The Glock 17 has automatic safety-lock placed on the trigger preventing self-action or incidental shots.
The "safe action" is a firing pin lock system which Glock developed to be used in the vast majority of their pistols. The action is very similar to the quick action used by Walther and other pistol manufacturers. The system consists of one external and two internal safeties which use a striker-engaged firing pin, rather than the more traditional hammer-engaged. It uses additional precautions to prevent the firing pin from moving or being struck if the firearm were to be dropped or shaken.
The three safeties are:
This passive safety system omits the manipulation of traditional on-off levers, hammers or external safeties as found in many other handgun designs.
However, the lack of a traditional external on-off safety means that the weapon will always fire when the trigger is depressed normally: "The ability to fire immediately, without worrying about an external safety, is one feature Glock has stressed as an advantage when selling its guns, especially to police departments..."
The factory standard two-stage trigger has a trigger travel of 12.5 mm (0.5 in) and the trigger pull is rated at 25 N (5.6 flb), but by using a modified connector it can be increased to 35 N (7.9 lbf) or lowered to 20 N (4.5 lbf). In response to a request made by American law enforcement agencies for a two-stage trigger with increased trigger pull, Glock introduced the NY1 (New York) trigger module, which features a flat spring in a plastic housing that replaces the trigger bar's standard coil spring. This trigger modification is available in two versions: NY1 and NY2 that are rated at 25 N (5.6 lbf) to 40 N (9.0 lbf) and 32 N (7.2 lbf) to 50 N (11.2 lbf) respectively, which require approximately 20 N (4.5 lbf) to 30 N (6.7 lbf) of force to disengage the safeties and another 10 N (2.2 lbf) to 20 N (4.5 lbf) in the second stage to fire a shot.
The GSh-18 (Cyrillic: ГШ-18) is a 9 mm semi-automatic pistol developed in 1990s at the KBP Instrument Design Bureau in Tula. The pistol's name is derived from its designers — Gryazev and Shipunov, and the number 18 denotes the magazine capacity.
The GSh-18 is a short recoil-operated, locked breech pistol. The weapon has an unusual cam-rotated barrel with 10 locking lugs. The GSh-18 is striker-fired and features a pre-set trigger that pre-cocks the pistol when the slide recoils after firing a shot. The striker firing pin is then fully cocked by pulling the trigger back to the rear.
GSh-18 contains only 17 parts (for example the Glock 17 contains 34 parts).
GSh-18 is designed to fire standard 9x19mm Parabellum ammo.
The GSh-18 is also designed to fire the new Russian 9x19mm 7N21 (Cyrillic: 7Н21) and 7N31 (Cyrillic: 7Н31) +P+ armor-piercing rounds. With the armor-piercing bullets 7N31 the gun punches 8 mm of steel (15–20 meters of distance).
Smith & Wesson M&P
Glock Ges.m.b.H. (trademarked as GLOCK) is a weapons manufacturer headquartered in Deutsch-Wagram, Austria, named after its founder, Gaston Glock. While the company is best known for its line of striker-fired polymer-framed pistols, it also produces field knives, entrenching tools and apparel.
Glock handguns are used by armed forces and law enforcement organizations worldwide, including a majority of law enforcement agencies in the United States. Glock handguns are also very popular with regular citizens for personal protection and practical shooting, and the company sponsors a competitive shooting team which travels worldwide. As of 2007, Glock produces more than two dozen models of handguns in three different calibers and seven different cartridges.
Glock handguns are common sidearms among law enforcement agencies and military organizations around the world, and are also largely popular weapons amongst civilians for home defense, and concealed/open carry. The popularity of Glock pistols can be attributed to a number of factors. They are widely reputed as highly reliable, being able to function under extreme conditions and to fire a wide range of ammunition types (9mm, 10mm, .40 S&W, .45 ACP, .45 GAP, .357 SIG, .380 ACP; third-party conversion kits for .22 LR and .50 GI are also available). The simplicity of the Glock design as well as its simple operating method contributes to this reliability, as it contains a relatively small number of components (nearly half as many as the typical handgun) making maintenance and repair easier.
