.Yes it does i have had one and i used clear finger nail polish.
Nail polish is a lacquer applied to human finger or toe nails to decorate and protect the nail plate. Today's nail polish is a refined version similar to the paint on vehicles. However, its formula has been revised repeatedly in order to prevent the cracking or flaking that occurs with the natural movement of the nail.
Nail polish originated in China, dating back to 3000 BC. Around 600 BC during the Zhou Dynasty, the royal house had a preference for the colors gold and silver. However, it would eventually transition to red and black. During the Ming Dynasty, nail polish was often made from a mixture of egg whites, beeswax, Arabic gum and flower petals to create a pigment that they would soak their nails in for hours to reach a desirable effect.
In Egypt, the lower classes would wear pale colors and the high society red.
By the turn of the 9th century, nails were tinted with scented red oils, and polished or buffed. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, people pursued a polished rather than painted look by massaging tinted powders and creams into their nails, then buffing them shiny. One such polishing product sold around this time was Graf's Hyglo nail polish paste. After the creation of automobile paint, Cutex produced the first modern nail polish in 1917. Later the Charles Revson Company (later Revlon) produced their first nail polish in 1932.
Once nail polish was refined, it was often used in the place of gloves to cover up the grime underneath finger and toe nails.
Nail polish today is a refined version of the paint on vehicles. Most nail polishes are made of nitrocellulose dissolved in a solvent (e.g. butyl acetate or ethyl acetate) and either left clear or colored with various pigments. Basic components include: film forming agents (silver halide), resins and plasticizers, solvents, and coloring agents. Adhesive polymers (e.g. tosylamide-formaldehyde resin) ensure that the nitrocellulose adheres to the nail's surface. Plasticizers (e.g. camphor) are chemicals that link between polymer chains, spacing them to make the film sufficiently flexible after drying. Pigments and sparkling particles (e.g. mica) add desired color and reflecting characteristics. In addition, coloring "may also be attributable to the presence of chemicals such as chromium oxide greens, chromium hydroxide, ferric ferrocyanide, ferric ammonium ferrocyanide, stannic oxide, titanium dioxide, iron oxide, carmine, ultramarines, and manganese violet.” In order to get that glittery/shimmer look in the color, mica, bismuth oxychloride, natural pearls, and aluminum powder are added into the ingredients of the nail polish. Thickening agents (e.g. stearalkonium hectorite) are added to maintain the sparkling particles in suspension while in the bottle. Ultraviolet stabilizers (e.g. benzophenone-1) resist color changes when the dry film is exposed to direct sunlight.
Nail polish makers are under pressure to reduce or to eliminate toxic ingredients, including phthalates, toluene, and formaldehyde. In September 2006, several makers agreed to phase out dibutyl phthalate, which has been linked to testicular problems in lab animals and humans, in updated formulations. Some makers eliminated formaldehyde from their products, others still use it. The city of San Francisco enacted a city ordinance, publicly identifying establishments that use nail polishes free of the "toxic trio" of toluene, dibutyl phthalate and formaldehyde.
Studies performed on female rats discovered that DBP, also known as phthalates, have been causing birth defects. It was soon removed from the ingredients of nail polish as a precaution. "The amount of chemicals used in animal studies is probably a couple of hundred times higher than what you'd be exposed to from using nail polish every week or so," says Paul Foster, PhD, a senior fellow at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. "So the chance of any individual phthalate producing such harm is very slim."
Water-based nail polish is based on an acrylic polymer emulsion (e.g. styrene-acrylate copolymer), and pigments similar to those used in watercolor paints.][ This is marketed as an environmentally-conscious product, since nail polish is considered a hazardous waste by some regulatory bodies such as the Los Angeles Department of Public Works). In this application, the solvent (water) does not completely evaporate as in the case of the traditional nail polish; part of the water is absorbed through the fingernail.
In order to reduce the exposures of nail salon workers to the potentially dangerous chemicals found in nail polish, nail tables equipped with local exahust ventilation have been used in nail salons. Researchers have been evaluating the effectiveness of the different local exhaust ventilation systems in ventilated nail tables. Preliminary findings have shown these ventilation systems have potential to reduce worker exposure to chemicals by at least 50%.
This type of polish usually last two weeks longer than normal nail polishes. It is set under Ultraviolet (UV) light to seal the polish on to the nail, a process known as "curing." To remove the polish, one has to soak their nails in acetone for at least 10–15 minutes because the polish is sealed onto the nail so hard that it is difficult to remove. Gel lasts the longest and is the most preferred type of polish.][
This type of nail polish is a clear colored polish formula that is used specifically before applying nail polish to the nail. The purpose of it is to help strengthen nails with protein, vitamin E and calcium which can help prevent nails from breakage and peeling, as well as to restore moisture into the nail. This is especially helpful for those with dry or brittle nails. By applying Base Coat, the polish forms a smooth surface by filling in ridges that can appear on unhealthy nails. There are two types of base coat: one is a normal formula where the consistency can be compared to regular nail polishes; the other is thicker in consistency, best for people with thinner nails, or who have deeper ridges. This helps fill in the gaps for a smooth surface. Base coat creates a barrier by protecting it from damages such as peeling and staining, especially red nail polishes, a pigment that tends to stain the nail yellow.
