Does Carmex work for minor cuts?


Carmex will work for minor cuts on the lips. Carmex lip balm is packed with ingredients specially selected to help heal your chapped, cracked, burned and otherwise abused lips. It's also good for cold sores.

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Lip balm or lip salve is a wax-like substance applied topically to the lips of the mouth to relieve chapped or dry lips, angular cheilitis, stomatitis, or cold sores. Lip balm often contains beeswax or carnauba wax, camphor, cetyl alcohol, lanolin, paraffin, and petrolatum, among other ingredients. Some varieties contain dyes, flavor, fragrance, menthol, phenol, salicylic acid, and sunscreens. The primary purpose of lip balm is to provide an occlusive layer on the lip surface to seal moisture in lips and protect them from external exposure. Dry air, cold temperatures, and wind all have a drying effect on skin by drawing moisture away from the body. Lips are particularly vulnerable because the skin is so thin, and thus they are often the first to present signs of dryness. Occlusive materials like waxes and petroleum jelly prevent moisture loss and maintain lip comfort while flavorants, colorants, sunscreens, and various medicaments can provide additional, specific benefits. Lip balm can be applied where a finger is used to apply it to the lips, or in a lipstick-style tube from which it can be applied directly. Lip balm was first marketed in the 1880s by the creator of ChapStick, Charles Browne Fleet,][ though its origins are commonly traced to earwax, which was used as lip balm prior to that.][ Holly Phillips suggests that certain types of lip balm can be addictive or contain ingredients that actually cause drying. Lip balm manufacturers sometimes state in their FAQs that there is nothing addictive in their products or that all ingredients are listed and approved by the FDA. Snopes found the claim that there are substances in Carmex that are irritants necessitating reapplication, such as ground glass, to be false.
Carmex is a brand of lip balm meant to eliminate cold sores and soothe dry/chapped lips. It is sold in jars, sticks, and squeezable tubes. Alfred Woelbing began experimenting with creating his own line of lip balm and other cosmetic products in the early 1930s. These were the beginnings of Carma Laboratories, Inc. After experimenting with his products, Woelbing created Carmex on his family's stove top. He began by selling the product from the trunk of his car. Popularity increased through word-of-mouth. During this time Woelbing and his wife poured their lip balm into the now well-known yellow-capped jars. Then in 1957, the family business moved out of the kitchen and into a rented facility in the Milwaukee suburb of Wauwatosa. After doing business like this, in 1972 Woelbing discontinued making sales calls, which had mostly been in Wisconsin, Illinois and parts of Indiana. Woelbing's son Don joined the business in 1973 and introduced assembly lines to Carma Labs. In 1975, due to the product's success, a new production facility was built in the southwest suburb of Franklin; production at the same facility continues to the present day][. Carma Labs began producing the product in squeezable tubes in 1988, then in 1999 the traditional stick form which had been the longtime domain of ChapStick and Blistex, Carma's major competitors in the lip balm market. Five years after these expansions within the company's production, in 1993 it was estimated that 9% of the lip balm market was held by Carma Labs. Alfred Woelbing continued to drive to the offices every day until 1997 when he suffered a stroke. He continued to come into the office at least once a week after this, until he died in 2001 at the age of 100.][ The company continued further expansion under the management of his son Don and his grandsons Paul and Eric. In 2002, mint-flavored Carmex lip balm (SPF 30) joined original Carmex lip balm in the product line, and Carmex lip balm became available throughout North America, Australia, Europe, Asia and Africa. During 2006, several Internet voters picked strawberry and cherry as the newest Carmex lip balm sticks. According to the company employs about 100 people and remains under the ownership of the founding family. The ingredients of Carmex lip balm are menthol, camphor, phenol, lanolin, cocoa butter, salicylic acid, vitamin E, shea butter, and petroleum jelly. However, this formula varies slightly around the world—for example, phenol is not included in Germany. The use of phenol in cosmetics is prohibited in the European Union. Salicylic acid is often incorrectly thought to be a drying agent, and its inclusion regarded as unnecessary, and possibly intended to cause increased use of the product due to the drying effect; however, this is not true. Salicylic acid works as both a keratolytic and comedolytic agent by causing the cells of the epidermis to shed more readily, opening clogged pores and neutralizing bacteria within, preventing pores from clogging up again by constricting pore diameter, and allowing room for new cell growth.][