The polymer frame makes them lighter than typical steel or aluminum-framed handguns, an attractive feature for police officers and regular citizens who carry firearms for extended periods of time. The trigger is the only operating element; all three safeties are deactivated when the trigger is pulled, and automatically activated when it is released. Glock pistols have no other manual safeties (as some other brands have a lever or button); the only external controls aside from the trigger itself are the slide release and magazine release. This adds to the simplicity of use and removes a potential source of error while operating the handgun under stress. It also provides excellent balance when the pistol is holding a full magazine. Most of the steel components in a Glock pistol are treated with a nitriding process called "Tenifer", which increases the surface hardness and makes the pistol resistant to corrosion and wear.
Though the Heckler & Koch VP70 was the first polymer-framed pistol and predates the Glock 17 by 12 years, the popularity of Glock pistols inspired other manufacturers to begin production of similar polymer-framed firearms, including the Walther P99, Smith & Wesson Sigma, HS2000 (Springfield Armory XD), Steyr M, Taurus PT 24/7, Caracal, FN Herstal FNP and Ruger SR9 pistols. Glocks tend to be in the middle of the price range for quality pistols: generally less expensive than similar SIG Sauer P226 and Heckler & Koch USP pistol models, but more expensive than Ruger or Taurus models.
In addition to their semi-automatic handguns, Glock also produces a select-fire pistol, the Glock 18, which is able to be fired in either semi-automatic or fully automatic mode. This model is generally available only to law enforcement or military organizations. Conversion kits for other Glocks to be fired in fully automatic mode also exist, but they are third-party.
Glock currently manufactures two models of knives, the Feldmesser 78 (Field Knife 78) and the Feldmesser 81 (Survival Knife 81).
The Field Knife 78 is a classic type knife, with a 165 mm (6.5 in) blade and 290 mm (11 in) overall length. The Survival Knife 81 has the same overall dimensions with an additional saw on the back of the blade. The Field Knife 78 weighs 206 g (7.3 oz) and the Survival Knife 81 weighs 202 g (7.1 oz).
The grips and sheaths are made of polymer and are available in three colors: olive drab, sand, and black.
Glock also produces an entrenching tool, the Feldspaten (field spade).
The Feldspaten features a hardened metal spade blade that can be locked in 3 positions for digging, shoveling, and chopping, and a telescopic handle made out of fiberglass-reinforced nylon containing a 175 mm (6.9 in) long hardened metal sawblade.
The entrenching tool weighs 650 g (23 oz) and fully extended is 630 mm (25 in) long. The spade and handle can be collapsed and shortened for easy transport and storage into a 260 mm × 150 mm × 60 mm (10 in × 6 in × in) package.
The entrenching tool is supplied with a nylon storage/transport pouch that can be attached to a belt or backpack.
Glock current international subsidiaries are:
Glock has been the target of multiple embezzlement schemes involving high-ranking officers of the company or others closely related to the company. In 1999, Charles Ewert attempted to murder Gaston Glock after Glock asked for a meeting regarding an accusation of embezzlement. Ewert was convicted of attempted murder along with an accomplice for his involvement.
In April 2012, Paul Jannuzzo, the former CEO of US subsidiary Glock Inc., was convicted of racketeering regarding his involvement in an embezzlement scheme against the company.
Glock 19 (3rd Generation)
Glock 17 (3rd Generation).
Outline of the Glock automatic pistol 18C
Photo of Glock 18C in use by Marine Corps
Glock 19 on a showcase stand
Glock 19 field stripped for cleaning or inspection
Front view of the Glock 19
Third generation Glock 20 10mm Auto
Glock 17 shown on a showcase stand. The stand incorrectly indicates Glock model number 21.
Glock G22 .40 cal with a M6 tactical laser-light combo. Shown with additional 28 round magazines
Glock Model 23 with tactical light and laser sight
Glock 23 with magazine shown
Glock 26 field stripped
Glock 30 with fiber optic sights, magazine extension and handle plug
Night firing to catch muzzle flash
Glock 34 with a GTL 22 attachment
The Smith & Wesson M&P (Military and Police) is a polymer-framed, short recoil operated, locked breech semi-automatic pistol introduced in the summer of 2005 by the American company Smith & Wesson. It uses a Browning-type locking system. While targeted at law enforcement agencies, the M&P is also available on the commercial market.
