Does alcohol have yeast in it, like vodka?


Most whiskies and white liquors like rum or vodka are distiled, not fermented and should not contain yeast.

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A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. Heat is applied directly to the pot containing the wash (for whisky) or wine (for brandy). This is called a batch distillation (as opposed to a continuous distillation). At sea level, alcohol boils at 78 °C (172 °F), while water boils at 100 °C (212 °F). During distillation, the vapour contains more alcohol than the liquid. When the vapours are condensed, the resulting liquid contains a higher concentration of alcohol. In the pot still, the alcohol and water vapour combine with esters and flow from the still through the condensing coil. There they condense into the first distillation liquid, the so-called "low wines". The low wines have a strength of about 25-35% alcohol by volume, and flow into a second still. It is then distilled a second time to produce the colourless spirit, collected at about 70% alcohol by volume. Colour is added through maturation in an oak aging barrel, and develops over time. The modern pot still is a descendant of the alembic, an earlier distillation device. The largest pot still in the world was in the Midleton Distillery constructed in 1825, County Cork Ireland. It had a capacity of 31,618 imperial gallons (143.74 m3) and is no longer in use. a Cognac pot still a spirit safe (i.e. padlocked apparatus at the end of the pot still enabling the distiller to cut off the "heads" and "tails" of distillation; it is padlocked for excise reasons)
Vodka (Polish: , Russian: ) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Vodka is made by the distillation of fermented substances such as grains, potatoes, or sometimes fruits or sugar. Traditionally prepared vodkas had an alcoholic content of 40% by volume.][ Today, the standard Ukrainian, Polish, Russian, Latvian and Lithuanian vodkas are 40% alcohol by volume (ABV) or 80 proof. The European Union has established a minimum of 37.5% ABV for any "European vodka" to be named as such. Products sold as vodka in the United States must have an alcoholic content of 30% or more. For homemade vodkas and distilled beverages referred to as "moonshine", see moonshine by country. Vodka is traditionally drunk neat in the vodka belt countries of Eastern Europe and around the Baltic Sea. It is also commonly used in cocktails and mixed drinks, such as the Caesar, Bloody Mary, Screwdriver, Sex on the Beach, Moscow Mule, White Russian, Black Russian, vodka tonic, and in a vodka martini. The name "vodka" is a diminutive form of the Slavic word voda (water), interpreted as little water: root вод- (vod-) [water] + -к- (-k-) (diminutive suffix, among other functions) + -a (postfix of feminine gender). The word "vodka" was recorded for the first time in 1405 in Akta Grodzkie, the court documents from the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland. At the time, the word vodka (wódka) referred to chemical compounds such as medicines and cosmetics' cleansers, while the popular beverage was called gorzałka (from the Old Polish gorzeć meaning "to burn"), which is also the source of Ukrainian horilka (горілка). The word vodka written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus'. A number of Russian pharmaceutical lists contain the terms "vodka of grain wine" (водка хлебного вина vodka khlebnogo vina) and "vodka in half of grain wine" (водка полу хлебного вина vodka polu khlebnogo vina). As alcohol had long been used as a basis for medicines, this implies the term vodka could be a noun derived from the verb vodit’, razvodit’ (водить, разводить), "to dilute with water". Grain wine was a spirit distilled from alcohol made from grain (as opposed to grape wine) and hence "vodka of grain wine" would be a water dilution of a distilled grain spirit. While the word vodka could be found in manuscripts and in lubok (лубок, pictures with text explaining the plot, a Russian predecessor of the comic), it began to appear in Russian dictionaries in the mid-19th century. It is, however, already attested in Sámuel Gyarmathi's Russian-German-Hungarian glossary (1799), where it is glossed with Latin vinum adustum ("burnt [i.e. distilled] wine"). The word vodka was attested in English already in the late 18th century. A description of Russia by Johann Gottlieb Georgi, published in English in 1780 (presumably, a translation from German), correctly explained: "Kabak in the Russian language signifies a public house for the common people to drink vodka (a sort of brandy) in." William Tooke in 1799 glossed vodka as "rectified corn-spirits". Another possible connection of "vodka" with "water" is the name of the medieval alcoholic beverage aqua vitae (Latin, literally, "water of life"), which is reflected in Polish okowita, Ukrainian оковита, Belarusian акавіта, and Scandinavian akvavit. (Note that whiskey has a similar etymology, from the Irish/Scottish Gaelic uisce beatha/uisge-beatha.) People in the area of vodka's probable origin have names for vodka with roots meaning "to burn": Polish: ; Ukrainian: ; Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Samogitian: degtėnė, is also in use, colloquially and in proverbs); Latvian: ; Finnish: . In Russian during 17th and 18th centuries, горящѣе вино or горячее вино (goryashchee vino, "burning wine" or "hot wine") was widely used. Compare to German Branntwein, Danish; brændevin; Dutch: ; Swedish: ; Norwegian: (although the latter terms refer to any strong alcoholic beverage). Scholars debate the beginnings of vodka, and it is a problematic and contentious issue due to little historical material available on the subject of the origins of the drink. According to some sources, first production of vodka took place in the area of today's Russia in the late 9th century; however, some argue that it may have happened even earlier in Poland in the 8th century. According to the Gin and Vodka Association (GVA), the first distillery was documented over three hundred years later at Khlynovsk as reported in the Vyatka Chronicle of 1174. For many centuries, beverages differed significantly compared to the vodka of today, as the spirit at that time had a different flavor, color and smell, and was originally used as medicine. It contained little alcohol, an estimated maximum of about 14%, as only this amount can be attained by natural fermentation. The still allowing for distillation – the "burning of wine" – was invented in the 8th century. In Poland, vodka (Polish: ; obsolete: gorzałka) has been produced since the early Middle Ages. The world's first written mention of the drink and the word "vodka" was in 1405 from Akta Grodzkie, the court documents from the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland. At the time, the word wódka referred to chemical compounds such as medicines and cosmetics' cleansers, while the popular beverage was called gorzałka (from the Old Polish gorzeć meaning "to burn"), which is also the source of Ukrainian horilka (горілка). The word written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus'. In these early days, the spirits were used mostly as medicines. Stefan Falimierz asserted in his 1534 works on herbs that vodka could serve "to increase fertility and awaken lust". Around 1400, it became also a popular drink in Poland. Wódka lub gorzała (1614), by Jerzy Potański, contains valuable information on the production of vodka. Jakub Kazimierz Haur, in his book Skład albo skarbiec znakomitych sekretów ekonomii ziemiańskiej (A Treasury of Excellent Secrets about Landed Gentry's Economy, Kraków, 1693), gave detailed recipes for making vodka from rye. Some Polish vodka blends go back centuries. Most notable are Żubrówka, from about the 16th century; Goldwasser, from the early 17th; and aged Starka vodka, from the 16th. In the mid-17th century, the szlachta (nobility) were granted a monopoly on producing and selling vodka in their territories. This privilege was a source of substantial profits. One of the most famous distilleries of the aristocracy was established by Princess Lubomirska and later operated by her grandson, Count Alfred Wojciech Potocki. The Vodka Industry Museum, now housed at the headquarters of Count Potocki's distillery, has an original document attesting that the distillery already existed in 1784. Today it operates as "Polmos Łańcut". Large-scale vodka production began in Poland at the end of the 16th century, initially at Kraków, whence spirits were exported to Silesia before 1550. Silesian cities also bought vodka from Poznań, a city that in 1580 had 498 working spirits distilleries. Soon, however, Gdańsk outpaced both these cities. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Polish vodka was known in the Netherlands, Denmark, England, Russia, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Bulgaria and the Black Sea basin. Early production methods were primitive. The beverage was usually low-proof, and the distillation process had to be repeated several times (a three-stage distillation process was common). The first distillate was called brantówka, the second was szumówka, and the third was okowita (from aqua vitae), which generally contained 70–80% ABV. Then the beverage was watered down, yielding a simple vodka (30–35% ABV), or a stronger one if the watering was done using an alembic. The exact production methods were described in 1768 by Jan Paweł Biretowski and in 1774 by Jan Chryzostom Pasek. The beginning of the 19th century inaugurated the production of potato vodka, which immediately revolutionized the market.][ The end of the 18th century marked the start of the vodka industry in Poland (eastern part of Poland was part of Russian empire at that time). Vodkas produced by the nobility and clergy became a mass product. The first industrial distillery was opened in 1782 in Lwów by J. A. Baczewski. He was soon followed by Jakub Haberfeld, who in 1804 established a factory at Oświęcim, and by Hartwig Kantorowicz, who started producing Wyborowa in 1823 at Poznań. The implementation of new technologies in the second half of the 19th century, which allowed the production of clear vodkas, contributed to their success. The first rectification distillery was established in 1871. In 1925, the production of clear vodkas was made a Polish government monopoly. After World War II, all vodka distilleries were taken over by Poland's communist government. During the 1980s, the sale of vodka was rationed. After the victory of the Solidarity movement, all distilleries were privatized, leading to an explosion of brands. A type of distilled liquor close to the one that would later become generally designated by the Russian word vodka came to Russia in the late 14th century. In 1386, the Genoese ambassadors brought the first aqua vitae ("the water of life") to Moscow and presented it to Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy. The liquid obtained by distillation of grape must was thought to be a concentrate and a "spirit" of wine (spiritus vini in Latin), from where came the name of this substance in many European languages (like