This type of nail polish is a clear colored polish formula that is used specifically after applying nail polish to the nail. It forms a hardened barrier for the nail to prevent chipping, scratching and peeling. It strengthens the nail and forms a glossy and shiny finishing touch to the nail. It is recommended that those who enjoy nail art to apply top coat to preserve the design for a longer period of time.
Nail polish started traditionally in clear, red, pink, purple, and black. Since that time, many new colors and techniques have developed resulting in nail polish that is found in an extremely diverse variety of colors. Beyond solid colors, nail polish has also developed an array of other designs and colors, such as nail polish stamps, crackled, magnetic, nail polish strips and stickers. Fake rhinestones are also often applied. Some types of polish are advertised to cause nail growth, make nails stronger, prevent nails from breaking, cracking and splitting, and to stop nail biting. Nail polish may be applied as one of several components in a manicure.
Clear varnish is a transparent and glossy layer which can make the nails appear clean and shiny. This type of nail polish can be used over other varnish for gloss or by itself, as can glitter nail polish. The pigment of the clear nail polish can be altered by adding different shades of the colors of the rainbow. Colors can be mixed together to produce different shades of nail polish. Also, the colors white and black can be added to give the color a "tinted" look or a "darkened" look. Similar to a clear varnish is an acrylic gel polish. This polish is much like the gel products used in nail salons, which is essentially a strong, clear top coat typically applied over a colored polish. The acrylic gel polish is more than just a glossy layer over nails; the polish gives the underlying color polish support and protection from being easily chipped.
French manicures are manicures designed to resemble natural nails, and are characterized by natural pink base nails with white tips, making it one of the first popular and well known color schemes with nail polish. The tips of the nails are painted white while the rest of the nails are polished in a pink or a suitable nude shade. French manicures may have originated in 18th-century Paris and were popular in the 1920s and 1930s.
Black has been a popular color of nail polish with goths, emo and punks of both genders since the 1970s. However, black and dark nail colors were a huge trend as early as the 1930s. Men also began wearing nail polish in the mid 1970s. It began as a gothic trend but has recently developed into a more common style for men, worn both on fingernails and toenails.
Nail polish stamps and stickers that are most popular are animal prints, animals, and flowers. Despite this, there are an array of other stickers and stamps that can be found. Fake and real rhinestones are also often applied to nails for additional decoration.
Magnetic nail polish is often used to create patterns on the nails using a magnet. A few patterns that can be created are waves, layered effects, stars, chevrons, curves and many other patterns. This usually comes in a base color and the magnetic part comes in black or gray.
With a wide selection of nail polish, stickers and other decorations widely available on the market, a new craze of Nail Art has taken to the web. Websites and social media sites such as Pinterest, show pictures and provide guides to a range of nail designs that can be done by yourself. Accessorizing your look with funky or glamorous nails has been a hit with the celebrities of today and it's now becoming popular with everyone.
Nail polish is removed with nail polish remover or nail pads, which is an organic solvent, but may also include oils, scents and coloring. Nail polish remover packages may include individual felt pads soaked in remover, a bottle of liquid remover that can be used with a cotton ball or cotton pad, and even containers filled with foam that can be used by inserting a finger into the container and twisting until the polish comes off.
The most common type of nail polish remover contains the volatile organic compound acetone. It is powerful and effective, but is harsh on skin and nails, which can even make them more brittle.][ It can also be used to remove artificial nails, which are usually made of acrylic. Less toxic to children is ethyl acetate, the active ingredient in non-acetone nail polish removers, which also often contain isopropyl alcohol. Ethyl acetate is generally the solvent in nail polish itself.
Acetonitrile has been used as a nail polish remover, but it is toxic and potentially carcinogenic. It has been banned in the European Economic Area for cosmetics since 17 March 2000.
Nail polish is often applied to nails that are free of other polish. To ensure lasting color and a smooth application, several layers of a base coat polish are applied; once the first layer has been applied and dried, a second, and even a third layer may be applied. Then a clear top coat of nail polish may be applied, as the final step in the process, which keeps the polish from chipping off the fingernail.
The ring finger is the fourth proximal digit of the human hand, and the second most ulnar finger, located between the middle finger and the little finger. It is also called digitus medicinalis, the fourth finger, digitus annularis, digitus quartus, or digitus IV in anatomy. It may also be referred to as the third finger.