Chapped lips or Cracked lips is a condition whereby the lips become dry and possibly cracked. It may be caused by the evaporation of moisture. Often the lips become dry because the layer of oil that is naturally produced by the body to coat the lips is removed or is lacking. Causes vary, but the most common cause of chapped lips is due to cold weather conditions. Symptoms of chapped lips may include the lips being dry, burning, red and swollen, small cracks, and peeling of the skin on the lips. If the skin on chapped lips becomes extremely dry, stretching of the lips may cause large cracks, which may be painful and/or bleed. The main cause of this problem is the absence of moisture from the lips, which can make them dry out very quickly, leaving them chapped. This happens often in the winter season when the air is dry. Lips normally have a very thin oily film on their surface that provides natural protection against moisture loss. However, in some cases, this film is removed, sometimes due to excessive licking habits, and this causes the lips to become chapped. Adequate hydration is the first line of defense against chapped lips. Lip balm can provide temporary relief. It is often believed that petroleum jelly can heal chapped lips; however, it only aids in preventing moisture loss, but does not repair or penetrate the lips. Medical grade (USP) lanolin accelerates repair of lips and is used in some lip repair products. Certain enzymes present in saliva (normally used for digestion) irritate the lips, and the evaporation of the water in saliva saps moisture from them. For these reasons, licking one's lips should be avoided. Nasal sebum may also be used as a remedy. M: MOU anat/devp noco/cofa (c)/cogi/tumr, sysi proc (peri), drug (A1)
(1R,2S,5R)-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanol 3-p-Menthanol,
peppermint camphor O[C@H]1[C@H](C(C)C)CC[C@@H](C)C1 O[C@H]1[C@H](C(C)C)CC[C@@H](C)C1 InChI=1S/C10H20O/c1-7(2)9-5-4-8(3)6-10(9)11/h7-11H,4-6H2,1-3H3/t8-,9+,10-/m1/s1Yes 
Key: NOOLISFMXDJSKH-KXUCPTDWSA-NYes  InChI=1S/C10H20O/c1-7(2)9-5-4-8(3)6-10(9)11/h7-11H,4-6H2,1-3H3/t8-,9+,10-/m1/s1 36–38 °C (311 K), racemic
42–45 °C (318 K), (−)-form (α)
35-33−31 °C, (−)-isomer 212 °C (485 K) Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from cornmint, peppermint or other mint oils. It is a waxy, crystalline substance, clear or white in color, which is solid at room temperature and melts slightly above. The main form of menthol occurring in nature is (−)-menthol, which is assigned the (1R,2S,5R) configuration. Menthol has local anesthetic and counterirritant qualities, and it is widely used to relieve minor throat irritation. Menthol also acts as a weak kappa opioid receptor agonist. Natural menthol exists as one pure stereoisomer, nearly always the (1R,2S,5R) form (bottom left corner of the diagram below). The eight possible stereoisomers are: Structures of menthol isomers In the natural compound, the isopropyl group is in the trans orientation to both the methyl and hydroxyl groups. Thus, it can be drawn in any of the ways shown: Menthol chair conformation Ball-and-stick 3D model highlighting menthol's chair conformation The (+) and (–) enantiomers of menthol are the most stable among these based on their cyclohexane conformations. With the ring itself in a chair conformation, all three bulky groups can orient in equatorial positions. The two crystal forms for racemic menthol have melting points of 28 °C and 38 °C. Pure (−)-menthol has four crystal forms, of which the most stable is the α form, the familiar broad needles. Menthol's ability to chemically trigger the cold-sensitive TRPM8 receptors in the skin is responsible for the well-known cooling sensation it provokes when inhaled, eaten, or applied to the skin. In this sense, it is similar to capsaicin, the chemical responsible for the spiciness of hot chilis (which stimulates heat sensors, also without causing an actual change in temperature). Menthol's analgesic properties are mediated through a selective activation of κ-opioid receptors. Menthol also blocks voltage-sensitive sodium channels, reducing neural activity that may stimulate muscles. Menthol also enhances the efficacy of ibuprofen in topical applications via vasodilation, which reduces skin barrier function. Mentha arvensis is the primary species of mint used to make natural menthol crystals and natural menthol flakes. This species is primarily grown in the Uttar Pradesh region in India. (−)-Menthol (also called l-menthol or (1R,2S,5R)-menthol) occurs naturally in peppermint oil (along with a little menthone, the ester menthyl acetate and other compounds), obtained from Mentha x piperita. Japanese menthol also contains a small percentage of the 1-epimer, (+)-neomenthol. Biosynthesis of menthol was investigated in M. x piperita, and all enzymes involved in its biosynthesis have been identified and characterized. More specifically, the biosynthesis of (−)-menthol takes place in the secretory gland cells of the peppermint plant. Geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS), first catalyzes the reaction of IPP and DMAPP into geranyl diphosphate. Next (−)-limonene synthase (LS) catalyzes the cyclization of geranyl diphosphate to (−)-limonene. (−)-Limonene-3-hydroxylase (L3OH), using O2 and NADPH, then catalyzes the allylic hydroxylation of (−)-limonene at the 3 position to (−)-trans-isopiperitenol. (−)-Trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase (iPD) further oxidizes the hydroxy group on the 3 position using NAD+ to make (−)-isopiperitenone. (−)-Isopiperitenone reductase (iPR) then reduces the double bond between carbons 1 and 2 using NADPH to form (+)-cis-isopulegone. (+)-Cis-isopulegone isomerase (iPI) then isomerizes the remaining double bond to form (+)-pulegone. (+)-Pulegone reductase (PR) then reduces this double bond using NADPH to form (−)-menthone. (−)-Menthone reductase (MR) then reduces the carbonyl group using NADPH to form (−)-menthol. Menthol biosynthesis image As with many widely used natural products, the demand for menthol greatly exceeds the supply from natural sources. In the case of menthol it is also interesting to note that comparative analysis of the total life-cycle costs from a