English spirit, or Russian ). According to a legend, around 1430, a monk called Isidore from Chudov Monastery inside the Moscow Kremlin made a recipe of the first Russian vodka. Having a special knowledge and distillation devices, he became an author of the new type of alcoholic beverage of a new, higher quality. This "bread wine" as it was initially known, was produced for a long time exclusively in the Grand Duchy of Moscow and in no other principality of Rus' (this situation persisted until the era of industrial production). Thus, this beverage was closely associated with Moscow. Until the mid-18th century, the drink remained relatively low on alcohol content, not exceeding 40% abv. Multiple terms for the drink are recorded, sometimes reflecting different levels of quality, alcohol concentration, filtering, and the number of distillations; most commonly, it was referred to as "burning wine", "bread wine", or even in some locations simply "wine". (In locations, grape wine may have been so expensive that it was a drink only for aristocrats.) Burning wine was usually diluted with water to 24% ABV or less before drinking. It was mostly sold in taverns and was quite expensive. At the same time, the word vodka was already in use, but it described herbal tinctures (similar to absinthe), containing up to 75% by volume alcohol, and made for medicinal purposes. The first written usage of the word vodka in an official Russian document in its modern meaning is dated by the decree of Empress Elizabeth of June 8, 1751, which regulated the ownership of vodka distilleries. The taxes on vodka became a key element of government finances in Tsarist Russia, providing at times up to 40% of state revenue. By the 1860s, due to the government policy of promoting consumption of state-manufactured vodka, it became the drink of choice for many Russians. In 1863, the government monopoly on vodka production was repealed, causing prices to plummet and making vodka available even to low-income citizens. By 1911, vodka comprised 89% of all alcohol consumed in Russia. This level has fluctuated somewhat during the 20th century, but remained quite high at all times. The most recent estimates put it at 70% (2001). Today, some popular Russian vodka producers or brands are (amongst others) Stolichnaya and Russian Standard. Up until the 1950s, vodka was not used as a designation for Swedish distilled beverages, which were instead called brännvin ("burn-wine"). This beverage has been produced in Sweden since the late 15th century, although the total production was still small in the 17th century. From the early 18th century, production expanded, although production was prohibited several times, during grain shortages. Although initially a grain product, potatoes started to be used in the production in the late 18th century, and became dominant from the early 19th century. From the early 1870s, distillery equipment was improved. Progressively from the 1960s, unflavoured Swedish brännvin also came to be called vodka. The first Swedish product to use this term was Explorer Vodka, which was created in 1958 and initially was intended for the American export market. In 1979, Absolut Vodka was launched, reusing the name of the old Absolut Rent Brännvin ("absolutely pure brännvin") created in 1879. Vodka has become a popular source of insobriety among young people, with a flourishing black market. In 2013 the organizers of a so-called 'vodka car' were jailed for 2,5 years for having provided thousands of liters, mainly to underaged girls. According to The Penguin Book of Spirits and Liqueurs, "Its low level of fusel oils and congeners — impurities that flavour spirits but that can contribute to the after-effects of heavy consumption — led to its being considered among the 'safer' spirits, though not in terms of its powers of intoxication, which, depending on strength, may be considerable." Russian culinary author William Pokhlebkin compiled a history of the production of vodka in Russia during the late 1970s as part of the Soviet case in a trade dispute; this was later published as A History of Vodka. Pokhlebkin claimed while there was a wealth of publications about the history of consumption and distribution of vodka, virtually nothing had been written about vodka production. One of his assertions was that the word "vodka" was used in popular speech in Russia considerably earlier than the middle of the 18th century, but the word did not appear in print until the 1860s. Since the year 2000, due to evolving consumer tastes and regulatory changes, a number of 'artisanal vodka' or even 'ultrapremium vodka' brands have appeared. Vodka may be distilled from any starch- or sugar-rich plant matter; most vodka today is produced from grains such as sorghum, corn, rye or wheat. Among grain vodkas, rye and wheat vodkas are generally considered superior. Some vodkas are made from potatoes, molasses, soybeans, grapes, rice, sugar beets and sometimes even byproducts of oil refining or wood pulp processing. In some Central European countries, such as Poland, some vodka is produced by just fermenting a solution of crystal sugar and yeast. In the European Union there are talks about the standardization of vodka, and the Vodka Belt countries insist that only spirits produced from grains, potato and sugar beet molasses be allowed to be branded as "vodka", following the traditional methods of production. In the United States, many vodkas are made from 95% ethanol produced in large quantities by agricultural-industrial giants Archer Daniels Midland and Midwest Grain Processors. Bottlers purchase the base spirits in bulk, then filter, dilute, distribute and market the end product under a variety of vodka brand names. A common property of the vodkas produced in the United States and Europe is the extensive use of filtration prior to any additional processing including the addition of flavorants. Filtering is sometimes done in the still during distillation, as well as afterwards, where the distilled vodka is filtered through activated charcoal and other media to absorb trace amounts of substances that alter or impart off-flavors to the vodka. However, this is not the case in the traditional vodka-producing nations, so many distillers from these countries prefer to use very accurate distillation but minimal filtering, thus preserving the unique flavors and characteristics of their products. The master distiller is in charge of distilling the vodka and directing its filtration, which includes the removal of the "fore-shots", "heads" and "tails". These components of the distillate contain flavor compounds such as ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate (heads) as well as the fusel oils (tails) that impact the usually desired clean taste of vodka. Through numerous rounds of distillation, or the use of a fractioning still, the taste is modified and clarity is increased. In contrast, distillery process for liquors such as whiskey, rum, and baijiu allow portions of the "heads" and "tails" to remain, giving them their unique flavors. Repeated distillation of vodka will make its ethanol level much higher than is acceptable to most end users, whether legislation determines strength limits or not. Depending on the distillation method and the technique of the stillmaster, the final filtered and distilled vodka may have as much as 95–96% ethanol. As such, most vodka is diluted with water prior to bottling. Polish distilleries make a very pure (96%, 192 proof) rectified spirit (Polish language: spirytus rektyfikowany). Technically a form of vodka, it is sold in liquor stores rather than pharmacies. Similarly, the German market often carries German, Hungarian, Polish, and Ukrainian-made varieties of vodka of 90 to 95% ABV. A Bulgarian vodka, Balkan 176°, has a 88% alcohol content. Everclear, an American brand, is also sold at 95% ABV. Apart from the alcoholic content, vodkas may be classified into two main groups, clear vodkas and flavored vodkas. While most vodkas are unflavored, many flavored vodkas have been produced in traditional vodka-drinking areas, often as home-made recipes to improve vodka's taste or for medicinal purposes. Flavorings include red pepper, ginger, fruit flavors, vanilla, chocolate (without sweetener), and cinnamon. In Russia, vodka flavored with honey and pepper, pertsovka in Russian, is also very popular. Poles and Belarusians add the leaves of the local bison grass to produce zubrówka (Polish) and zubrovka (Belarusian) vodka, with slightly sweet flavors and light amber colors. In Lithuania, a famous vodka containing honey is called krupnik. In the United States, bacon vodka has been introduced to critical acclaim. This tradition of flavoring is also prevalent in the Nordic countries, where vodka seasoned with herbs, fruits and spices is the appropriate strong drink for several seasonal festivities. Sweden has forty-odd common varieties of herb-flavored vodka (kryddat brännvin). In Poland and Ukraine, a separate category (nalyvka in Ukraine and nalewka in Poland) is used for vodka-based spirits with fruit, root, flower, or herb extracts, which are often home-made or produced by small commercial distilleries. Their alcohol contents vary between 15 and 75%. In Estonia, vodkas are spiced with barbaris, blackcurrant, cherry, green apple, lemon, vanilla and watermelon flavors. More recently, people have experimented with producing more unusual flavors of vodka, such as very hot chili flavored vodka and even Bacon vodka. The recent success of grape-based vodka in the United States has prompted traditional vodka producers in the Vodka Belt countries of Poland, Finland, Lithuania, and Sweden to campaign for EU legislation that will categorize only spirits made from grain or potatoes as "vodka". This proposition has provoked heavy criticism from south European countries, which often distill used mash from wine-making into spirits; although higher quality mash is usually distilled into some variety of pomace brandy, lower-quality mash is better turned into neutral-flavored spirits instead. Any vodka then not made from either grain or potatoes would have to display the products used in its production. This regulation entered into force in 2008. In some countries, black-market or "bathtub" vodka is widespread because it can be produced easily and avoid taxation. However, severe poisoning, blindness, or death can occur as a result of dangerous industrial ethanol substitutes being added by black-market producers. In March 2007 in a documentary, BBC News UK sought to find the cause of severe jaundice among imbibers of a "bathtub" vodka in Russia. The cause was suspected to be an industrial disinfectant (Extrasept) – 95% ethanol but also containing a highly toxic chemical – added to the vodka by the illegal traders because of its high alcohol content and low price. Death toll estimates list at least 120 dead and more than 1,000 poisoned. The death toll is expected to rise due to the chronic nature of the cirrhosis that is causing the jaundice. However, there are also much higher estimates of the annual death toll (dozens or even hundreds thousand lives) produced by the vodka consumption in Russia.
