A blue law is a type of law designed to restrict or ban some or all Sunday shopping for religious standards, particularly the observance of a day of worship or rest. Blue laws may also restrict or ban sale of certain items on specific days, most often on Sundays in the western world. Some Islamic nations may ban on Fridays, and Israel often on Saturday Sabbath. Blue laws are enforced in parts of the United States, as well as some European countries, particularly in Austria, France, Germany, Switzerland, and Norway keeping most stores closed on Sundays.
In the United States, the U.S. Supreme Court have held blue laws as constitutional numerous times due to secular reason even though the origin of the blue laws were for religious purposes. Most blue laws have been repealed in the United States, although many states still ban the sale of alcohol or cars on Sundays. Bergen County in New Jersey is notable for their blue laws banning the sale of clothing, shoes, furniture, home supplies and appliances on Sundays kept through county-wide referendum. Paramus, New Jersey has its own blue laws even more strict than the county itself, banning any type of worldly employment on Sundays except necessity items such as food and gasoline.
Religious law refers to ethical and hi moral codes taught by religious traditions. Examples include Canon law (Christian law), customary halakha (Jewish law), Hindu law, and Sharia (Islamic law).
The two most prominent systems, canon law and shari'a, differ from other religious laws in that Canon law is the codification of Catholic, Anglican and Orthodox law as in civil law, while shari'a derives many of its laws from juristic precedent and reasoning by analogy (as in a common law tradition).
The separation of church and state is the distance in the relationship between organized religion and the nation state.
Although the concept of separation has been adopted in a number of countries, there are varying degrees of separation depending on the applicable legal structures and prevalent views toward the proper role of religion in society. While a country's policy may be to have a definite distinction in church and state, there may be an "arm's length distance" relationship in which the two entities interact as independent organizations. A similar but typically stricter principle of laïcité has been applied in France and Turkey, while some socially secularized countries such as Denmark and the United Kingdom have maintained constitutional recognition of an official state religion. The concept parallels various other international social and political ideas, including secularism, disestablishment, religious liberty, and religious pluralism. Whitman (2009) observes that in many European countries, the state has, over the centuries, taken over the social roles of the church, leading to a generally secularized public sphere.
Working time is the period of time that an individual spends at paid occupational labor. Unpaid labors such as personal housework or caring for children/pets are not considered part of the working week. Many countries regulate the work week by law, such as stipulating minimum daily rest periods, annual holidays and a maximum number of working hours per week. Working time may vary from person to person often depending on location, culture, lifestyle choice, and the profitability of the individuals livelihood. For example someone who is supporting children and paying a large mortgage will need to work more hours to meet a basic cost of living than someone without children of the same earning power. As fewer people than ever are having children choosing part time is becoming more popular.
Standard working hours (or normal working hours) refers to the legislation to limit the working hours per day, per week, per month or per year. If an employee needs to work overtime, the employer will need to pay overtime payments to employees as required in the law. Generally speaking, standard working hours of countries worldwide are around 40 to 44 hours per week, and the additional overtime payments are around 25% to 50% to the normal hourly payments. Maximum working hours refers to the maximum working hours of an employee. The employee cannot work more than the level specified in the maximum working hours law.
Household chemicals are non-food chemicals that are commonly found and used in and around the average household. They are a type of consumer goods, designed particularly to assist cleaning, pest control and general hygiene purposes.
Food additives generally do not fall under this category, unless they have a use other than for human consumption. Cosmetics products can partially be counted in, because even though they are not for direct application to parts of the human body, they may contain artificial additives that have nothing to do with their dedicated purpose (e.g. preservatives and fragrances in hair spray). Additives in general (e.g. stabilizers and coloring found in washing powder and dishwasher detergents) make the classification of household chemicals more complex, especially in terms of health - some of these chemicals are irritants or potent allergens - and ecological effects.
The Maine law, passed in 1851 in Maine, was one of the first statutory implementations of the developing temperance movement in the United States.
Temperance activist Neal Dow helped craft this law. The passage of the law, which prohibited the sale of all alcoholic beverages except for "medicinal, mechanical or manufacturing purposes," quickly spread elsewhere, and by 1855 twelve states had joined Maine in total prohibition. These were "dry" states; states without prohibition laws were "wet."
The Alcohol laws of Wisconsin are neither as restrictive as Utah nor as permissive as Missouri, and have their own unique features.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (US), America, or simply the States, is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, 16 territories, a federal district, and various overseas extraterritorial jurisdictions. The 48 contiguous states and the federal district of Washington, D.C., are in central North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is the northwestern part of North America and the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also has five populated and nine unpopulated territories in the Pacific and the Caribbean. At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km2) in total and with around 316 million people, the United States is the fourth-largest country by total area and third largest by population. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. The geography and climate of the United States is also extremely diverse, and it is home to a wide variety of wildlife.
Paleo-indians migrated from Asia to what is now the US mainland around 15,000 years ago, with European colonization beginning in the 16th century. The United States emerged from 13 British colonies located along the Atlantic seaboard. Disputes between Great Britain and these colonies led to the American Revolution. On July 4, 1776, delegates from the 13 colonies unanimously issued the Declaration of Independence. The ensuing war ended in 1783 with the recognition of independence of the United States from the Kingdom of Great Britain, and was the first successful war of independence against a European colonial empire. The current Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787. The first 10 amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and guarantee many fundamental civil rights and freedoms.