sustainability perspective, has shown that production from natural sources actually results in consumption of more fossil fuel, produces more carbon dioxide effluent and has more environmental impact than either of the main synthetic production routes. Menthol is manufactured as a single enantiomer (94% ee) on the scale of 3,000 tons per year by Takasago International Corporation. The process involves an asymmetric synthesis developed by a team led by Ryōji Noyori, who won the 2001 Nobel Prize for Chemistry in recognition of his work on this process: The process begins by forming an allylic amine from myrcene, which undergoes asymmetric isomerisation in the presence of a BINAP rhodium complex to give (after hydrolysis) enantiomerically pure R-citronellal. This is cyclised by a carbonyl-ene-reaction initiated by zinc bromide to isopulegol, which is then hydrogenated to give pure (1R,2S,5R)-menthol. Another commercial process is the Haarmann-Reimer process. This process starts from m-cresol which is alkylated with propene to thymol. This compound is hydrogenated in the next step. Racemic menthol is isolated by fractional distillation. The enantiomers are separated by chiral resolution in reaction with methyl benzoate, selective crystallisation followed by hydrolysis. Racemic menthol can also be formed by hydrogenation of pulegone. In both cases with further processing (crystallizative entrainment resolution of the menthyl benzoate conglomerate) it is possible to concentrate the L enantiomer, however this tends to be less efficient, although the higher processing costs may be offset by lower raw material costs. A further advantage of this process is that d-menthol becomes inexpensively available for use as a chiral auxiliary, along with the more usual l-antipode. Menthol is included in many products for a variety of reasons. These include: In organic chemistry, menthol is used as a chiral auxiliary in asymmetric synthesis. For example, sulfinate esters made from sulfinyl chlorides and menthol can be used to make enantiomerically pure sulfoxides by reaction with organolithium reagents or Grignard reagents. Menthol reacts with chiral carboxylic acids to give diastereomic menthyl esters, which are useful for chiral resolution. Menthol reacts in many ways like a normal secondary alcohol. It is oxidised to menthone by oxidising agents such as chromic acid or dichromate, though under some conditions the oxidation can go further and break open the ring. Menthol is easily dehydrated to give mainly 3-menthene, by the action of 2% sulfuric acid. Phosphorus pentachloride (PCl5) gives menthyl chloride. Reactions of menthol There is evidence that menthol has been known in Japan for more than 2000 years, but in the West it was not isolated until 1771, by Hieronymus David Gaubius. Early characterizations were done by Oppenheim, Beckett, Moriya, and Atkinson. Currently no reported nutrient or herb interactions involve menthol.][ Ingesting pure menthol can be poisonous, and overdose is also possible through excess consumption of menthol-containing products. The oral 50LD has been estimated at 192 mg/kg; other sources give much higher numbers like 2900 mg/kg. M: CNS anat (n/s/m/p/4/e/b/d/c/a/f/l/g)/phys/devp noco (m/d/e/h/v/s)/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr proc, drug (N1A/2AB/C/3/4/7A/B/C/D)
Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25), originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties. After petroleum jelly became a medicine chest staple, consumers began to use it for myriad ailments and cosmetic purposes, including toenail fungus, male genital rashes (non-STD), nosebleeds, diaper rash, and chest colds. Its folkloric medicinal value as a "cure-all" has since been limited by better scientific understanding of appropriate and inappropriate uses (see uses below). It is recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an approved over-the-counter (OTC) skin protectant, and remains widely used in cosmetic skin care. The raw material for petroleum jelly was discovered in 1859 in Titusville, Pennsylvania, United States, on some of the country's first oil rigs. Workers disliked the paraffin-like material forming on rigs because it caused them to malfunction, but they used it on cuts and burns because it hastened healing.][ Robert Chesebrough, a young chemist whose previous work of distilling fuel from the oil of sperm whales had been rendered obsolete by petroleum, went to Titusville to see what new materials had commercial potential. Chesebrough took the unrefined black "rod wax", as the drillers called it, back to his laboratory to refine it and explore potential uses. Chesebrough discovered that by distilling the lighter, thinner oil products from the rod wax, he could create a light-colored gel. Chesebrough patented the process of making petroleum jelly by in 1872. The process involved vacuum distillation of the crude material followed by filtration of the still residue through bone char. Chesebrough traveled around New York demonstrating the product to encourage sales by burning his skin with acid or an open flame, then spreading the ointment on his injuries and showing his past injuries healed, he claimed, by his miracle product. He opened his first factory in 1870 in Brooklyn using the name Vaseline.][ Petroleum jelly is a mixture of hydrocarbons, having a melting point usually within a few degrees of human body temperature, which is approximately . It is flammable only when heated to liquid, then the fumes will light, not the liquid itself, so a wick material like leaves, bark, or small twigs is needed to ignite petroleum jelly. It is colorless, or of