According to László A. Magyar, the names of the ring finger in many languages reflect an ancient belief that it is a magical finger. It is named after magic or rings, or called nameless (for example, in Chinese: 无名指, unnamed finger). In Sanskrit and other Indic languages, the name for the ring finger is Anamika ("nameless").][
Before medical science discovered how the circulatory system functioned, people believed that a vein of blood ran directly from the third finger on the left hand to the heart. Because of the hand-heart connection, they chose the descriptive name vena amoris, Latin for the vein of love, for this particular vein.][
Based upon this name, their contemporaries, purported experts in the field of matrimonial etiquette, wrote that it would only be fitting that the wedding ring be worn on this finger. By wearing the ring on the third finger of the left hand, a married couple symbolically declares their eternal love for each other.
In Western cultures, a wedding ring is traditionally worn on the ring finger. This developed from the Roman "anulus pronubis" when the man gave a ring to the woman at the betrothal ceremony. Blessing the wedding ring and putting it on the bride's finger dates from the 11th century. In medieval Europe, the Christian wedding ceremony placed the ring in sequence on the index, middle, and ring fingers of the left hand. The ring was then left on the ring finger. In a few European countries, the ring is worn on the left hand prior to marriage, then transferred to the right during the ceremony.][ For example, a Greek Orthodox bride wears the ring on the left hand prior to the ceremony, then moves it to the right hand after the wedding. In England, the 1549 Prayer Book declared "the ring shall be placed on the left hand". By the 17th and 18th centuries the ring could be found on any finger after the ceremony — even on the thumb.
In some Orthodox Christian, Roman Catholic and Protestant countries such as Russia, Greece, Georgia, Poland, Austria, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Spain, Chile, Venezuela, Colombia and India, the wedding ring is worn on the ring finger of the right hand.
In other countries, such as Finland, France, Ireland, Sweden, Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, Turkey, Brazil, Egypt, Mexico, Canada, the USA and the UK, it is generally worn on the ring finger of the left hand, although right hand wearing is becoming more common.
The ring is more noticeable on the right hand due to the traditional shaking of right hands in greeting.
Several traditions exist in traditional Jewish wedding ceremonies: most commonly today, the ring is placed on the index finger; but other traditions record placing it on the middle finger or the thumb. Today the ring usually is moved to the ring finger after the ceremony. Some Jewish grooms have adopted wearing a wedding ring.
A wedding ring is not a traditional part of the religious Muslim wedding; wedding rings are not included in most Islamic countries. However, if a wedding ring is worn in an Islamic country, it may be worn on either the left (such is the custom in Iran) or the right ring finger. As opposed to the wedding ring, use of a ring to denote betrothal or engagement is quite prevalent in Muslim countries, especially those in West and South Asia.
Rings are not traditional in an Indian wedding. However, in modern society it is becoming a practice to wear rings for engagements and not for actual marriage. Though the left hand is considered inauspicious for religious activities, a ring (not to be called wedding ring) is still worn on the left hand. Men generally wear the rings on the right hand and the women on the left hands.
In Sinhala and Tamil culture, the groom wears the wedding ring on his right hand and bride wears it on her left hand ring finger. This can be seen in countries like Sri Lanka where there is a rich Sinhala and Tamil cultural influence in the society.
The ratio between index and ring finger is believed to be linked to exposure to testosterone in the womb. On average, men tend to have longer ring fingers and women longer index fingers. The higher the testosterone, the greater the length of the ring finger and the more "masculine" the resulting child – whether male or female. The longest ring finger is known as the "Casanova pattern".
In a study of stock traders, Cambridge University researchers found that the most successful had a relatively long ring finger. According to this study, the finger-length ratio was boosted by higher levels of testosterone in the womb during a crucial phase of gestation. Traders with long ring fingers made up to 11 times the earnings of their counterparts, the study found.
Scientists at the University of California, Berkeley found the difference in the length between women's ring fingers and index fingers tend to be greater for lesbians than straight women. The same study also found that a greater difference in length of men's ring fingers and index fingers for gay men with several older brothers as compared to straight men.
Scientists at the University of Bath found that children who had longer ring fingers are better with numbers-based subjects such as mathematics and physics, which are traditionally male favorites.
Canadian researchers from the University of Alberta have found a correlation between length of the ring finger and levels of physical aggression.
The two-finger salute is a salute given using only the middle and index fingers, while bending the other fingers at the second knuckle, and with the palm facing the signer. This salute is used by Polish military and uniformed services and by Cub Scouts.
The salute is only used while wearing a headdress with, or without the emblem of the Polish eagle (such as military hat rogatywka), or without this emblem (such as Boonie hat or helmet). The salute is performed with the middle and index fingers extended and touching each other, while the ring and little fingers are bent and touched by the thumb . The tips of the middle and index fingers touch the peak of the cap, two fingers meaning honour and fatherland (Honor i Ojczyzna).][
It is not clear when the two-fingers salute appeared in Polish military forces. Some see its origin in Tadeusz Kościuszko's 1794 oath. Others state that it came from the Russian army around 1815. At that time, apparently the Tsar's Viceroy in Poland Grand Duke Constantine said that Poles salute him with two fingers, while using the other two to hold a stone to throw at him. Another legend attributes the salute to the remembrance of Battle of Olszynka Grochowska in 1831, when a soldier who lost two fingers in the battle saluted his superior with a wounded hand.