The M&P is a direct evolution of the Smith & Wesson Sigma design but does not share parts compatibility with the Sigma. The M&P design has an improved trigger, enhanced ergonomics that allow for end user customization. An industry standard picatinny rail and a higher grip has been afforded with an improved grip and beavertail. Many of the ergonomic study elements that had been incorporated into the Sigma and the Smith & Wesson SW99 were brought over to the M&P. The improved trigger weight and feel and the unique takedown method (not requiring a dry-fire pull of the trigger) were meant to set the M&P apart from both the Sigma and the popular Glock pistols.
The M&P is a striker fired semi-automatic pistol. This trigger system prevents the firearm from discharging unless the trigger is fully depressed, even if the pistol is dropped. An internal lock and/or magazine disconnect are available as options and an optional external thumb safety became available in 2009.
The pistol frame is made out of Zytel polymer reinforced with a stainless steel chassis. The slide and barrel are made out of stainless steel that after through hardening is treated with a proprietary nitriding process called Melonite. The Melonite process produces a matte gray non-glare surface with a 68 Rockwell C surface hardness rating. The pistol has a very low slide profile which holds the barrel axis close to the shooter's hand and makes the M&P more comfortable to shoot by reducing muzzle rise and allowing for faster aim recovery in rapid shooting sequence. The slide has four contact points with the frame. This was done to make the rail system self cleaning, by leaving room for any dirt or small foreign objects to fall out of the weapon.
As the slide of the pistol enters battery, the striker engages the sear. At this point, the sear is held back in a partially cocked condition. When the trigger of the M&P is pulled, the trigger bar first engages the firing pin safety plunger, lifting it upward, and releasing firing pin safety. At the rearward extreme of the trigger bar's travel, it engages the sear. The sear is rotated downward by the trigger bar, fully cocking, then releasing the striker. The striker makes contact with the primer of the chambered round, which in turn ignites the gunpowder and propels the bullet forward. According to renowned M&P gunsmith Dan Burwell, the angle on the rear face of the sear creates a camming action against the striker. This camming action moves the striker to the rear very slightly during the trigger pull, thus finishing the "cocking". This system is similar to the partially tensioned striker found in the Glock series of pistols. When the pistol cycles for the next shot, the striker will be automatically pre-set in a 98% cocked position. Because the striker is only 98% cocked prior to the trigger being pulled, Smith and Wesson classifies the M&P's action as "striker fired (double action only)".
The M&P factory trigger is of the jointed type and has a trigger travel of 7.6 mm (0.3 in) and is rated at 29 N (6.5 flb). The M&P45c models have a slightly higher rated trigger pull of 31 N (7.0 flb). The competition oriented M&P40 Pro Series have a reduced trigger pull of 20 N (4.5 flb) due to the installation of a Smith and Wesson performance center sear. Massachusetts (MA) approved models have a trigger pull of 45 N (10 flb).
Several safety features are prominent on the M&P. A sear deactivation lever permits the shooter to disassemble the pistol without having to pull the trigger to accomplish disassembly. The pistol also has a loaded chamber indicator viewing opening on top of the slide.
Ergonomics were a key focus in the design of the firearm, and as a result, three interchangeable palm swell grips are included (small, medium and large). The trigger guard is designed to accommodate gloves. The frame of the M&P has a slide release lever on each side. The magazine drops free when the magazine release is pressed. The firearm features an ambidextrous slide stop and reversible magazine release for either right or left hand operation.
The pistols are delivered with 2 magazines.
The standard iron sights are of the three dot type and made of steel. Both the front and rear sights are dove-tailed into the slide, and can be horizontally drifted to adjust for windage correction.
An integrated Picatinny rail can be found underneath the slide on the front of the frame for attaching tactical lights, lasers and other accessories.
Additionally, there are 10-round magazine versions available of each pistol for the California, Massachusetts, New York, Australian, and Canadian markets. Novak tritium night sights are also an available option for both the full-sized and compact versions.
The M&P is available in 9mm, .357 SIG, .40 S&W, and .45 ACP, with barrel lengths in 5.0", 4.5", 4.25", 4.1" 4.0", 3.5", and 3.1".
The M&P Pro Series is available in 9mm Parabellum and .40 S&W with 4.25" and 5" barrels. The M&P9 Pro Series 5" and M&P40 Pro Series 5" pistols feature a Novak fiber optic green front sight and Novak reduced glare rear sights, instead of the night sights found on the 4.25" models, since the 5" models are aimed at competition.