a pale yellow color (when not highly distilled), translucent, and devoid of taste and smell when pure. It does not oxidize on exposure to the air and is not readily acted on by chemical reagents. It is insoluble in water. It is soluble in dichloromethane, chloroform, benzene, diethyl ether, carbon disulfide and oil of turpentine. Because they feel similar when applied to human skin, there is a common misconception that petroleum jelly and glycerol (glycerine) are physically similar, . While petroleum jelly is a non-polar hydrocarbon hydrophobic (water-repelling) and insoluble in water, glycerol (not a hydrocarbon but an alcohol) is the opposite: it is so strongly hydrophilic (water-attracting) that by continuously absorbing moisture from the air it produces the feeling of wetness on the skin, similar to the greasiness produced by petroleum jelly. Depending on the specific application of petroleum jelly, it may be USP, B.P., or Ph. Eur. grade. This pertains to the processing and handling of the petroleum jelly so it is suitable for medicinal and personal care applications. Most uses for petroleum jelly exploit its lubricating, coating and moisturizing potentials. Chesebrough originally promoted Vaseline primarily as an ointment for scrapes, burns, and cuts, but studies have shown that Vaseline has no medicinal effect nor any effect on the blistering process, nor is it absorbed by the skin. Vaseline brand First Aid Petroleum Jelly, or carbolated petroleum jelly containing phenol to give the jelly additional antibacterial effect, has been discontinued. During World War II, a variety of petroleum jelly called red veterinary petrolatum, or Red Vet Pet for short, was often included in life raft survival kits. Acting as a sunscreen, it provides protection against ultraviolet rays. Petroleum jelly's effectiveness in accelerating wound healing stems from its sealing effect on cuts and burns, which inhibits germs from getting into the wound and keeps the injured area supple by preventing the skin's moisture from evaporating.][ A verified medicinal use is to protect and prevent moisture loss of the skin of a patient in the initial post-operative period following laser skin resurfacing. There is one case report published in 1994 indicating petroleum jelly should not be applied to the inside of the nose due to the risk of lipid pneumonia, but this was only ever reported in one patient. However, petroleum jelly is used extensively by otolaryngologists - head and neck surgeons - for nasal moisture, epistaxis treatment as well as to combat nasal crusting. Large studies have assessed petroleum jelly applied to the nose for short durations to have no significant side effects. Most petroleum jelly today is used as an ingredient in skin lotions and cosmetics, providing various types of skin care and protection by minimizing friction or reducing moisture loss, or by functioning as a grooming aid. Moisture Loss By reducing moisture loss, petroleum jelly can prevent chapped hands and lips, and soften nail cuticles. This property is exploited to provide heat insulation: petroleum jelly can be used to keep swimmers warm in water when training or during channel crossings or long ocean swims. It can prevent chilling of the face due to evaporation of skin moisture during cold weather outdoor sports. Hair grooming In the first part of the twentieth century, petroleum jelly, either pure or as an ingredient, was also popular as a hair pomade. When used in a 50/50 mixture with pure beeswax, it makes an effective moustache wax. It is used as a key ingredient for conditioners of Afro-textured hair.][ Lubrication Petroleum jelly can be used to reduce the friction between skin and clothing during various sport activities, for example to prevent chafing of the seat region of cyclists, the nipples of long distance runners wearing loose t-shirts, and is commonly used in the crotch area of wrestlers and footballers. Petroleum jelly is commonly used as a personal lubricant, although it is not recommended for use with condoms during human sexual activity because it dissolves latex and thus increases the chance of rupture. Coating Petroleum jelly can be used to coat corrosion-prone items such as metallic trinkets, non-stainless steel blades, and gun barrels prior to storage as it serves as an excellent and inexpensive water repellent. It is used as an environmentally friendly underwater antifouling coating for motor boats and sailing yachts. It was recommended in the Porsche owner’s manual as a preservative for light alloy (alleny) anodized Fuchs wheels to protect them against corrosion from road salts and brake dust. “Every three months (after regular cleaning) the wheels should be coated with petroleum jelly.” Finishing It can be used to finish and protect wood, much like a mineral oil finish. It is used to condition and protect smooth leather products like bicycle saddles, boots, motorcycle clothing, and used to put a shine on patent leather shoes (when applied in a thin coat and then gently buffed off). Lubrication Petroleum jelly can be used to lubricate zippers. It was also recommended by Porsche in maintenance training documentation for lubrication (after cleaning) of "Weatherstrips on Doors, Hood, Tailgate, Sun Roof". The publication states "…before applying a new coat of lubricant…" "Only acid-free lubricants may be used, for example: glycerine, Vaseline, tire mounting paste, etc. These lubricants should be rubbed in, and excessive lubricant wiped off with a soft cloth." Petroleum jelly is a useful material when incorporated into candle wax formulas. The petroleum jelly softens the overall blend, allows the candle to