The two-fingers salute caused problems for Polish units serving with the Allies on the western front during World War II. Allied officers, seeing what they perceived as a Cub Scout's salute, thought that Polish soldiers either were deliberately being disrespectful, or were intoxicated. As a result many soldiers were arrested, until the misunderstanding could be explained. This led to the temporary use of the full hand salute when saluting foreign officers.][
The salute has undergone the same evolution as the full-hand salute. It used to be rendered with the palm of the hand perpendicular to the ground and is rendered with the palm of the hand parallel to the ground, since before the World War II. The modern version of this salute can be seen in this movie.
Many Cub Scout sections also use a two-finger salute.
Onychomycosis (also known as "dermatophytic onychomycosis," or"tinea unguium") means fungal infection of the nail. It is the most common disease of the nails and constitutes about a half of all nail abnormalities.
This condition may affect toenails or fingernails, but toenail infections are particularly common. The prevalence of onychomycosis is about 6–8% in the adult population.
There are four classic types of onychomycosis:
The most common symptom of a fungal nail infection is the nail becoming thickened and discoloured: white, black, yellow or green. As the infection progresses the nail can become brittle, with pieces breaking off or coming away from the toe or finger completely. If left untreated, the skin can become inflamed and painful underneath and around the nail. There may also be white or yellow patches on the nailbed or scaly skin next to the nail. There is usually no pain or other bodily symptoms, unless the disease is severe. People with onychomycosis may experience significant psychosocial problems due to the appearance of the nail, particularly when fingers – which are always visible – rather than toenails are affected.
Dermatophytids are fungus-free skin lesions that sometimes form as a result of a fungus infection in another part of the body. This could take the form of a rash or itch in an area of the body that is not infected with the fungus. Dermatophytids can be thought of as an allergic reaction to the fungus.
The causative pathogens of onychomycosis include dermatophytes, Candida, and nondermatophytic molds. Dermatophytes are the fungi most commonly responsible for onychomycosis in the temperate western countries; while Candida and nondermatophytic molds are more frequently involved in the tropics and subtropics with a hot and humid climate.
Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte involved in onychomycosis. Other dermatophytes that may be involved are T. interdigitale, Epidermophyton floccosum, T. violaceum, Microsporum gypseum, T. tonsurans, T. soudanense A common outdated name that may still be reported by medical laboratories is Trichophyton mentagrophytes for T. interdigitale. The name T. mentagrophytes is now restricted to the agent of favus skin infection of the mouse; though this fungus may be transmitted from mice and their danders to humans, it generally infects skin and not nails.
Other causative pathogens include Candida and nondermatophytic molds, in particular members of the mold generation Scytalidium (name recently changed to Neoscytalidium), Scopulariopsis, and Aspergillus. Candida spp. mainly cause fingernail onychomycosis in people whose hands are often submerged in water. Scytalidium mainly affects people in the tropics, though it persists if they later move to areas of temperate climate.
Other molds more commonly affect people older than 60 years, and their presence in the nail reflects a slight weakening in the nail's ability to defend itself against fungal invasion.
Aging is the most common risk factor for onychomycosis due to diminished blood circulation, longer exposure to fungi, and nails which grow more slowly and thicken, increasing susceptibility to infection. Nail fungus tends to affect men more often than women, and is associated with a family history of this infection.
Other risk factors include perspiring heavily, being in a humid or moist environment, psoriasis, wearing socks and shoes that hinder ventilation and do not absorb perspiration, going barefoot in damp public places such as swimming pools, gyms and shower rooms, having athlete's foot (tinea pedis), minor skin or nail injury, damaged nail, or other infection, and having diabetes, circulation problems, which may also lead to lower peripheral temperatures on hands and feet, or a weakened immune system.
To avoid misdiagnosis as nail psoriasis, lichen planus, contact dermatitis, trauma, nail bed tumor or yellow nail syndrome, laboratory confirmation may be necessary. The three main approaches are potassium hydroxide smear, culture and histology. This involves microscopic examination and culture of nail scrapings or clippings. Recent results indicate the most sensitive diagnostic approaches are direct smear combined with histological examination, and nail plate biopsy using periodic acid-Schiff stain. To reliably identify nondermatophyte molds, several samples may be necessary.
Treatment of onychomycosis is challenging because the infection is embedded within the nail and is difficult to reach; full removal of symptoms is slow and may take a year or more, since new nail growth must entirely replace old, infected growth.
Most treatments are either systemic antifungal medications, such as terbinafine and itraconazole, or topical, such as clotrimazole, nail paints containing ciclopirox (ciclopiroxolamine) or amorolfine. There is evidence that combining systemic and topical treatments is beneficial.
For superficial white onychomycosis, systemic rather than topical antifungal therapy is advised.
