The vertebral column, also known as backbone or spine, is a bony structure found in vertebrates. It is formed from the vertebrae.
A back brace is a device designed to limit the motion of the spine in cases of fracture or in post-operative fusions, as well as a preventative measure against some progressive conditions.
Common back braces include:
To assume a brace or crash position is an instruction that can be given to prepare for a crash, such as on an aircraft; the instruction to brace for impact is often given if the aircraft must make an emergency landing over land or water.
The neuromechanics of idiopathic scoliosis is about the bones, muscles and joints changes in people having a spinal deformity consisting of a lateral curvature and a rotation of the vertebrae within the curve that is not explained by congenital (e.g. vertebral abnormality) or neuromuscular (e.g. muscular dystrophy) reasons. The idiopathic scoliosis accounts for 80–90% of scoliosis cases. Its pathogenesis is unknown. However, changes in the vestibular system, a lateral shift of the hand representation and abnormal variability of erector spinae motor map location in the motor cortex may be involved in this disease. Besides, idiopathic scoliosis being more frequent in certain families, it is suspected to be transmitted via autosomal dominant inheritance. Estrogens could also play a crucial part in the progression of idiopathic scoliosis through their roles in bone formation, growth, maturation and turnover. Finally, collagen, intervertebral disc and muscle abnormalities have been suggested as etiologic factors in idiopathic scoliosis, although these are perhaps results rather than causes.
The patient’s age at presentation of scoliosis, the remaining growth, the menarche status and the magnitude of the curve are used to foresee the idiopathic scoliosis curve progression. However, the relative importance of each factor and how they may interact is not clearly defined. The earlier the scoliosis appears, the more likely it will progress. Though it is recommended that idiopathic scoliotic people should practice a sport for aerobic exercise and development of a positive body image, practice of a sport at a competitive level is to be avoided.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (also spelled orthopaedic surgery and orthopaedics) is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.
Nicholas Andry coined the word "orthopaedics" in French as orthopédie, derived from the Greek words orthos ("correct", "straight") and paidion ("child"), when he published Orthopedie (translated as Orthopaedia: or the Art of Correcting and Preventing Deformities in Children) in 1741. The correction of spinal and bony deformities became the cornerstone of orthopedic practice.