its current holder, Reckitt Benckiser (then called Reckitt & Colman (Overseas) Ltd.).
The Veet name was established in 1922 in the UK. The name was used in some European countries, but was not used universally. For example, while the product was sold as Veet in France, the product was sold in the United States as Neet until 2002, when the Veet name was first used commercially in the US.
Veet was advertised in the 1920s (then known as Neet) as a product that was "faster than shaving," was called "the ready to use hair removing cream," and was initially sold for about fifty cents in the US. Immac was a deodorant produced by the same company.
More recent advertising campaigns have used university students as spokespersons for their products political commentary, such as the "No More Bush" ads after the 2008 United States Presidential Election.
Some advertising from Veet has been controversial. A test website for the product in France offended some online users by claiming that the product was "good for the pussy." The URL of the website (no longer available) was at monminoutoutdoux.com, which translates to "My Pussy's All Soft." The campaign was cartoon-like and obviously directed towards prepuberal girls, playing on their sexual uninformedness and insinuating that unshaved hairs would sting, through lyrics like "A pussy that stings is really nasty" in the song accompanying the cartoon video. Also, the site featured an internet game aimed at shaving all hairs of the cartoon pussycat. If the "pussy" was not shaved enough, the user would be met by a message "You've chosen the right product! But the pussy wants more shaving! Redo the test". A representative of Veet addressed the situation stating, "We wanted to create an ad campaign that was a bit humorous and offbeat...we didn't want to shock but we're not the experts on that." The manager reported there were several complaints about the website, and it was summarily taken down so as not to "tarnish the brand's image."
Nair (hair removal)
Sugaring, sugar waxing or Arab waxing is a method of hair removal.
It has been in use since 1900 BC,][ although probably using honey. (Sugar, as such, only spread to the rest of the world in the first millennium AD from Papua New Guinea. It was not found anywhere else prior to this.)
The Sugaring substrate sticks to the hair without attaching to the skin and may be applied at room temperature or heated to a lukewarm temperature, preventing burning. Nevertheless, there is some risk of skin irritation, sensitivity, and reaction.
Sugaring paste can be prepared with common household food items, such as water, sugar and lemon juice, and cornstarch, honey or molasses. Getting the consistency correct takes some practice for most users. Pre-made sugar paste is also sold; professional and retail versions are available. It may contain guar gum in addition to the other ingredients. Since the sugar solution is water-based and water-soluble, the substance can be easily cleaned up with warm water.
Studio Smooth website states that sugaring is preferable to waxing, because the former has no resins, except for guar.
The most common recipe for sugaring wax is as follows (units by volume):
The ingredients are heated and mixed until they are completely liquid; after this the liquid changes from seemingly white to a light, gold-like color (while being heated). The solution should not be allowed to become too dark. Darkness and hardness are controlled by heating the solution to specific temperatures. For a thick paste, the solution should be heated to 118°C, and to 121°C for a gel.
When completed, the solution is left to cool to room temperature.
Lemon juice is added for its acidity, which breaks up the sucrose into fructose and glucose. As in candy making, this gives the finished sugaring wax a non-crystalline, or amorphous, structure.
With the strip method, the area to be epilated is typically dusted with powder (commercial or corn starch) prior to application of the sugaring solution, which is spread on with a spatula or tongue depressor. After the sticky paste is applied to the skin in the opposite direction of hair growth, a strip of porous cloth or paper is pressed into the preparation, and "ripped off" in the same direction of hair growth, taking hairs with it.
Sugar Wax recipe
Nair is a hair removal product manufactured by Church & Dwight. It was purchased from Carter-Wallace in 2001.
The brand name is a possible portmanteau of the words “No” and “Hair" to produce a word that rhymes with "Hair." The brand is mainly known for its depilatories that work by breaking the disulfide bonds of the keratin molecules in hair. This reduces the tensile strength of the keratin so greatly that the hair can be wiped away. Nair's slogans include: "The Less That You Wear, the More You Need Nair!"; "Like Never Before"; and "We wear short shorts, Nair for short shorts".
Products such as Nair often combine softening agents such as mineral oil to help offset the harsh active ingredients. Some of the important active ingredients are Calcium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide.
Calcium hydroxide, traditionally called slaked lime, hydrated lime, slack lime, or pickling lime, is a chemical compound with the formula Ca(OH)2. (Concentrated) Calcium Hydroxide qualifies as Health Level 3 on the "Diamond" of the NFPA 704, a standard maintained by the U.S.-based National Fire Protection Association.
Behind it is the even stronger Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, which is a caustic metallic (alkali) base.
Both chemicals act to break down the structure of the hair deep into the root, delaying regrowth up to several weeks.
Nair makes a variety of products.
Nair's newest product line, "Pretty", offers several fruit-scented hair removal products, all of which are marketed to girls between the age of 10-15. Controversy has spurred surrounding this line, as some vocal critics have said they are persuading children into adulthood too soon.