Moonshine is a generic term for distilled alcoholic beverages made throughout the globe from indigenous ingredients reflecting the customs, tastes, and raw materials for fermentation available in each region. The term commonly applies to small-scale production, which is often illegal or tightly regulated in many countries. Zarbali is a moonshine still, a type of distilled alcoholic beverage supposedly made from fermented raisins. In Albania, moonshine (Raki) is the primary alcoholic beverage consumed on daily basis. It is made from different fruits, usually grapes, but also plums, apples, blackberries and walnuts. The Armenian name for moonshine is aragh (the word comes from Arabic araq عرق, meaning "sweat" or "juice"), but the native Armenian word oghee (օղի) is used more often. The production of oghee is widespread in Armenia. White mulberry, grape, cornelian cherry, plum, and apricot moonshine are especially popular, particularly in the countryside. The Arabic word Araq (Arak) is derived from the Sanskrit word Ark ( or Urk, where the sound of U is as in BUT), which means distillate. Distillation of alcohol requires an excise license in Australia. The sale of stills up to 5 litre capacity and other distilling equipment, including yeasts, flavorings and other ingredients specific to distillation, is legal. After World War II, there was large-scale immigration from Italy, with many of the immigrants settling in irrigation areas with orchards and grapevines. Many of the immigrants made wine for their own use, which was perfectly legal. However, some of them gathered and fermented leftover grape skins, seeds and stems to distill homemade grappa. Because of the woody seeds and stems, the raw liquor held substantial methanol; and there were occasional incidents of poisoning, sometimes at large parties, by distillers who didn't discard the head (the first portion of their condensate). This home-distillation has decreased with later generations, and farm consolidation. In Bosnia, home distillation of plum rakija/šljivovica is common (plum = šljiva). Bosnians have a long tradition of making plum rakija and it's often made by individuals. In Brazil there is a long tradition of home distilling, especially in the rural areas. Artisanal liquors (especially cachaça made on small farms) tend to be of good quality and are prized by collectors. One form that can be qualified as moonshine is known as "Maria Louca" ("Crazy Mary"). It's aguardente made in jails by inmates. It can be made from many cereals, ranging from beans to rice or whatever can be converted into alcohol, be it fruit peels or candy, using improvised and illegal equipment. The national spirit in Bulgaria is called "rakia" [ракия]. It is usually made from grapes, but other fruits are used as well, such as plum, raspberry or peach. Rakia is the most popular drink in Bulgaria along with wine. Like wine, it is often produced by villagers, either in a community owned (public) still, or in simpler devices at home. Home made rakia is considered to be of better quality and "safer" than rakia made in factories, since there were, especially during the 1990s, many counterfeit products on sale. By tradition, distilling a certain amount of rakia for home use has been free of taxes. In connection with Bulgaria joining the European Union in 2007, there were government decisions to raise taxes on home made spirits. This led to protests in late 2006 and early 2007. With respect to local traditions and the usually poor performance of state institutions in Bulgaria, there is little risk that the new taxes will actually have to be paid. In Bulgarian tradition, drinking ракия is accompanied by eating little dishes (called meze [мезе]), usually some kind of salad, e.g. Shopska salad. Rakia also has many uses as a folk medicine. Burma (Myanmar) has several forms of moonshine. Although it is illegal, moonshine has majority share of the alcohol market especially in rural areas of the country. In the country side, moonshine shares the alcohol market with what some call palm wine. Arki odongtol or mfofo is the Cameroon moonshine. It has an alcohol content of 80%. The common name in Canada for home-made alcohol is shine (bagosse in French) or screech (which usually refers to a rum rather than a whiskey). Two legal products that are marketed as shine or screech are Myriad View Artisan Distllery Strait Shine and Newfoundland Screech. In Colombia moonshine is called "Tapetusa" or "Chirrinchi" and is illegal. However, it is quite popular in some regions and has been traditional for hundreds of years. The cost of tapetusa is a fraction of the heavily taxed legal alcoholic beverages. The aborigines used to make their own version of alcoholic drink called "Chicha" before the arrival of Europeans. Chicha is usually made of corn, which is chewed and spat in an earthen container that was then buried for some time (weeks). The latter is a special kind of alcoholic beverage, and similar to that made by Chilean Indians (Mapuches), but in Chile a legal version of Chicha, made of fermented apples, is sold in September. In the Caribbean coast there is a moonshine called "Cococho", an Aguardiente famous for the number of blindness cases due to the addition of methanol. On the Caribbean coast of Colombia, the Wayuu tribe produces the "Chirrinche" which is both for local consumption and trade with tourists. Chirrinche is regarded to be very strong and often produces a severe hangover.][ In Costa Rica it's called "Guaro de Contrabando", which means Counterfeit Liquor. Also known as "Chirrite", it can be made from any kind of fermented fruit from "manzana de agua" (Malay (rose) apple) to pineapple. The tradition in Croatia is similar to Bosnia, and it is also called "rakija" or "brlja" and it's made of various fruits. Each fruit has its own quality. Most common fruit for producing "rakija" is plum, because of its high percent of fruit sugar which should be better than industrial sugar, in terms that the final product should proposedly contain no methanol. It can also be made from wine and grapes, when it's called "Lozovača". In some parts of Croatia herbs are put into "Lozovača", which they call "Travarica" and it is said that it could heal stomach pains and various diseases. This kind of brandy production is very common in the Croatian culture and fully legal, which could change upon the possible future joining to the EU. In Cyprus a traditional drink is made from distilling grapes, known as zivania. The staple Czech liquor is traditionally made from distilling plums and is known as 'slivovice' (pronounced "slivovitze"), or 'meruňkovice', made from apricots. Traditionally produced in garages and cellars, nowadays it is also produced by specialist distillers. It is found especially in the region of Moravia and is popular at celebrations, including weddings. Czech distillers also offer a service to distill your own fruit mash for you, but they charge heavily, on top of the taxes. The Czech slang term for this type of informally produced alcohol is "pálenka." Home-made corn or cassava-based whiskey is known as lotoko in the DRC. Lotoko is usually made from maize, but sometimes made from cassava, or plantain. Heads of corn are cut up and boiled into a mash which is then fermented and distilled using improvised stills made from cut down oil drums. Because of the woody core of the cobs of corn, the alcohol produced contains high levels of methanol which is toxic. Although it is officially banned, because of its high alcohol content (over 50%), its production is widespread in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Lotoko made from cassava or plantains doesn't carry the same methanol risk. In Denmark, moonshine is referred to as hjemmebrændt (Lit.: Home burnt, that is home distilled). In Denmark an excise license is required to manufacture spirits by any means. The penalty for illegal manufacture of spirits is a large fine and confiscation of the spirit-making equipment. Due to the relatively low price of alcohol compared to the other Nordic countries, it is not at all common in Denmark, and remains a curiosity. In the Dominican Republic, moonshine is called cleren in the towns near the border with Haiti and Pitrinche in the eastern towns. It is made from sugar or fermented sugar cane. Its production is illegal but the law is rarely enforced. Also, there is Berunte, fermented from either corn (which is the most common), rice, melon, pineapple or wheat. In Ecuador, moonshine is often distilled from sugarcane, and referred to as Puro, Spanish for pure, or trago from the Spanish verb tragar, to swallow. Some people refer to it as Puntas (Tips) It is also known as "fuerte" or strong. It is often put in glass containers with fruits. A popular preparation mixes the alcohol with sugar cane juice and lemon juice. In England an excise licence is required to manufacture spirits by any means. The penalty for illegal manufacture of spirits is a fine of up to £1,000 and confiscation of the spirit-making equipment. In Estonia moonshine is referred to as Puskar and is usually made from potatoes. Finnish moonshine, pontikka, is home-made vodka, usually made from any fermentable carbohydrates, most commonly grain, sugar or potato, made into kilju and distilled, ideally three times (kolmasti kirkastettu). It is said that the name pontikka came about due to the poor quality French wine from Pontacq. Other names are ponu (an abbreviation of pontikka), ponantsa (a joke of Bonanza), kotipolttoinen (home burnt), tuliliemi (fire sauce), korpiroju (wildwood junk) or korpikuusen kyyneleet (tears of wildwood spruce) as stills often are located in remote locations. In Finland Swedish, the most common term is moscha, deriving from English "moonshine", as the term was first used by emigrants who had returned home from America. Home distillation was forbidden in 1866, but it was nevertheless widely practiced. Moonshining was boosted by prohibition in Finland in 1919-32, but even though alcohol was legalized, high excise taxes were still levied on it and various restrictions were in place. However, in recent years, the structural change of the rural Finland, the changes in Finnish alcohol politics due to EU membership, the rise of living standards and the availability of cheaper legal liquors, caused by lowering the excise taxes and abolishment of specific import restrictions from Estonia, have made making pontikka a rarity, and it is no longer considered a serious policy issue. Unlicensed moonshining is technically illegal in Finland, but it is often considered a challenge or hobby. In practice prosecution follows only if the authorities become aware that the product is being