The M&P9 JG is a standard size Julie Goloski-Golob Champion series variant that is fitted with a Warren Tactical rear sight and a fibre optic front sight. Besides the 3 standard black grip inserts it comes with 2 small and medium sized pink grip inserts. A portion of the proceeds will go to a breast cancer awareness charity.
In 2007 the full-size .45 ACP version of the M&P was introduced sporting a 114 mm (4.5 in) barrel. This model also won Handgun of the Year in 2007.
In 2008, Smith and Wesson introduced new versions of the M&P: the M&P45 Mid-size, the M&P45 Compact, the M&P9L, and the M&P Pro Series. The M&P45 Mid-size sports a 102 mm (4 in) barrel and a full-sized grip, and the M&P45 Compact targets the concealed carry market with its 4" barrel and shorter grip (with 8 or 10-round capacity).
In 2011, Smith and Wesson released the M&P22, a cosmetically similar handgun chambered in .22 Long Rifle. The operation of this rimfire cartridge version is the same as other M&P versions but it differs both internal and external from the center fire cartridge variants. The internal operation and construction is completely different from the center fire variants. The action of the M&P22 is of the blowback type that utilizes a fixed barrel design in which the slide during firing is kept in its forward position by a combination of the force exerted by the recoil spring and the inertial weight of the slide assembly at the moment of firing. After firing, due to the generated bolt thrust during firing, the slide recoils to the rear permitting the extraction and ejection of the spent cartridge case. Upon return of the slide to its forward position by the recoil spring, a fresh cartridge is picked up from the magazine and loaded into the barrel chamber. Due to the low bolt thrust generated by the .22 Long Rifle chambering the M&P22 features a lightweight slide to keep the (inertial) weight of the slide assembly down. Further the M&P22 features an internally hammer fired, and has a magazine safety and a fixed barrel.The backstrap is not removable as in other versions and is only available in one width. The barrel is threaded to accept a suppressor and has a thread protector for normal use. Externally there is additional thumb-break safety similar to that found on the Colt M1911 and a somewhat different set of sights. Rather than the 3 dot sights found on other models the M&P22 has a single dot on the front sight and notch rear that is adjustable for elevation and windage. The M&P22 is made in Germany by Walther arms and imported by Smith and Wesson.
In 2012, Smith and Wesson introduced the M&P Shield in 9mm and .40 S&W. The Shield is a subcompact single-stacked magazine variant of the M&P line. The Shield has roughly the same silhouette as the M&P Compact but is considerably thinner at less than 1-inch in width. The Shield is the first M&P to incorporate an improved trigger with positive reset.
.40 S&W & 9mm Black or Dark Earth
The Glock pistol, sometimes referred to by the manufacturer as Glock "Safe Action" Pistol, is a series of semi-automatic pistols designed and produced by Glock Ges.m.b.H., located in Deutsch-Wagram, Austria. The company's founder, engineer Gaston Glock, had no experience with firearm design or manufacture at the time their first pistol, the Glock 17, was being prototyped. Glock did, however, have extensive experience in advanced synthetic polymers, knowledge of which was instrumental in the company's design of the first successful line of pistols with a polymer frame. Glock introduced ferritic nitrocarburizing into the firearms industry as an anti-corrosion surface treatment for metal gun parts.
Despite initial resistance from the market to accept a "plastic gun" due to durability and reliability concerns, and fears that the pistol would be "invisible" to metal detectors in airports, Glock pistols have become the company's most profitable line of products, commanding 65% of the market share of handguns for United States law enforcement agencies as well as supplying numerous national armed forces and security agencies worldwide. Glocks are also popular weapons amongst civilians for home/self defense and concealed/open carry.][
In 1980, the Austrian military announced that it would seek tenders for a new, modern duty pistol to replace their World War II-era Walther P38 handguns. The Austrian Ministry of Defence formulated a list of 17 criteria for the new generation service pistol:
Glock became aware of the Austrian Army's planned procurement and in 1982 assembled a team of Europe's leading handgun experts from military, police and civilian sport shooting circles to define the most desirable characteristics in a combat pistol. Within three months, Glock developed a working prototype. The new weapon made extensive use of synthetic materials and modern manufacturing technologies in its design, making it a very cost-effective candidate. Several samples of the 9×19mm Glock 17 (so named because it was the 17th set of technical drawings of the company) were submitted for assessment trials in early 1982, and after passing all of the exhaustive endurance and abuse tests, Glock emerged as the winner with the Model 17.