In July 2007 a meta-study reported on clinical trials for topical treatments of fungal nail infections. The study included six randomised, controlled trials dating up to March 2005. The main findings are:
A 2002 study compared the efficacy and safety of medication with terbinafine in comparison to placebo, itraconazole and griseofulvin in treating fungal infections of the nails. The main findings were for reduced fungus, terbinafine was found to be significantly better than itraconazole and griseofulvin, and terbinafine was better tolerated than itraconazole.
Research suggests that fungi are sensitive to heat, typically 40–60 °C. The basis of laser treatment is to try heat the nail bed to these temperatures in order to disrupt fungal growth.
A Pinpointe type][ laser is available in the USA and approved by the FDA for onychomycosis treatment.
A Noveon-type laser, already in use by physicians for some types of cataract surgery on the eye, is used by some podiatrists, although the only scientific study on its efficacy as of 2010[update], while showing positive results, included far too few test subjects for the laser to be proven generally effective.
In 2011 several lasers were submitted for approval and two been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration.
In 2012, the most common laser in Germany, the Fox Diode Laser with wavelength of 1,064nm based on semiconductor laser was approved by health Canada to treat Onychomycosis. The Fox Diode Laser can be programmed to produce any pulse width and can work also on CW (Continuous Wave).
Several companies have approval to market a Nd:YAG laser for onychomycosis treatment.
The wavelength of light produced by the lasers trialled is in the visible or infra-red range, and insufficiently high to produce direct dna damage as would be the case with ultra-violet lasers. (questionable: no citation.)
If heating is an effective treatment, then there would be many other low technology, low cost methods available to raise the temperature of the nail bed, including infra-red heating, warm air heating etc. This uncited statement statement seems unlikely. Heating with air or water would not allow focused enough heat onto the nailbed. One can not heat the entire toe to the temperature needed to kill the fungus.
Nail fungus can be painful and cause permanent damage to nails. It may lead to other serious infections if the immune system is suppressed due to medication, diabetes or other conditions. The risk is most serious for people with diabetes and with immune systems weakened by leukemia or AIDS, or medication after organ transplant. Diabetics have vascular and nerve impairment, and are at risk of cellulitis, a potentially serious bacterial infection; any relatively minor injury to feet, including a nail fungal infection, can lead to more serious complications. Osteomyelitis (infection of the bone) is another, rare, possible complication.
A 2003 survey of diseases of the foot in 16 European countries found onychomycosis to be the most frequent fungal foot infection and estimates its prevalence at 27%. Prevalence was observed to increase with age. In Canada, the prevalence was estimated to be 6.48%. Onychomycosis affects approximately one-third of diabetics and is 56% more frequent in people suffering from psoriasis.
proc, drug (D10)
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the dorsal aspect of the terminal phalanges of fingers and toes in humans, most non-human primates, and a few other mammals. Nails are similar to claws in other animals. Fingernails and toenails are made of a tough protein called keratin, as are animals' hooves and horns. The mammalian nail, claw, and hoof are all examples of unguis [plural ungues].
The nail consists of the nail plate, the nail matrix and the nail bed below it, and the grooves surrounding it.
The matrix is sometimes called the matrix unguis, keratogenous membrane, nail matrix, or onychostroma. It is the tissue (or germinal matrix) which the nail protects. It is the part of the nail bed that is beneath the nail and contains nerves, lymph and blood vessels. The matrix is responsible for producing cells that become the nail plate. The width and thickness of the nail plate is determined by the size, length, and thickness of the matrix, while the shape of the fingertip itself shows if the nail plate is flat, arched or hooked. The matrix will continue to grow as long as it receives nutrition and remains in a healthy condition. As new nail plate cells are made, they push older nail plate cells forward; and in this way older cells become compressed, flat, and translucent. This makes the capillaries in the nail bed below visible, resulting in a pink color.
The lunula ("small moon") is the visible part of the matrix, the whitish crescent-shaped base of the visible nail. The lunula can best be seen in the thumb and may not be visible in the little finger.
The nail bed is the skin beneath the nail plate. Like all skin, it is made of two types of tissues: the deeper dermis, the living tissue which includes capillaries and glands, The epidermis, the layer just beneath the nail plate, moves toward the finger tip with the plate. The epidermis is attached to the dermis by tiny longitudinal "grooves" called matrix crests (cristae matricis unguis). In old age, the nail plate becomes thinner so that these grooves become more visible.
The nail sinus (sinus unguis) is where the nail root is; i.e. the base of the nail underneath the skin. It originates from the actively growing tissue below, the matrix.
The nail plate (corpus unguis) is the hard part of the nail, made of translucent keratin protein. Several layers of dead, compacted cells cause the nail to be strong but flexible. Its (transversal) shape is determined by the form of the underlying bone. In common usage, the word nail often refers to this part only.
The free margin (margo liber) or distal edge is the anterior margin of the nail plate corresponding to the abrasive or cutting edge of the nail. The hyponychium (informally known as the "quick") is the epithelium located beneath the nail plate at the junction between the free edge and the skin of the fingertip. It forms a seal that protects the nail bed. The onychodermal band is the seal between the nail plate and the hyponychium. It is just under the free edge, in that portion of the nail where the nail bed ends and can be recognized by its glassy, greyish colour (in fair-skinned people). It is not visible in some individuals while it is highly prominent on others.