sold. Most Finnish moonshiners use simple pot stills and flash distillation. Some have constructed sophisticated reflux or rock stills for fractional distillation, containing plate columns or packed columns, with reflux filling components of Raschig rings, crushed glass, nuts, glass pellets or steel wool. The city of Kitee is the most famous Finnish "moonshine-city". A legitimate brand of vodka called "Kiteen kirkas" ("Kitee's Clear") is available commercially. Eau de vie, gnôle, goutte, lambic, fine, or more generically the simple name of the fruit they were distilled from – poire (Pear), prune (Plum), mirabelle (Mirabelle) – there is a wide variety of terms in French to speak of strong alcohols, which also reflects the wide variety of recipes and ingredients available to make them. There are strong local traditions depending on the provinces: lambic or calvados is distillated from cider in Brittany and Normandy, mirabelle, prune and kirsch are mainly produced in the East (Alsace, Lorraine, Bourgogne, Champagne), and every wine-producing region has, to some extent, a tradition of making brandy, the most famous being Cognac and Armagnac. Unlicensed moonshining was tolerated in France up to the late 1950s. Since 1959 the right can no longer be transferred to descendants, and only a few bouilleurs de cru are still exercising their right. Owning a registered fruit orchard or a vineyard still gives the right to have the production distilled, but is no longer free, and a licensed distiller must be utilized. The excise amounts to 7.50 € per litre of pure alcohol for the first 10 litres, and 14.50 € per litre above that limit. In Georgia the traditional grape moonshine is called chacha. Recently, with modernized distilling and aging technology, chacha is promoted as "Georgian brandy" or "Georgian vodka", and is compared to grappa. In Germany, moonshine is called Schwarzgebrannter. The term is very often translated "black burned" since the word schwarz means black, but in this case schwarz means illegal (as in black market). A more accurate translation is "illegally distilled liquor". Generally, home-distillation of alcohol is illegal in Germany, but there are exceptions. Ownership and use of very small stills up to 500 millilitres (18 imp fl oz; 17 US fl oz) capacity is legal. Such stills are only used by hobbyists, and the products of them are not available on the black market. The ownership of larger stills must be reported to fiscal authorities, otherwise it is illegal, and the use of these stills requires a licence. The German market for moonshine is limited, in part because legal alcohol is inexpensive, compared to some other Western European countries and in part because controls are generally effective. German home-distilled alcohol is in most cases a type of traditional German Schnaps, often a type of fruit brandy. There are many legal and often very small distilleries in Germany. Most of these small distilleries are located in Southern Germany, located on farms and are home-distilleries. These producers of distilled beverages are called Abfindungsbrennerei and the operation of these small distilleries requires a special type of licence. The number of such licences is limited and it is difficult to obtain one, since in most cases all licences are in use. An Abfindungsbrennerei is only allowed to produce a limited amount of pure alcohol per year and the operation of the still is limited to some months of the year. There are tight controls of these limitations. The products of an Abfindungsbrennerei, although in many cases home-distilled, are not considered to be Schwarzgebrannter since they are taxed and legal. Ghanaian moonshine is referred to as akpeteshie, and is distilled from palm wine, or juice from the sugar cane. It is also at times referred to as "apio" or simply "hot drink". Greek moonshine is known as raki (Greek: ρακή), or tsikoudia (Greek: τσικουδιά) in the island of Crete, or tsipouro (Greek: τσίπουρο) in other parts of the country. It is usually made from fermented grapes. There are legal commercial distilleries, but private stills are quite common, particularly in rural areas. Home distilled products are generally produced in limited quantities, for the distiller's personal use, and to be given as gifts to friends and family, many of whom are often present during the distillation process. Home distilled products are not in direct competition with commercial products since moonshine is generally not sold or consumed in most public places. The broadest term for Guatemalan moonshine is cusha. It is popular in large regions of the countryside, where it is made by fermenting fruits, particularly for Mayan festivities. If forbidden, nobody is prosecuting its manufacture. Cusha is also a valuable for shamans, who consume it during cleansing ceremonies and spit on their "patients" with it. In Haiti moonshine is called Clairin. It is made from sugar or fermented sugar cane. In Honduras, moonshine is commonly called guaro. It is normally distilled from sugarcane. In small towns, it is often sold out of the home by the producer. In cities and larger towns you can find it where other liquors are sold, usually in plastic bottles with labels of local producers. Hungarian moonshine is called [házipálinka] (pálinka is a spirit, házi means 'from home') because it is homemade. It is mostly made in rural areas where the ingredients, usually fruit, are readily available. Its production is considered illegal if distilled at home, since the distillation process constitutes a tax fraud if not carried out at a licensed distillery, however házipálinka is quite wide spread. Because the ingredients are usually of good quality, and the equipment used (while old and obsolete) is designed for this purpose, the quality of these spirits is higher than most of the other moonshine varieties. Community distilleries also exist, operated by one or more villages to process locally grown fruits. Icelandic moonshine (Landi) is distilled gambri or landabrugg. It is largely made by hobbyists due to high liquor taxes, but used to be a prolific business during the prohibition. Due to the lack of natural cover and harsh weather conditions, most "moonshining" activity occurs indoors in a controlled environment. Although potatoes are the most common constituent of Icelandic moonshine, any carbohydrate can be used, including stale bread. Landi is often consumed by people who cannot buy alcohol, either due to their young age or distance from the nearest alcohol store. Landi tastes like pure vodka, if it is made right. Locally produced moonshine is known in India as tharra. It is made by fermenting the mash of sugar cane pulp in large spherical containers made from waterproof ceramic (terra cotta). In South India, moonshine is any alcoholic drink not made in distilleries. Toddy and arrack are not synonyms or Indian names for moonshine liquor. Toddy(or taddy) is an alcoholic beverage made from the sap of palm trees, and arrack refers to strong spirits made traditionally from fermented fruit juices, and the sap of the palm tree. In the Indian state of Goa, a locally produced cashew flavored drink Feni is popular among locals and the tourists. There are frequent deaths associated with consumption of unsafe liquors in India, such as the Hooch tragedy in West Bengal in December 2011. Arrack is commonly produced as moonshine, as thus has resulted in deaths from contaminants. Arak (especially Aragh Sagi) made from various kinds of fruit based liqueurs as well as from wine is commonly produced as moonshine. Its underground production practices have resulted in deaths from contaminants. Also because of the danger of carrying Arak in Iran (as a forbidden drink in Islam) or simply the difficulty of finding it, some use pure Ethanol made for chemical uses which increases the chance of alcohol poisoning. Grain or potato based moonshine made illegally in Ireland is called poitín, or poteen. The term is a diminutive of the word pota ' a pot'. As elsewhere, poteen is the basis for extensive folklore with crafty hillsmen pitted against the "excise men" as sang in The Hackler from Grouse Hall. In olden times, the wisp of smoke on an isolated hillside was what gave the poteen-maker away: in modern times, this risk was removed by the use of bottled gas to fire the clandestine still. Clandestine distillation of alcohol typically from grapes which is called grappa was common in the once poor north eastern part of Italy, which still produces some of the finest grappa in the country but with tighter control over the supply of distillation equipment its popularity has slumped. However, distillation of grappa still continues in the rural areas of Italy especially in the south where control over distilling equipment is not as rigid. Typically families will produce small quantities for their own consumption and to provide as gifts to others. Nowadays, the supply of production equipment larger than three litres is controlled, and anything smaller must bear a sign stating that moonshine production is illegal. On the island of Sardinia, one can still find local varieties of grappa which are dubbed 'filuferru', the local pronunciation for 'iron-thread'; this peculiar name comes from the fact that grappa stills were buried to hide them from authorities with iron-thread tied to them for later retrieval. Legal production occurs both by large-scale industrial producers as well as small producers who still use the traditional (formerly illegal) methods. Illegally distilled alcohol is widely made in Kenya, known as "Changaa", "Kumi kumi" or "Kill me quick". It is mostly made from maize and produced with crude stills made from old oil drums. It has been known to cause blindness and death. This may be caused by unscrupulous adulteration by sellers who want to give the beverage more 'kick', for example, adding battery acid. It may be caused by impure distillation. Because use is so widespread in Kenya the government has little control and has considered legalization to avert deaths. In Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic) the home distillation of spirits is technically illegal, although this law is rarely enforced. 