incorporate additional fragrance oil, and facilitates adhesion to the sidewall of glass. Petroleum jelly is used to moisten nondrying modelling clay such as plasticine, as part of a mix of hydrocarbons including those with greater (paraffin wax) and lesser (mineral oil) molecular weights. It can be used as a release agent for plaster molds and castings. It is used in the leather industry as a waterproofing cream. It can be used for tinder, lightly coated on a cotton ball. It has been used as a secondary ingredient in a Molotov cocktail, to make the flames stick to any surface they touch and to make a lot of smoke. Mechanical, barrier functions Petroleum jelly can be used to coat the inner walls of terrariums to prevent animals crawling out and escaping. A stripe of petroleum jelly can be used to prevent the spread of a liquid. For example, it can be applied close to the hairline when using a home hair dye kit to prevent the hair dye from irritating or staining the skin. Surface cleansing Petroleum jelly is used to gently clean a variety of surfaces, ranging from makeup removal from faces to tar stain removal from leather. Pet care Petroleum jelly is used to moisturize the paws of dogs, and to inhibit fungal growth on aquatic turtles’ shells. Petroleum jelly is very sticky and hard to remove from non-biological surfaces with the usual and customary cleaning agents typically found in the home. It may be dissolved with paint thinner or other petroleum solvents such as acetone, which dissolves most plastics. These solvents should be used in well-ventilated areas, and as infrequently as possible. Petroleum jelly is slightly soluble in alcohol. To avoid damage to plastics as well as minimize ventilation issues, isopropyl rubbing alcohol can be used to remove petroleum jelly from most surfaces. Isopropyl alcohol is inert to most household surfaces, including most every plastic, and removes petroleum jelly efficiently. While alcohol causes fewer ventilation problems than petroleum solvents, ventilation is still recommended, especially if large surface areas are involved. Petroleum jelly is also soluble in lower molecular weight oils. Using an oil to dissolve the petroleum jelly first can render it more soluble to solvents and soaps that would not dissolve pure petroleum jelly. Vegetable oils such as canola and olive oil are commonly used to aid in the removal of petroleum jelly from hair and skin.
Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals. Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound and speech. Human lips are a tactile sensory organ, and can be erogenous when used in kissing and other acts of intimacy. The upper and lower lips are referred to as the "Labium superius oris" and "Labium inferius oris", respectively. The juncture where the lips meet the surrounding skin of the mouth area is the vermilion border, and the typically reddish area within the borders is called the vermilion zone. The vermilion border of the upper lip is known as the cupid's bow. The fleshy protuberance located in the center of the upper lip is a tubercle known by various terms including the procheilon (also spelled prochilon), the "tuberculum labii superioris", and the "labial tubercle". The vertical groove extending from the procheilon to the nasal septum is called the philtrum. The skin of the lip, with three to five cellular layers, is very thin compared to typical face skin, which has up to 16 layers. With light skin color, the lip skin contains fewer melanocytes (cells which produce melanin pigment, which give skin its color). Because of this, the blood vessels appear through the skin of the lips, which leads to their notable red coloring. With darker skin color this effect is less prominent, as in this case the skin of the lips contains more melanin and thus is visually darker. The skin of the lip forms the border between the exterior skin of the face, and the interior mucous membrane of the inside of the mouth. The lip skin is not hairy and does not have sweat glands. Therefore it does not have the usual protection layer of sweat and body oils which keep the skin smooth, inhibit pathogens, and regulate warmth. For these reasons, the lips dry out faster and become chapped more easily. The skin of the lips is stratified squamous epithelium. The mucous membrane is represented by a large area in the sensory cortex, and is therefore highly sensitive. The Frenulum Labii Inferioris is the frenulum of the lower lip. The Frenulum Labii Superioris is the frenulum of the upper lip. The facial artery is one of the six non-terminal branches of the external carotid artery. It supplies the lips by its superior and inferior labial branches, each of which bifurcate and anastomose with their companion artery from the other side. The muscles acting on the lips are considered part of the muscles of facial expression. All muscles of facial expression are derived from the mesoderm of the second pharyngeal arch, and are therefore supplied (motor supply) by the nerve of the second pharyngeal arch, the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve). The muscles of facial expression are all specialized members of the panniculus carnosus, which attach to the dermis and so wrinkle, or dimple the overlying skin. Functionally, the muscles of facial expression are arranged in groups around the orbits, nose and mouth. The muscles acting on the lips: Because they have their own muscles and bordering muscles, the lips are easily movable. Lips are used for eating functions, like holding food or to get it in the mouth. In addition, lips serve to close the mouth airtight shut, to hold food and drink inside, and to keep