The eponychium is the small band of epithelium that extends from the posterior nail wall onto the base of the nail. Often and erroneously][ called the "proximal fold" or "cuticle", the eponychium is the end of the proximal fold that folds back upon itself to shed an epidermal layer of skin onto the newly formed nail plate. This layer of non-living, almost invisible skin is the cuticle that "rides out" on the surface of the nail plate. Together, the eponychium and the cuticle form a protective seal. The cuticle on the nail plate is dead cells and is often removed during manicure, but the eponychium is living cells and should not be touched. The perionyx is the projecting edge of the eponychium covering the proximal strip of the lunula.
The nail wall (vallum unguis) is the cutaneous fold overlapping the sides and proximal end of the nail. The lateral margin (margo lateralis) lies beneath the nail wall on the sides of the nail and the nail groove or fold (sulcus matricis unguis) are the cutaneous slits into which the lateral margins are embedded.
The paronychium is the border tissue around the nail and paronychia is an infection in this area.
A healthy finger nail has the function of protecting the distal phalanx, the fingertip, and the surrounding soft tissues from injuries. It also serves to enhance precise delicate movements of the distal digits through counter-pressure exerted on the pulp of the finger. The nail then acts as a counterforce when the end of the finger touches an object, thereby enhancing the sensitivity of the fingertip, even though there are no nerve endings in the nail itself. Finally, the nail functions as a tool, enabling for instance a so-called "extended precision grip" (e.g. pulling out a splinter in one's finger).
The growing part of the nail is under the skin at the nail's proximal end under the epidermis, which is the only living part of a nail.
In mammals, the length and growth rate of nails is related to the length of the terminal phalanges (outermost finger bones). Thus, in humans, the nail of the index finger grows faster than that of the little finger; and fingernails grow up to four times faster than toenails.
In humans, nails grow at an average rate of 3 mm (0.12 in) a month. Fingernails require three to six months to regrow completely, and toenails require 12 to 18 months. Actual growth rate is dependent upon age, sex, season, exercise level, diet, and hereditary factors. Nails grow faster in the summer than in any other season. Contrary to popular belief, nails do not continue to grow after death; the skin dehydrates and tightens, making the nails (and hair) appear to grow.
Healthcare and pre-hospital-care providers (EMTs or paramedics) often use the fingernail beds as a cursory indicator of distal tissue perfusion of individuals that may be dehydrated or in shock. However, this test is not considered reliable in adults. This is known as the CRT or blanch test. The fingernail bed is briefly depressed to turn the nailbed white. When the pressure is released the normal pink colour should be restored within a second or two. Delayed return to pink colour can be an indicator of certain shock states such as hypovolemia
Nail growth record can show the history of recent health and physiological imbalances, and has been used as a diagnostic tool since ancient times. Deep transverse grooves known as Beau's lines may form across the nails (not along the nail from cuticle to tip) and are usually a natural consequence of aging, though they may result from disease. Discoloration, thinning, thickening, brittleness, splitting, grooves, Mees' lines, small white spots, receded lunula, clubbing (convex), flatness, spooning (concave) can indicate illness in other areas of the body, nutrient deficiencies, drug reaction or poisoning, or merely local injury. Nails can also become thickened (onychogryphosis), loosened (onycholysis), infected with fungus (onychomycosis) or degenerate (onychodystrophy); for further information see nail diseases.
DNA profiling is a technique employed by forensic scientists on hair, fingernails etc.
The nail is often considered an impermeable barrier, but this is not true. In fact, it is much more permeable than the skin, and the composition of the nail includes 7–12% of water. This permeability has implications for penetration by harmful and medicinal substances; in particular cosmetics applied to the nails can pose a risk. Water can penetrate the nail as can many other substances including paraquat, a fast acting herbicide that is harmful to humans, urea which is often an ingredient in creams and lotions meant for use on hands and fingers, and several fungicidal agents such as salicylic acid (aspirin), miconazole branded Monistat, natamycin; and sodium hypochlorite which is the active ingredient in common household bleach (but usually only in 2–3% concentration).
Bluish or purple fingernail beds may be a symptom of peripheral cyanosis, which indicates oxygen deprivation.
Nails can dry out, just like skin. They can also peel, break, and be infected. Toe infections, for instance, can be caused or exacerbated by dirty socks, specific types of aggressive exercise][, tight footwear, and walking unprotected in an unclean environment.][
Nail tools used by different people may transmit infections. Nail files, "if ... used on different people, ... may spread nail fungi, staph bacteria or viruses," warns Ted Dischman, a spokesperson for the California Board of Barbering and Cosmetology. In fact, over 100 bacterial skin infections in 2000 were traced to footbaths in nail salons.][ To avoid this, new improved contactless tools can be used, for example, gel and cream cuticle removers instead of cuticle scissors.