'Lao Lao' is the name given to home-produced liquor, and it is drunk openly especially in rural areas, with many small villages operating a communal still. Usually brewed from rice, it varies from well produced, smooth tasting liquor to very rough spirits with many impurities. In Latvia, moonshine "kandža" (45–55% vol) is generally made from sugar, sometimes from potatoes or also grains. The brewing kettle commonly is an old aluminum milk-can (approximately 40l). Normally sugar, baker's yeast and water is fermented for few weeks and then distilled with help of gas-burner or wood-cooker. Brewing of "kandža" is illegal; however, in reality as long as it is used for own consumption (not for sale) there are no problems with authorities. Moonshine Samanė is made from triticale grain from Dzūkija region. The fermented mash is held in stainless steel reservoir and distilled twice what determines its strength of 50–90% vol and specific aroma. In Malawi moonshine is commonly brewed and distilled by women in townships and villages. Known as "katchasu" in Chichewa, various sources of starch may be used including potatoes, sugar cane or maize. Although technically illegal, there is no social stigma attached to moderate consumption. In the state of Sarawak, moonshine is called Langkau, meaning 'hut' in the Iban language, which is where people cook them (illegally). Langkau is made from fermented rice wine (tuak) and cooked in a barrel with a little hose hanging off the top of the barrel. Some rural folks like to drink 'Langkau' at festivals and during leisure hours. In Sabah, a drink similar to 'Langkau' is called 'Montoku'. Republic of Macedonia is a country where moonshine is not only legal, but is also the liquor of choice. Typically, the moonshine is made out of grapes, which are the leftovers from the production of wine, but also made from plums (Slivovica). Moonshine is highly popular because it is commonly used for medicinal purposes. This process usually uses diluted moonshine with caramelized sugar, and the liquor is then boiled and consumed while still hot. Commonly is known as rakia (ракија) and widely consumed in all parts of Macedonia. Nepal has an indigenous liquor raksi (Nepali: ) that is distilled illegally at home as well as legally in rustic distilleries. The legal product is usually made from fruit since there are statutes against diverting grain away from human consumption. Distilled liquor made from grain may also be called daru or double-daru if distilled twice. Legal raksi is seldom aged; usually quite harsh to the taste. Illegal daru may be smoother, or it can be poisonous if improperly prepared. It is not uncommon for Nepalese to tell outsiders that the concoction does not exist. The Nepalese sometimes add rakshi to hot tea, calling the mixture ‘Jungle Tea’. New Zealand is one of the few western societies where home distillation is legal for personal consumption but not for private sale. In New Zealand, stills and instruction in their use are sold openly. Hokonui Moonshine was produced in Southland by early settlers whose (then) illegal distilling activities gained legendary status, see Hokonui Hills. Hokonui Moonshine is now produced legally and commercially by the Southern Distilling Company which has recently started to export it. In the country of Nicaragua, home distilled spirits are called "Cususa". [koo-soo'-sah] Cususa is made of corn and "dulce de tapa" (dried sugarcane molasses) or just plain sugar. It is distilled by means of a cold bowl of water (porra) placed over a metal drum full of the fermented corn. A tube channels the condensation to a bottle. In Nigeria, home based brewing is illegal. Moonshine is variously called 'ogogoro', 'kainkain', 'abua first eleven', 'agbagba', 'akpeteshi', 'aka mere', 'push me, I push you', 'koo koo juice', 'crazy man in the bottle', or 'Sapele water' depending on locality. Due to the very high taxation of alcohol, moonshine production primarily from potatoes and sugar continues to be a popular, albeit illegal, activity in most parts of the country. Moonshining occurs in the Mid- and North-Norwegian regions in particular and rural areas in general. Norwegian moonshine is called "hjemmebrent" or "heimebrent" (which translates into English as "home-burnt"), sometimes also "heimkok"/"himkok" (meaning "home-cooked") or "heimert"/"himert" (slang), "blank vara" or "blank fløte" (meaning "clear stuff" or "clear cream") and the mash is called "sats". In rural parts of eastern Norway, it is also referred to as "ni-seks"(meaning "nine-six", referring to the alcohol content, 96% ABV) as a common moonshine variant is rectified spirits from potatoes. In the county of Telemark mash is also referred to as "bæs". A more contemporary name is "sputnik" after the Soviet satellites, a joke that the liquor's strength could send one into orbit. In the old days on Finnskogen they called the mash Skogens vin ("Wine of the forest"), a name used by poorer people without access to distilling equipment. When talking to foreigners, some Norwegians use the term "something local" about their moonshine. In Norway, moonshine is commonly mixed with coffee, and sometimes a spoon of sugar. This drink is known as karsk, and has a special tie to the mid- and north-Norwegian regions, but is also enjoyed elsewhere. A common joke is that the traditional mixture was made by brewing the strongest, blackest coffee possible, then putting a 5 Øre piece (a copper coin of size and color of a pre-decimalization English penny, no longer in circulation) in a cup. Add coffee to the cup until the coin can no longer be seen, then add hjemmebrent, straight from the still until the coin can again be seen. Apple juice is also a common beverage for mixing, as it is said to "kill the taste" of bad moonshine. While brewing is permitted in Norway, distillation is not. Possession of equipment capable of distilling is also illegal. § 8-5. The enforcement of this law is irregular at best. Alcohol is strictly licensed or otherwise illegal in Pakistan. However unregulated production in rural areas thrives. Products include tharra and its variants including what is ironically known as "Hunza water" and rudimentary beers made from barley, rye and other grain mixtures. Some brandy is also produced in the north where fruit is more readily available. Methanol contamination is a serious problem in some regions. Home-based distillation is illegal, however, small home brewing and consumption are allowed. In the faraway rural areas, there is a brew called "chirrisco". It is often made out of any kind of fruits but is especially made out of rice. Unscrupulous or ignorant distillers may add car battery acid to increase potency, thereby leading to poisoning and similarly harmful side effects. In fact, there have been cases where discarded herbicide containers have been used to store chirrisco.][ Peru is one of the few countries where moonshine is completely legal. The production and sale of homemade alcoholic drinks is entirely unregulated and their consumption is common in daily meals. Pisco is one of the most common alcoholic drinks in Peru, although different types of chicha, with their generally low alcohol content, are the most popular alcoholic drinks in the country, with regional variations common in all areas. Even small children enjoy chicha as commonly as children in other countries may drink juice. This is especially true of the non-alcoholic chicha morada (purple chicha), loved by both children and adults. The low alcohol content rarely causes drunkenness or dependence, even in small children. Chicha was also consumed by the ancient Peruvians, before the Incas' empire; it was apparently consumed by Chavin De Huantar, one of the first cultures in Peru. Lambanog is distilled from the sap either of the coconut flower or of the nipa palm fruit. Commercial versions—usually 80 to 90 proof—are widely available, but homemade lambanog can be found in the coconut-producing regions of the country. The Polish name for moonshine is bimber; although the word samogon (from Russian) is also used. Far less common is the word księżycówka, which is roughly equivalent to "moonshine", being a nominal derivation from the word księżyc, "moon". The tradition of producing moonshine might be traced back to the Middle Ages when tavern owners manufactured vodka for local sale from grain and fruit. Later, other means were adopted, particularly those based on fermentation of sugar by yeast. Some of the moonshine is also made from distilling plums and is known under the name of śliwowica. The plum moonshine made in area of Łącko (Southern Poland) called Łącka Śliwowica gained nationwide fame, with tourists travelling long distances to buy one or two bottles of this strong liquor. Because of the climate and density of the population, most of the activity occurred indoors. In Poland, the simplest recipe for producing moonshine by fermentation of yeast with the use of 1 kilogram of sugar, 4 liters of water, and 10 dag (= 100 g) of yeast is jokingly abbreviated as 1410 – the year of the Battle of Grunwald, the most famous victory of Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and their allies over the Knights of the Teutonic Order in the Middle Ages. It is illegal to manufacture moonshine in Poland, as confirmed by the Supreme Court’s ruling of 30 November 2004. Selling home-made alcohol is also a tax offence as there is an excise imposed on sale of alcohol, and there is no provision for those manufacturing alcohol illegally to pay this duty if they want to. In reality the law is not consistently enforced, an example being the authorities' toleration of the large-scale manufacture and sale of Śliwowica Łącka. The small sets for home distillation can also be easily purchased in any chemical glass shop with no control whatsoever. In Portugal the most common type of moonshine is a drink commonly named Bagaço. The word refers to Bagasse, the mash of grape skins and stems left over from the production of wine, which is distilled to produce this spirit that bears the same name. It can be aged in oak casks, acquiring an orange color, similar to whisky which enhances its flavor. This is called Bagaceira. In the Algarve, Arbutus unedo is endemic, and its fruit ferments on its own while still on the tree. A drink is made from it called Medronho. The common Puerto Rican term for moonshine rum is pitorro, from the Andalusian term "pintorro", given to a white wine (or rum, near the rum-producing sugar cane fields of Málaga) of inferior quality which has some grape (in the case of the wine) or molasses (in the case of rum) coloring in it. Other terms are, pitrinche or pitriche, cañita (based on the thin copper tubing of the alembic in which it is produced), lágrima de monte (mountain tears), and lágrima de mangle ("mangrove's tears" since many artisan distillers refine their product near coastal mangroves, to conceal it from police). Cañita is a common term so popular that at least two legal brands of rum have used the name, including the current brand, "Cañita Cura'o". Pitorro is an integral part of Puerto Rican culture, and musical odes to it or its production (such as the plena "Los Contrabandistas", popularized