out unwanted objects. Through making a narrow funnel with the lips, the suction of the mouth is increased. This suction is essential for babies to breast feed. Lips can also be used to suck in other contexts, such as sucking on a straw to drink liquids. The lips serve for creating different sounds - mainly labial, bilabial, and labiodental consonant sounds as well as vowel rounding - and thus are an important part of the speech apparatus. The lips enable whistling and the performing of wind instruments such as the trumpet, clarinet, flute and saxophone. The lip has many nerve endings and reacts as part of the tactile (touch) senses. Lips are very sensitive to touch, warmth, and cold. It is therefore an important aid for exploring unknown objects for babies and toddlers. Because of their high number of nerve endings, the lips are an erogenous zone. The lips therefore play a crucial role in kissing and other acts of intimacy. A woman's lips are also a visible expression of her fertility. In studies performed on the science of human attraction, psychologists have concluded that a woman's facial and sexual attractiveness is closely linked to the makeup of her hormones during puberty and development. Contrary to the effects of testosterone on a man's facial structure, the effects of a woman's oestrogen levels serve to maintain a relatively "childlike" and youthful facial structure during puberty and during final maturation. It has been shown that the more oestrogen a woman has, the larger her eyes and the fuller her lips, characteristics which are perceived as more feminine. Surveys performed by sexual psychologists have also found that universally, men find a woman's full lips to be more sexually attractive than lips that are less so.][ A woman's lips are therefore sexually attractive to males because they serve as a biological indicator of a woman's health and fertility. A woman's lipstick (or collagen lip enhancement) attempts to take advantage of this fact by creating the illusion that a woman has more oestrogen than she actually has, and thus that she is more fertile and attractive. Lip size is linked to sexual attraction in both men and women. Women are attracted to men with masculine lips, that are more middle size and not too big or too small; they are to be rugged and sensual. In general, the researchers found that a small nose, big eyes and voluptuous lips are sexually attractive both in men and women. The lips contribute substantially to facial expressions. The lips visibly express emotions such as a smile or frown, iconically by the curve of the lips forming an up-open or down-open parabola, respectively. Lips can also be made pouty when whining, or perky to be provocative. Lips are often viewed as a symbol for sensuality and sexuality. This has many origins; above all, the lips are a very sensitive erogenous and tactile organ. Furthermore, in many cultures of the world, a woman's mouth and lips are veiled because of their representative association with the vulva, and because of their role as a woman's secondary sexual organ. As part of the mouth, the lips are also associated with the symbolism associated with the mouth as orifice by which food is taken in. The lips are also linked symbolically to neonatal psychology (see for example oral stage of the psychology according to Sigmund Freud). As an organ of the body, the lip can be a focus of disease or show symptoms of a disease: In most vertebrates, the lips are relatively unimportant folds of tissue lying just outside the jaws. However, in mammals, they become much more prominent, being separated from the jaws by a deep cleft. They are also more mobile in mammals than in other groups, since it is only in this group that they have any attached muscles. In some teleost fish, the lips may be modified to carry sensitive barbels. In birds and turtles, the lips are hard and keratinous, forming a solid beak. The labial coronary arteries, etc. Chapped lips Cleft lip The Kiss, by Francesco Hayez, 1859 Lip balm Lipstick Pierced lips Lip (Upper, Lower, Vermilion border, Frenulum of lower lip, Labial commissure of mouth, Philtrum)
Interdental papilla  Gingival sulcus  Gingival margin  Free gingival margin  Gingival fibers  Junctional epithelium  Mucogingival junction  Sulcular epithelium  Stippling
Oropharyngeal isthmus/Isthmus of the fauces Soft palate (Uvula, Palatoglossal arch, Palatopharyngeal arch, Plica semilunaris of the fauces) Tonsillar fossa M: MOU anat/devp noco/cofa (c)/cogi/tumr, sysi proc (peri), drug (A1)
Lanolin (German, from Latin lāna, "wool", and oleum, "oil birth"), also called wool wax or wool grease, is a yellow waxy substance secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals. Most lanolin used by humans comes from domestic sheep breeds that are raised specifically for their wool; the meat of such breeds is considered vastly inferior in quality to that from breeds raised specifically for their meat, partially due to the presence of lanolin. Lanolin is a wax. Historically, many pharmacopoeias have referred to lanolin as wool fat (adeps lanae); however, as lanolin lacks glycerides, it is not a true fat. Lanolin's waterproofing property aids sheep in shedding water from their coats. Certain breeds of sheep produce large amounts of lanolin, and the extraction can be performed by squeezing the sheep's harvested wool between rollers. Most or all of the lanolin is removed from wool when it is processed into textiles, such as yarn or felt. Lanolin's role in nature is to protect wool and skin against the ravages of climate and the environment; it also seems to play a role in integumental hygiene. Lanolin and its many