Soft matter is a subfield of condensed matter comprising a variety of physical states that are easily deformed by thermal stresses or thermal fluctuations. They include liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, granular materials, and a number of biological materials. These materials share an important common feature in that predominant physical behaviors occur at an energy scale comparable with room temperature thermal energy. At these temperatures, quantum aspects are generally unimportant. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, who has been called the "founding father of soft matter," received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1991 for discovering that the order parameter from simple thermodynamic systems can be applied to the more complex cases found in soft matter, in particular, to the behaviors of liquid crystals and polymers.
An inorganic nonaqueous solvent is a solvent other than water, that is not an organic compound. Common examples are liquid ammonia, liquid sulfur dioxide, sulfuryl chloride and sulfuryl chloride fluoride, phosphoryl chloride, dinitrogen tetroxide, antimony trichloride, bromine pentafluoride, hydrogen fluoride, pure sulfuric acid and other inorganic acids. These solvents are used in chemical research and industry for reactions that cannot occur in aqueous solutions or require a special environment.
The reactions of the compounds containing xenon are mostly conducted in hydrogen fluoride or bromine pentafluoride, which dissolve readily both xenon difluorides and its multiple derivatives, although sulfuric solvents are also used sometimes, in particular sulfuryl chloride fluoride for strong oxidants.