by Puerto Rican singer Daniel Santos) are part of local folklore. Pitorro is usually much stronger than commercial rum. At times its alcohol content surpasses the common 80- or 90-proof (40% or 45% alcohol per volume) mark. Some raids have led to confiscation of rum that is up to 80% alcohol per volume (160 proof). Recipes abound, but common practices include "curing" the distilled product by burying jugs of pitorro in the ground, as well as placing grapes, prunes, raisins, dates, mango, grapefruit, pineapple, coconut and other fruits in them. Puerto Rico is known for its production of legal rum, and since it is a major revenue-generating operation, the Puerto Rican police force, as well as agents from the local Departamento de Hacienda (Treasury Department) tend to pursue moonshine producers fervently, particularly around the Christmas season. A town famous (or infamous) for its pitorro production is Añasco, Puerto Rico. In Romania, plum brandy is called ţuică (tzuika), rachiu (raki) or palincă (palinka), depending on the region in which it is produced. It is prepared by many people in rural areas, using traditional methods, both for private consumption and for sale. Production is subject to government inspection, for purposes of levying the alcohol tax; undeclared distilleries, even for personal use, are illegal. Some ţuică is sold in markets or fairs; it is also commonly sold on the side of the road, especially in autumn, after harvest season. The Russian name for any homemade distilled alcoholic beverage is called samogon (ru: самого́н), literally translated as "self-run" or "self-distilled". Historically, it was made from malted grain (and therefore similar to whisky), but this method is relatively rare nowadays, due to increased availability of more convenient base ingredients, such as table sugar, which modern samogon is most often made from. Other common ingredients include beets, potatoes, bread, or various fruit. Samogon of initial distillation is called pervach (ru: перва́ч), literally translated as "the first one" – it is well known for its high quality (pure alcohol evaporates at the beginning of the process, but impurities do not; over time impurities evaporate as well, thus making the rest of the batch not as clean). The production of samogon is widespread in Russia. Its sale is subject to licensing. Unauthorised sale of samogon is prohibited, however, production for personal consumption has been legal since 1997 in most of the country. Samogon often has a strong repulsive odor, but due to cheap and fast production, and the ability to personalize the flavor of the drink, it is relatively popular. Pervach is known for having a little or no smell. Samogon is one the most popular alcoholic beverages in the country. It directly competes with vodka, which is more expensive (in part due to taxes on distilled alcohol), but contains fewer impurities. A 2002 study found that, among rural households in central Russia, samogon was the most common alcoholic beverage, its per capita consumption exceeding the consumption of vodka 4.8 to 1. The study estimated that, at the time, it was 4 to 5 times cheaper to manufacture homemade samogon from sugar than to buy an equivalent quantity of vodka. Since then, the price of vodka has been rising above the rate of inflation. As of 2011, typical cost of production of homemade samogon is on the order of 30 rubles (approx. 1 USD) per liter, mainly determined by the price of sugar. The breakeven cost of "economy-class" vodka is 100 rubles/liter, but federal taxes raise retail prices almost threefold, to 280 rubles/liter. Possibly due to rising taxes, per capita consumption of vodka in Russia has been falling since 2004. It has been largely replaced with samogon among marginal classes. Some analysts forecast that the trend will result in increased adoption of samogon among the middle class, and by 2014, samogon will overtake vodka as the most common alcoholic beverage nationwide. In Saudi Arabia, where alcohol is prohibited, black-market alcohol, typically distilled from fermented sugar water, is mostly known as "Aragh" ("عرق" in Arabic).][ South Korean workers in Saudi Arabia create improvised moonshines from water, fruits (lemons and oranges), and yeast. Illicitly produced whisky from Scotland is called peatreek. The term refers to the smoke (or reek) infused in the drink by drying the malted barley over a peat fire. Many types of moonshine are produced in Serbia, even though they are almost exclusively fruit-based, made in pot-stills and commonly referred to as rakija. Šljivovica (plum brandy) is the most popular, but brandies based on other fruits, such as breskovača (peach brandy), kajsijevača (apricot brandy), viljamovka (pear brandy) and jabukovača (apple brandy). Product quality can range from poorly produced brlja to oak barrel aged fine quality rakija that is superior to the bulk of the commercial market. Rakija is readily available on open markets even in the big cities, so finding a producer of quality product is the only real challenge in the process. There has been a scarcity of reports on poisoning, which indicates a high level of product safety derived from a long tradition. While most of it is produced in the farming regions (central and north), moonshine is being produced throughout the country and one would be hard-pressed to find a village without at least one pot still. Rakija is not commonly used for mixing with any other drinks as it is considered to be a fine beverage on its own, but some people have been known to drink beton (literally translated as "concrete"), which is a shot-glass of low quality šljivovica dropped into a glass of beer. Until recently, rakija had the image of a low-class category of drinks, not comparable to foreign imports, such as whiskey or rum. A recent upsurge in nationalism has reintroduced rakija as a connoisseur's drink to the general public and posh bars that stock quality rakija in many varieties have opened up in major cities' clubbing districts. The common term referring to moonshine in Slovakia is domáce, meaning "made at home"; or pálené, which roughly translates as "burned", derived from the process of burning during distillation. A common moonshine in Slovakia is slivovica, sometimes called plum brandy in English. It is notorious for its strong but enjoyable smell delivered by plums from which it is distilled. The typical amount of alcohol is 52% (it may vary between 40–60%). The homemade slivovica is highly esteemed. It is considered a finer quality spirit compared to the industrial products which are usually weaker (around 40%). Nowadays this difference in quality is the primary reason for its production, rather than just the economic issues. A bottle of a good home made slivovica can be a precious gift, since it cannot be bought. The only way to obtain it is by having parents or friends in rural areas who make it. Slivovica is sometimes used also as a popular medicine to cure the early stages of cold and other minor aches. Although illegal, small-scale home production seems to be tolerated by the government. Several other fruits are used to produce similar home made spirits, namely pears – hruškovica and wild cherries – čerešňovica. Another common traditional Slovak moonshine is called borovička, distilled from juniper berries or pine. Its flavor, although much stronger, resembles gin and can a reach 50–70% alcohol content. In Slovenia, especially in the western part, moonshine is distilled from fermented grapes remaining from wine production, and sugar if necessary. It is called tropinovec (tropine, means squeezed half-dried grapes, in the west of the country). Šnops or Žganje, as its otherwise known, is generally distilled from pears, plums and apples. Because it has around 60%–70% of alcohol is often mixed with boiled water to make it lighter (vol. 50%). Tropinovec is rarely drunk in large quantities. It is often mixed with fruits (cherries, pears, etc.) to cover the strong odor and taste, or herbs (Anise, Wolf's bane, etc.) for alternative medical treatment. Home distilling is legal in Slovenia. Still owners are obliged to register and pay excise duties (approximately 15 USD for 40–100 l stills and 30 USD for stills larger than 100 l). There were 20,539 registered home distillers in 2005, down from over 28,000 in 2000. In South Africa moonshine made from fruit (mostly peaches or marulas) is known as mampoer (named after the Pedi chief Mampuru). The equivalent product made from grapes is called witblits (white lightning). Witblits has a long history in the Western Cape Province (over 200 years) and many producers take great pride in their product, which is widely available from liquor stores and at farmer's markets. Most witblits is of a very high quality compared to typical moonshine worldwide and is generally comparable to grappa. A licence is required to distill alcohol in South Africa. A limited number of "cultural heritage" small-scale distillers are licenced. Most of the moonshine in Spain is made as a byproduct of wine making by distilling the squeezed skins of the grapes. The basic product is called orujo or aguardiente (burning water). The home made versions are usually stronger and have a higher alcoholic content, well over the 40% the commercial versions typically have. Starting with orujo there is a countless number of blends and flavours around. Typically adding herbs, spices or berries or fruits or mixing the moonshine with other distillates. The best known are probably: pacharán, licor de café and orujo de hierbas. In Sudan, all domestically produced distilled alcoholic beverages can be considered moonshine, on account of a general prohibition of alcohol pursuant to the demands of Islamists for the establishment of Sharia. Nevertheless, production remains widespread, particularly in rural areas of the country, predominantly in the form of araqi, produced from dates. Moonshine is in Sweden known as hembränt in Swedish (literally "home burnt") with common nicknames like HB and skogsstjärnan ("the forest star") or humorous names like garagenkorva (a pun from "garage" and "Koskenkorva") and Fôlksprit (booze of the people). As the desired product is a neutral spirit (resembling vodka), the "mash" is typically a mix of sugar and yeast in water which gets a simple distillation followed by filtration in activated charcoal after being diluted to 30%-50% ABV as higher strengths lessens the efficiency of the filtering. Sometimes freeze distillation is used to make apple brandy or other drinks with lower alcohol content. Unlicensed manufacture, transfer and possession of distilled alcohol is illegal in Sweden, as is the manufacture, transfer and possession