Many people also compulsively bite their nails.
Nail disease can be very subtle and should be evaluated by a dermatologist with a focus in this particular area of medicine. However, most times it is a nail technician who will note a subtle change in nail disease.
Inherited accessory nail of the fifth toe occurs where the toenail of the smallest toe is separated, forming a smaller, "sixth toenail" in the outer corner of the nail.][ Like any other nail, it can be cut using a nail clipper.
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient for vision, reproduction, cell and tissue differentiation, and immune function. Vitamin D and calcium work together in cases of maintaining homeostasis, creating muscle contraction, transmission of nerve pulses, blood clotting, and membrane structure. A lack of vitamin A, vitamin D, and calcium can cause dryness and brittleness. Sources of these micronutrients include fortified milk, cereal, and juices, salt-water fish, fish-liver oils, and some vegetables. Vitamin B12 is mainly found in animal sources such as liver and kidney, fish, chicken, and dairy products and therefore can cause intake issues in vegan populations. Not enough B12 vitamin can lead to excessive dryness, darkened nails, and rounded or curved nail ends. Insufficient intake of both vitamin A and B, as previously described, results in fragile nails with horizontal and vertical ridges. Protein is a building material for new nails; therefore, low dietary protein intake may cause white nail beds. Dietary sources of this macronutrient include eggs, milk, cheese, meat, beans and legumes. A lack of protein combined with deficiencies in folic acid and vitamin C produce hangnails. Essential fatty acids play a large role in healthy skin as well as nails. As touched upon previously, essential fatty acids can be obtained through consumption of fish, flaxseed, canola oil, seeds, leafy vegetables, and nuts. Splitting and flaking of nails may be due to a lack of linoleic acid. Iron-deficiency anemia can lead to a pale color along with a thin, brittle, ridged texture. Iron deficiency in general may cause the nails to become flat or concave, rather than convex. Iron can be found in animal sources, called heme iron, such as meat, fish, and poultry, and can also be found in fruits, vegetables, dried beans, nuts, and grain products, also known as non-heme iron. Heme iron is absorbed fairly easily in comparison to non-heme iron; however, both types provide the necessary bodily functions.
Manicures (for the hands) and pedicures (for the feet) are health and cosmetic procedures to groom, trim, and paint the nails and manage calluses. They require various tools such as cuticle scissors, nail scissors, nail clippers, and nail files. Artificial nails can also be fixed onto real nails for cosmetic purposes.
A person whose occupation is to cut, shape and care for nails as well as to apply overlays such as acrylic and UV Gel is sometimes called a nail technician. The place where a nail technician works may be a nail salon or nail shop or nail bar.
Painting the nails with coloured nail polish (also called nail lacquer and nail varnish) to improve the appearance is a common practice dating back to at least 3000 B.C.
Guinness World Records began tracking record fingernail lengths in 1955, when an Chinese priest was listed as having fingernails 1 foot 10.75 inches (57.79 cm) long.
The current record-holder for men, according to Guinness, is Shridhar Chillal from India who set the record in 1998 with a total of 20 feet 2.25 inches (615.32 cm) of nails on his left hand. His longest nail, on his thumb, was 4 feet 9.6 inches (146.3 cm) long.
The record-holder for women is Lee Redmond of the U.S., who set the record in 2001 and as of 2008 had nails with a total length on both hands of 28 feet (850 cm), with the longest nail on her right thumb at 2 feet 11 inches (89 cm).
The nails of primates and the hooves of running mammals evolved from the claws of earlier animals.
In contrast to nails, claws are typically curved ventrally (downwards in animals) and compressed sideways. They serve a multitude of functions —including climbing, digging, and fighting— and have undergone numerous adaptive changes in different animal taxa. Claws are pointed at their ends and are composed of two layers: a thick, deep layer and a superficial, hardened layer which serves a protective function. The underlying bone is a virtual mould of the overlying horny structure and therefore has the same shape as the claw or nail. Compared to claws, nails are flat, less curved, and do not extend far beyond the tip of the digits. The ends of the nails usually consist only of the "superficial", hardened layer and are not pointed like claws.
With only a few exceptions, primates retain plesiomorphic (original, "primitive") hands with five digits, each equipped with either a nail or a claw. For example, all prosimians (i.e. "primitive" primates or "proto-primates", see also Plesiadapiformes) have nails on all digits except the second toe which is equipped with a so-called toilet-claw (i.e. important for grooming activities). The needle-clawed bushbaby (Euoticus) have keeled nails (the thumb and the first and the second toes have claws) featuring a central ridge that ends in a needle-like tip. In tree shrews all digits have claws and, unlike most primates, the digits of their feet are positioned close together, and therefore the thumb cannot be brought into opposition (another distinguishing feature of primates).