derivatives are used extensively in products designed for the protection, treatment and beautification of human skin. A typical high purity grade of lanolin is composed predominantly of long chain waxy esters (circa 97% by weight) the remainder being lanolin alcohols, lanolin acids and lanolin hydrocarbons. An estimated 8,000 to 20,000 different types of lanolin esters are present in lanolin, resulting from combinations between the 200 or so different lanolin acids and the 100 or so different lanolin alcohols identified so far. Lanolin's complex composition of long chain esters, hydroxy esters, diesters, lanolin alcohols, and lanolin acids means in addition to it being a valuable product in its own right, it is also the starting point for the production of a whole spectrum of lanolin derivatives, which possess wide-ranging chemical and physical properties. The main derivatisation routes include hydrolysis, fractional solvent crystallisation, esterification, hydrogenation, and alkoxylation and quaternisation. Lanolin derivatives obtained from these processes are used widely in both high-value cosmetics and skin treatment products. Hydrolysis of lanolin yields lanolin alcohols and lanolin acids. Lanolin alcohols are a rich source of cholesterol (an important skin lipid) and are powerful water-in-oil emulsifiers; they have been used extensively in skin care products for over 100 years. Interestingly, approximately 40% of the acids derived from lanolin are alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs). The use of AHAs in skin care products has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Details of the AHA’s isolated from lanolin can be seen in the table below. In addition to general purity requirements, lanolin must meet official requirements for the permissible levels of pesticide residues. The Fifth Supplement of the United States Pharmacopoeia XXII published in 1992 was the first to specify limits for 34 named pesticides. A total limit of 40 ppm (or mg/kg) total pesticides was stipulated for lanolin of general use, with no individual limit greater than 10 ppm. A second monograph also introduced into the US Pharmacopoeia XXII in 1992 was entitled 'Modified Lanolin.' Lanolin conforming to this monograph is intended for use in more exacting applications, for example on open wounds. In this monograph, the limit of total pesticides was reduced to 3 ppm total pesticides, with no individual limit greater than 1 ppm. In 2000, the European Pharmacopoeia introduced pesticide residue limits into its lanolin monograph. This requirement, which is generally regarded as the new quality standard, extends the list of pesticides to 40 and imposes even lower concentration limits. Some very high purity grades of lanolin surpass monograph requirements. New products obtained using complex purification techniques produce lanolin esters in their natural state, removing oxidative and environmental impurities resulting in white, odourless, hypoallergenic lanolin. These ultra-high purity grades of lanolin are ideally suited to the treatment of dermatological disorders such as eczema and on open wounds. Lanolin attracted attention owing to a misunderstanding concerning its sensitising potential. A study carried out at New York University Hospital in the early 1950s had shown about 1% of patients with dermatological disorders were allergic to the lanolin being used at that time. However, this figure was misinterpreted and taken out of context and became quoted as 1% of the general healthy (American) population. By one estimate, this simple misunderstanding of failing to differentiate between the general healthy population and patients with dermatological disorders exaggerates the sensitising potential of lanolin by 5,000–6,000 times. The European Cosmetics Directive, introduced in July 1976, contained a stipulation that cosmetics which contained lanolin should be labelled to that effect. This ruling was challenged immediately, and in the early 1980s, it was overturned and removed from the directive. Despite only being in force for a short period of time, this ruling did harm both to the lanolin industry and to the reputation of lanolin in general. The Cosmetics Directive ruling only applied to the presence of lanolin in cosmetic products; it did not apply to the many hundreds of its different uses in dermatological products designed for the treatment of compromised skin conditions. Modern analytical methods have revealed lanolin possesses a number of important chemical and physical similarities to human stratum corneum lipids; the lipids which help regulate the rate of transepidermal water loss and govern the hydration state of the skin. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy has shown that lanolin, like human stratum corneum lipids, consists of a mass of liquid crystalline material. Cross-polarised light microscopy has shown the multilamellar vesicles formed by lanolin are identical to those formed by human stratum corneum lipids. The incorporation of bound water into the stratum corneum involves the formation of multilamellar vesicles. Skin bioengineering studies have shown the durational effect of the emollient (skin smoothing) action produced by lanolin is very significant and lasts for many hours. Lanolin applied to the skin at 2 mg/cm2 has been shown to reduce roughness by about 35% after one hour and 50% after two hours, with the overall effect lasting for considerably more than eight hours. Lanolin is also known to form semiocclusive (breathable) films on the skin. When applied daily at around 4 mg/cm2 for five consecutive days, the positive moisturising effects of lanolin were