of stills or parts of stills intended for unlicensed manufacture of alcohol. The manufacture, transfer and possession of mash intended for this purpose is also illegal. Due to relaxed import regulation since 2005, business has declined. Moonshine is most socially accepted in the countryside, where it's produced for own consumption rather than for sale. In Sri Lanka, home based brewing is illegal. However, this is a lucrative underground business in most parts of the island. Illicit brew is known by many names; 'Kasippu' is the most common and accepted name, 'Heli Arrakku' (archaic term means, Pot-Liquor), 'Kashiya' (which is a pet name derived from more mainstream term Kasippu), 'Vell Beer' (means, beer of the paddy field), 'Katukambi', 'Suduwa' (means, the white substance), 'Galbamuna', 'Gahapan Machan' (means drink it), vell fanta depending on locality. The raw materials used in the production are mainly common white sugar (from Sugarcane) manufactured in Sri Lanka, yeast, and urea as a nitrogen source.][ In Switzerland, absinthe was banned in 1910, but underground distillation continued throughout the 20th century. The Swiss constitutional ban on absinthe was repealed in 2000 during a general overhaul of the national constitution, but the prohibition was written into ordinary law instead. Later that law was also repealed, so from 1 March 2005, absinthe is again legal in its country of origin, after nearly a century of prohibition. Absinthe is now not only sold in Switzerland, but is once again distilled in its Val-de-Travers birthplace, with Kübler and La Clandestine Absinthe among the first new brands to emerge, albeit with an underground heritage. The alcohol contents variation of those legal absinthes in their first few years is interesting to note. Whereas pre-2005 bootleg absinthe usually clocked in at 65-70% alcohol by volume (ABV), the first few legal absintes were aligned on the 42-45% ABV of other common domestic spirits such as fruit schnapses. This proved lacking in taste intensity for a drink that is drunk watered down as a rule, and by 2010 most Swiss absithes contained something on the lines of 54% ABV, a few being back to the pre-2005 strength that is 65%, sometimes up to 72% ABV. In Thailand, home-brewed alcohol, most commonly distilled from glutinous rice, is called lao khao (เหล้าขาว; literally "white liquor") or officially sura khao (สุราขาว). It is sometimes mixed with various herbs to produce a medicinal drink called yadong (ยาดอง; literally "fermented herb (in alcohol)"). Yadong is prepared by mixing lao khao with various herbs and allowing the mixture to ferment for 2–4 weeks before use. Some people claim that it helps them regain strength. These days you can find instant yadong mixes that significantly reduce the time it takes to produce the final product. In Trinidad and Tobago illegally distilled alcohol brews are known as Ba-bash, "Bush Rum", or mountain dew. It is primarily made from fermented sugar cane or citrus wines. The "stills" used are very similar to those used in North America. Although Ba-Bash is illegal in Trinidad and Tobago it is readily available if contacts are right. Boukha is a spirit produced from figs in Tunisia. Its name means 'alcohol vapor' in Tunisian Judeo-Arabic dialect. It is obtained by simple distillation of Mediterranean figs from Tunisia. Its alcohol percentage ranges between 36 and 40 percent. Boukha is consumed dry, room temperature or cold. It can also serve as the basis for many cocktails, flavors and fruit salad or drunk with a meal at room temperature. Turkish moonshine is called Raki. Sometimes it is flavored with anise. The name however does not imply illegal distilling, as there are legal distilleries that produce raki too. Waragi is a moonshine gin produced from bananas and often stored in jerrycans. In moonshine form, it is drunk mostly by people who cannot afford commercially available alcohol, although there are several brands that use the term "waragi" in their names.][ In April 2010, more than 80 people were poisoned in the Kambala district after consuming waragi laced with methanol. Moonshine continues to be produced in the United States, mainly in Appalachia. The product is often called white lightning because it is not aged and is generally sold at high alcohol proof, often bottled in canning jars ("Mason jars", see photo). A typical moonshine still may produce 1000 gallons per week and net $6000 per week for its owner. The simplicity of the process, and the easy availability of key ingredients such as corn and sugar, make enforcement a difficult task. However, the huge price advantage that moonshine once held over its "legitimate" competition legally sold has been reduced. Nevertheless, over half the retail price of a bottle of distilled spirits typically consists of taxes. With the availability of cheap refined white sugar, moonshine can be produced at a small fraction of the price of heavily taxed and legally sold distilled spirits. Moonshine alcohol is used by some for herbal tinctures. The number of jurisdictions which ban the sale of alcoholic beverages is steadily decreasing which means that many of the former consumers of moonshine are much nearer to a legal alcohol sales outlet than was formerly the case. Moonshine-like distilled beverages with names like Onyx Moonshine, Everclear, Collier and McKeel White Dog, Virginia Lightning, Georgia Moon Corn Whiskey, Ole Smoky Tennessee Moonshine, Platte Valley Corn Whiskey, Cat Daddy and Junior Johnson's Midnight Moon are produced commercially and sold in liquor stores, typically packaged in a clay jug or glass Mason jar. While these products may refer to themselves as "moonshine," any alcohol that is legally sold cannot be accurately called "moonshine" by nature of the term. As a result of these products, as well as aggressive law enforcement, moonshine production is far less widespread than it was formerly. Home distillation of ethanol for commercial purposes is illegal in the United States. Legislation was introduced, but failed to pass in November 2001 to legalize home distillation in much the same way as home brewing of wine and beer were legalized in 1978. As early as prohibition, there have been stories of moonshiners using their product as a powerful fuel in their automobiles, usually when evading law-enforcement agencies while delivering their illegal product. The sport of "stock car" racing got its start when moonshiners would modify their automobiles to outrun federal government revenue agents. Junior Johnson, one of the early stock car racers in the mountains of North Carolina who was associated with running moonshine, has even "gone legitimate" by marketing a legally-produced grain alcohol, which is made by the first legal liquor distillery in the state. Stokesdale, a town not far from where the distillery is located, has a moonshine still on its official town seal to reflect the corn liquor's history in the town's past. Old, abandoned moonshine stills can be found throughout the Appalachian Mountains and in the states of Mississippi, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Alabama, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia. In order for illegal moonshine manufacturing to take place, moonshiners must conceal their still sites in undisclosed secretive locations; this is due to the lengthy prison sentences that are given to people that are caught manufacturing or distributing this alcohol. Still sites are very unique looking contraptions that usually consist of several metal drums, copper pipes and differing heat sources in order to heat up the mash (which mainly consists of sugar, starch and fruit or grain product). Due to the weight and overall size of these contraptions, it has been an ever-growing problem for illegal moonshine manufacturers and bootleggers to conceal their production equipment. This has led many moonshiners to hide their still sites in very clever locations; most of these moonshiners take refuge deep in the backwoods of America, in abandoned barns in addition to underground structures and tunnels. A classic example of underground still sites that are still being utilized today is the usage of old abandoned mining tunnels. This idea is said to have started in the old mining caves in Tennessee soon after the civil war. Illegal distillers would use these caves because it provided adequate cover that protected them from being discovered by law enforcement. American moonshiners also preferred the use of caves due to the natural abundance of water that the caves provided; which is a key ingredient to moonshine. These caves were used to manufacture moonshine until well into the 20th century. Moonshining has always been very popular in the southern part of the United States, especially among citizens in the farming community; mainly because farmers had the varying produce available in order to manufacture illegal liquor. Some of this produce included: corn, barley, apples, and grapes. It has been said that when farmers could not sell their produce from their crop, they would turn the leftover produce into moonshine whisky; which they would then turn for a profit. Of course this was done with extreme discretion in order to avoid taxation and prosecution. During prohibition (which lasted from 1920 to 1933), all sales, manufacturing and distribution of alcohol was abolished. This new legal sanction created a landslide of illegal distribution of liquor and moonshine, which some farmers and illegal distillers would call the golden age of moonshining. Due to the fact that alcohol was considered illegal, moonshiners started receiving a high demand for liquor that allowed them to have somewhat of a monopoly over the alcohol trade in the United States. Also during this time, the great depression (which lasted from 1929 to about 1939) was also a contributing factor in the popularity of moonshining in the United States. During this time of economic hardship, many Americans turned to the manufacturing and distribution of illegal products in order to get through this tough time. In the southern states, moonshine was being manufactured and then transported all over the country by bootleggers which were then distributed by various crime syndicates that are still remembered today. (For example the lucrative underground distribution of illegal liquor operated by Al Capone.) Moonshine made from yeast-fermented rice is called rượu, which is also the common name for alcohol. Welsh moonshine is simply called "Chwisgi". The tradition of illicit distilling is not as strong as in Ireland or Scotland. However, American distilling owes much to its Welsh contributors, such as Jack Daniel and Evan Williams.