A study of the fingertip morphology of four small-bodied New World monkey species indicated a correlation between increasing small-branch foraging and
This suggests that whereas claws are useful on large-diameter branches, wide fingertips with nails and epidermal ridges were required for habitual locomotion on small-diameter branches. It also indicates keel-shaped nails of Callitrichines (a family of New World monkeys) is a derived postural adaptation rather than retained ancestral condition.
Sweat glands: Apocrine sweat gland Eccrine sweat gland
M: INT, SF, LCT
noco (i/b/d/q/u/r/p/m/k/v/f)/cong/tumr (n/e/d), sysi/epon
proc, drug (D2/3/4/5/8/11)
proc, drug (D10)
Fingernails and Toenails provide important information about a patient's health. A visual inspection of an individuals' nail beds should be performed by health care nurses as part of the general physical examination. Many diseases and underlying systemic illnesses can be diagnosed from nail bed clues. Nail disease.
Remove any nailpolish, shoes and socks first.
Inspect all surfaces of the patient's nailbeds. Pay attention to "dryness, inflammation, or cracking" (Perry, Potter, 2002, p. 147). Nails should be smooth, surrounding cuticles and tissues clear and normal in color. Look for ingrown nails that occur in either hands or feet.
Assess capillary refill of finger nailbeds which should be two seconds or less. Circulation problems can change the nail integrity or increase chance of infection.
Observe the patient's gait by having them walk to and from you. Note if the person experiences pain with ambulation. Types of shoes worn may predispose patients to nail problems such as "infection, areas of friction, ulcerations" (Perry, Potter, 2002).
Check if your patient wears nailpolish or artificial nails. Certain chemicals can cause the nailbeds to become dry and brittle. These patients are prone to nail ridges, redness and swelling beneath the polish or artificial nail.
Assess your patient's knowledge and ability to care for their fingernails and toenails. Patients may need health and hygiene teaching, assistance, or a podiatrist to provide service to maintain good healthy nail and foot health. Perry, Potter (2002) state that "Clients with peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, older adults, and clients whose immune system is suppressed may require nail care from a specialist to reduce the risk for infection" (p. 147).
Older patients may have certain conditions that increase their chance of nail and foot problems. Aging itself can result in nailbed changes to fingernails and toenails. Patients may have poor vision, poor coordination, or not be able to bend over to take care of their nails.
Diabetic patients (Perry, Potter, 2002) have vascular changes that reduce blood flow to peripheral tissues. They are prone to breaks in skin integrity which increases their chance for infection. Cuts and scrapes that heal easily for non-diabetics are challenging for a diabetic. Diabetic neuropathy can involve nerves, muscles, bone, and vasculature, which makes assessment and management of foot problems complex (Cooppan and Habershaw, 1995).
Heart or Congestive Heart Failure and Renal patients often have increased tissue edema, especially in dependent areas like hands and feet. Edema will reduce blood flow to fingernails and toenails.
Stroke or Cerebral Vascular Accident patients are at risk for nail problems (Perry, Potter 2002) because of possible residual foot or leg weakness or paralysis resulting in altered walking patterns. This leads to increased friction and pressure on the nailbeds.
^Perry, A. Potter, P. (2002). Clinical nursing skills and techniques. St.Louis, MO: Mosby. p. 147.
^Jarvis, C. (2008). ''Physical examination & Health Assessment, Fifth edition. St.Louis, MO: Saunders, Elsevier. p. 268-269.
^Cooppan, R., Habershaw, G. (1995). Preventing leg and foot complication. Patient Care, 29 (3), 35.
Nail wraps are a way to accessorise your nails without using polish. Nail wraps are commonly made of thin plastic or vinyl with a design or finish. They are self adhesive and can last up to 2 weeks on fingers and several months on toes. They are safe to use and will not dry or damage your nails like other nail enhancements. They are also a way to protect your nails if they are prone to chipping, flaking, or breaking. They can be applied to broken or split nails to prevent further breakage so it can grow out naturally.
Nail wraps come in a variety colours and designs including metallic and animal prints. Designs are also customisable. Katy Perry famously wore nail wraps of her ex-husband, Russell Brand, at the MTV Awards in 2010.
Application of nail wraps can be done at home or at a nail salon.
There are several types of nail wraps according to Modicure a website that focuses on Modern Manicures
Nail Foil Wraps: Have a metallic shine (like silver and gold) and require heat. These are known as the cadillac of nail wraps because they are slightly harder to apply, and take more time to trim. However, the result is absolutely stunning. Some refer to this style as "mirror nails" or "silver nails".
Matte Nail Wraps: These styles vary from fun stars to hearts to even skulls. They also require heat but unlike the nail foils they are a bit easier to apply since you don't have to smooth out the bubbles. They have a smooth flat surface rather than a metallic surface.
Nail Polish Strips: These are extremely easy to apply and come in several fun designs like hearts as well as solids. Most people like to use them because they can be applied in seconds without any tools. These strips look just like nail polish yet do not come with the hassle of painting. The application is easy and the result is flawless every time. Several people say these are so easy to apply they have finished a flawless manicure while riding on the bus on the way to work or in a car.