detectable until 72 hours after final application. Lanolin may achieve some of its moisturising effects by forming a secondary moisture reservoir within the skin. The barrier repair properties of lanolin have been reported to be superior to those produced by both petrolatum and glycerin. In a small clinical study conducted on volunteer subjects with terribly dry (xerotic) hands, lanolin was shown to be superior to petrolatum in reducing the signs and symptoms of dryness and scaling, cracks and abrasions, and pain and itch. In another study, a high purity grade of lanolin was found to be significantly superior to petrolatum in assisting the healing of superficial wounds. Lanolin and its many derivatives are used extensively in both the personal care (e.g. in high value cosmetics, facial cosmetics, lip products, etc.) and health care sectors. It is frequently used in protective baby skin treatment and as a treatment for sore nipples in breastfeeding mothers. Lanolin is used commercially in many industrial products ranging from rust-proof coatings to lubricants. Some sailors use lanolin to create slippery surfaces on their propellers and stern gear to which barnacles cannot adhere. The water-repellent properties make it valuable as a lubricant grease where corrosion would otherwise be a problem. Lanolin is often used as a raw material for producing cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Baseball players often use it to soften and break in their baseball gloves (shaving cream with lanolin is popularly used for this). Anhydrous lanolin is also used as a lubricant for brass instrument tuning slides. Lanolin can also be restored to woolen garments to make them water and dirt repellent, such as for cloth diaper covers. A flaxseed oil-based lubricant commonly known as "wool wax" used to polish wood furniture is unrelated to lanolin; its name comes from its being a paste wax applied using steel wool. Lanolin is also used in lip balm products such as Carmex. For some people, it can irritate the lips][. Lanolin is used with Alcohol mixed at 110 F temp 2/98 % ratio for brass lubricant in ammunition reloading process. Crude lanolin constitutes about 5–25% of the weight of freshly shorn wool. The wool from one Merino sheep will produce about 250–300 ml of recoverable wool grease. Lanolin is extracted by washing the wool in hot water with a special wool scouring detergent to remove dirt, wool grease (crude lanolin), suint (sweat salts), and anything else stuck to the wool. The wool grease is continuously removed during this washing process by centrifugal separators, which concentrate it into a wax-like substance melting at approximately 38°C (100°F).
Medicine Carmex

Lip balm or lip salve is a wax-like substance applied topically to the lips of the mouth to relieve chapped or dry lips, angular cheilitis, stomatitis, or cold sores. Lip balm often contains beeswax or carnauba wax, camphor, cetyl alcohol, lanolin, paraffin, and petrolatum, among other ingredients. Some varieties contain dyes, flavor, fragrance, menthol, phenol, salicylic acid, and sunscreens.

The primary purpose of lip balm is to provide an occlusive layer on the lip surface to seal moisture in lips and protect them from external exposure. Dry air, cold temperatures, and wind all have a drying effect on skin by drawing moisture away from the body. Lips are particularly vulnerable because the skin is so thin, and thus they are often the first to present signs of dryness. Occlusive materials like waxes and petroleum jelly prevent moisture loss and maintain lip comfort while flavorants, colorants, sunscreens, and various medicaments can provide additional, specific benefits.

Cheilitis (pronounced /kˈltɪs/) is inflammation of the lips. This inflammation may include the perioral skin (the skin around the mouth), the vermilion border and/or the labial mucosa. The skin and the vermilion border are more commonly involved, as the mucosa is less affected by inflammatory and allergic reactions. It is a general term, and there are many recognized types and different causes.

Cheilitis can be acute or chronic. Most cheilitis is caused by exogenous factors such as dryness (chapping) and acute sun exposure. Cheilitis may be divided into the following types:


Herpes labialis, (also called cold sores, herpes simplex labialis, recurrent herpes labialis, or orolabial herpes),:368 is a type of herpes simplex occurring on the lip, i.e. an infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). An outbreak typically causes small blisters or sores on or around the mouth commonly known as cold sores or fever blisters. The sores typically heal within 2–3 weeks, but the herpes virus remains dormant in the facial nerves, following orofacial infection, periodically reactivating (in symptomatic people) to create sores in the same area of the mouth or face at the site of the original infection.

Cold sore has a rate of frequency that varies from rare episodes to 12 or more recurrences per year. People with the condition typically experience one to three attacks annually. The frequency and severity of outbreaks generally decreases over time.


Cosmetics (colloquially known as makeup or make-up) are care substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. They are generally mixtures of chemical compounds, some being derived from natural sources, many being synthetic.

In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates cosmetics, defines cosmetics as "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition also includes any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.


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