Fusel alcohols, also sometimes called fusel oils, or potato oil in Europe, are a mixture of several alcohols (chiefly amyl alcohol) produced as a by-product of alcoholic fermentation. The word Fusel is German for "bad liquor". Excessive concentrations of some alcohols other than ethanol may cause off-flavors, sometimes described as "spicy", "hot", or "solvent-like". Some beverages, such as rum, whisky (especially Bourbon), incompletely rectified vodka (e.g. Siwucha), and traditional ales and ciders, are expected to have relatively high concentrations of non-hazardous alcohols as part of their flavor profile. However, in other beverages, such as Korn, vodka, and lagers, the presence of other alcohols than ethanol is considered a fault. The compounds involved are chiefly: Fusel alcohols are formed when fermentation occurs:][ During distillation, fusel alcohols are concentrated in the feints or "tails" at the end of the distillation run. They have an oily consistency, which is noticeable to the distiller, hence the other name "fusel oil". If desired, these heavier alcohols can be almost completely separated in a reflux still. Freeze distillation, on the other hand, does not remove fusel alcohols.][ The popular belief that fusel alcohol contributes to hangover symptoms is a matter of scientific debate. A Japanese study in 2003 concluded, "The fusel oil in whiskey had no effect on the ethanol-induced emetic response" in Suncus murinus. Additionally, consumption of fusel oils with ethanol suppressed subjects' subsequent taste aversion to alcohol, which suggested subjects' hangover symptoms were lessened.
Travellers One Barrel Rum is a rum originating from Belize distilled from fermented molasses. It has a medium, balanced subtle taste most often served straight, with water or ice or mixed in cocktails. It is also a winner of Gold Medals Dark Rum category at International Cane Spirits Competition for both 2006 and 2007. They are the producers of Belize's oldest and only aged rums on the market today. Travellers Liquors Ltd began providing Belizeans and visitors assortments of distilled products in 1953. The company was founded by Master Blender Omario Perdomo. The company gained its name from the success it achieved in serving travellers along the main route to and from Belize City. In 1992, the company completely upgraded the distillation facility, stepping away from other distilleries which use acids to speed up the fermentation process. Travellers employs high-test molasses with natural fermentation, coupled with a double-distillation method for smoother taste. Apart from the traditional distilled products like rum and vodka, Travellers also produces liqueurs and wines from Belizean fruits and is the only Belizean refinery that does this. In 1995, Travellers passed standards set for vodka by the U. S. Bureau of Tobacco, Alcohol & Firearms, clearing the way for its first shipment of 1,600 gallons of Cane Juice Vodka to the U. S. for sale in 39 states. A year later, Travellers captured two awards at the Annual Rum Tasting contest, the only company of the 131 who entered to win in two major categories. It was in 2005 that the first shipment of One Barrel rum came to the USA. A single pallet of 75 cases was delivered to H A P L.L.C. in Mesa, Arizona. From those humble beginnings One Barrel has grown to be distributed in over twenty states. Travellers Still in Belmopan, Belize Barrels awaiting transport to the aging shed in Belize City One Barrel rum is manufactured by the Perdomo family's distillery in Belmopan, the capital city of Belize. Travellers uses local molasses, fermented and distilled in a triple column continuous still. The aging shed, where One Barrel is aged about one year in charred oak casks, is in Belize City. Business offices, the bottling plant and shipping are in also at the main facility in Belize City.
Fleischmann's vodka is an 80 proof vodka distilled from grain. Fleischman's is part of Barton Brands, which in turn is part of the Sazerac Company. In 1868 Charles and Maximillian Fleischmann and James Graff, a distiller, founded the Fleischmann Co. to manufacture compressed yeast and distilled spirits. In 1870, the original Fleischmann plant was built at Riverside, Ohio and it produced America's first distilled dry gin. Sylvan Grove is the Bourbon produced at this distillery. This is the first vodka in United States of America (1870), made by Fleischmann Co. In 1940, Fleischmann acquired Daviess County Distillery of Owensboro, Kentucky and produced Straight Bourbon Whiskey and Bonded Bourbon whiskey. In 1960, Fleischmann acquired the Planters Nuts and Chocolate Company for $25,000,000. In 1989, Glenmore Distillery Company acquired Fleischmann Distilling Co. In 1991, United Distillers acquired Glenmore Distillery Company.
Alcohol proof is a measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in an alcoholic beverage. The term was originally used in the United Kingdom and was defined as 7/4 times the alcohol by volume (ABV). The UK now uses the ABV standard instead of alcohol proof. In the United States, alcoholic proof is defined as twice the percentage of ABV. The measurement of alcohol content and the statement of this content on the bottle labels of alcoholic beverages is regulated by law in the United States. The purpose of the regulation is to provide pertinent information to the consumer. From the 18th century until 1 January 1980, the UK measured alcohol content in terms of "proof spirit", which was defined as spirit with a gravity of 12/13 that of water, or 923 kg/m3, and equivalent to 57.15% ABV. The term originated in the 18th century, when payments to British sailors included rations of rum. To ensure that the rum had not been watered down, it was "proved" by dousing gunpowder with it and then testing to see if the gunpowder would ignite. If it did not, then the rum contained too much water and was considered to be "under proof". Gunpowder would not burn in rum that contained less than approximately 57.15% ABV. Therefore, rum that contained this percentage of alcohol was defined to have "100° (one hundred degrees) proof". The value 57.15% is very close to the fraction 4/7 = 0.5714. Thus, the definition amounts to declaring that 100° proof spirit has an ABV of 4/7. From this, it follows that to convert the ABV (expressed as a percentage, as is standard, rather than as a fraction) to degrees proof, it is only necessary to multiply by 7/4 = 1.75. Thus pure, 100% alcohol will have 100×(7/4) = 175° proof, and a spirit containing 50% ABV will have 50×(7/4) = 87.5° proof. The use of "proof" as a measure of alcohol content is now mostly historical. Today, liquor is sold in most locations with labels that state its alcohol content as its percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV). Many countries also use a measure called a standard drink. In Australia, a standard drink contains 10 g (12.67 ml) of alcohol, the amount that an average adult male can metabolise in one hour. The purpose of the standard drink measure is to help drinkers monitor and control their alcohol intake. The European Union follows recommendations of the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML). OIML's International Recommendation No. 22 (1973) provides standards for measuring alcohol strength by volume and by mass. A preference for one method over the other is not stated in the document, but if alcohol strength by volume is used, it must be expressed as a percentage (%) of total volume, and the water/alcohol mixture must have a temperature of 20°C (68°F) when measurement is done. The document does not address alcohol proof or the labeling of bottles. Since 1 January 1980, the United Kingdom has used the ABV standard to measure alcohol content, as prescribed by the European Union. “In common with other EC countries, on 1st January, 1980, Britain adopted the system of measurement recommended by the International Organisation of Legal Metrology, a body with most major nations among its members. The OIML system measures alcohol strength as a percentage of alcohol by volume at a temperature of 20°C. It replaced the Sikes system of measuring the proof strength of spirits, which had been used in Britain for over 160 years.” “Britain, which used to use the Sikes scale to display proof, now uses the European scale set down by the International Organization of Legal Metrology (IOLM). This scale, for all intents and purposes the same as the Gay-Lussac scale previously used by much of mainland Europe, was adopted by all the countries in the European Community in 1980. Using the IOLM scale or the Gay-Lussac scale is essentially the same as measuring alcohol by volume except that the figures are expressed in degrees, not percentages.” In the United States, alcohol content is measured in terms of the percentage of alcohol by volume. The Code of Federal Regulations (27 CFR [4-1-03 Edition] §5.37 Alcohol content) requires that liquor labels must state the percentage of ABV. The regulation permits, but does not require, a statement of the proof provided that it is printed close to the ABV number. For bottled spirits over 100 ml containing no solids, actual alcohol content is allowed to vary within 0.15% of ABV stated on the label. Alcohol proof in the United States is defined as twice the percentage of alcohol by volume. Consequently, 100-proof whiskey contains 50% alcohol by volume; 86-proof whiskey contains 43% alcohol. Note that in the United States the term "degrees proof" is not used. For example, 50% ABV would be described as "100 proof" rather than "100 degrees proof".
Whisky Biotechnology Rum

An alcoholic beverage is a drink that contains ethanol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes for taxation and regulation of production: beers, wines, and spirits (distilled beverages). They are legally consumed in most countries around the world. More than 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption. Beer is the third most popular drink in the world, after water and tea.

Alcoholic beverages have been consumed by humans since the Neolithic era; the earliest evidence of alcohol was discovered in Jiahu, dating from 7000–6600 BC. The production and consumption of alcohol occurs in most cultures of the world, from hunter-gatherer peoples to nation-states.

A distilled beverage, spirit, or liquor is an alcoholic beverage containing ethanol that is produced by distilling (i.e., concentrating by distillation) ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables. This excludes undistilled fermented beverages such as beer, wine, and cider. Types of distilled beverages include Vodka, gin, baijiu, tequila, rum, whisky, brandy, slivovitz and soju.

The term hard liquor is used in North America to distinguish distilled beverages from undistilled ones (implicitly weaker).


Flavored liquors (also called infused liquors) are alcoholic beverages that have added flavoring and, in some cases, a small amount of added sugar. They are distinct from liqueurs in that liqueurs have a large sugar content and may also contain glycerine.

Flavored liquors may have a base of vodka or white rum, both of which have little taste of their own, or they may have a tequila or brandy base. Typically, a fruit extract and, in some cases, sugar syrup are added to the base spirit.

Bloody Mary

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.

Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumed by the world population is supplied by the food industry.

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