The handgun was adopted into service with the Austrian military and police forces in 1982 as the P80 (Pistole 80), with an initial order for 25,000 guns. The Glock 17 outperformed 8 different pistols from five other established manufacturers (Heckler & Koch of Germany offered their P7M8, P7M13 and P9S, SIG Sauer of Germany bid with their P220 and P226 models, Beretta of Italy submitted their model 92SB-F, FN Herstal proposed an updated variant of the Browning Hi-Power and the home-grown Steyr entered the competition with the GB).
The results of the Austrian trials sparked a wave of interest in Western Europe and overseas, particularly in the United States, where a similar effort to select a service-wide replacement for the M1911 had been ongoing since the late 1970s (known as the Joint Service Small Arms Program). In late 1983, the United States Department of Defense inquired about the Glock pistol and received four samples of the Glock 17 for unofficial evaluation. Glock was then invited to participate in the XM9 Personal Defense Pistol Trials, but declined because the DOD specifications would require extensive retooling of production equipment and providing 35 test samples in an unrealistic time frame.
Shortly thereafter, the Glock 17 was accepted into service with the Norwegian, and Swedish Armed Forces, surpassing all prior NATO durability standards. As a result, the Glock 17 became a standard NATO-classified sidearm and was granted a NATO Stock Number (1005-25-133-6775).
By 1992, some 350,000 pistols had been sold in more than 45 countries, including 250,000 in the United States alone.
Glock has updated its basic design several times throughout its production history. Commentators had long separated the large changes into generations. Glock eventually accepted this nomenclature with their "Gen4" models.
A mid-life upgrade to the Glock pistols involved the addition of checkering on the front strap and serrations to the back strap. These versions were introduced in 1988 and were informally referred to as "second generation" models. To meet American ATF regulations, a steel plate with a stamped serial number was embedded into the receiver in front of the trigger guard.
In 1991, an integrated recoil spring assembly replaced the original two-piece recoil spring and tube design. The magazine was slightly modified, changing the floorplate and fitting the follower spring with a resistance insert at its base.
In the late 1990s, the frame was further modified with an accessory rail (called the "Universal Glock rail") to allow the mounting of laser sights, tactical lights, and other accessories. Thumb rests on both sides of the frame and finger grooves on the front strap were added. Glock pistols with these upgrades are informally referred to as (early) "third generation" models.
Later third generation models additionally featured a modified extractor that serves as a Loaded chamber indicator, and the locking block was enlarged, along with the addition of an extra cross pin to aid the distribution of forces exerted by the locking block. This cross pin is known as the locking block pin and located above the trigger pin.
The polymer frames of third generation models can be black or olive drab. Besides that, non-firing dummy pistols ("R" models) have a bright red frame and Simunition-adapted practice pistols ("T" models) – a bright blue frame for easy identification.
In 2009, the Glock 22 RTF2 (Rough Texture Frame 2) (chambered in .40 S&W) was introduced. This pistol featured a new checkering texture around the grip and new scalloped (fish gill shaped) serrations at the rear of the sides of the slide.
At the 2010 SHOT Show, Glock presented the "fourth generation", now dubbed "Gen4" by Glock itself. Updates centered on ergonomics and the recoil spring assembly. The fourth generation models do not have total parts modularity with its predecessors, meaning not all parts can be mixed and matched with previous Glock generations. The initial two fourth generation models announced were the full-size Glock 17 and Glock 22, chambered for the 9×19mm Parabellum and .40 S&W cartridges, respectively. The pistols were displayed with a modified rough texture frame, grip checkering, and interchangeable backstraps of different sizes. "Gen4" is rollmarked on the slide next to the model number to identify the fourth generation pistols.
The basic grip size of the fourth generation Glock pistols is slightly smaller compared to the previous design. A punch is provided to remove the standard trigger housing pin and replace it for the longer cross pin needed to mount the medium or large backstrap. With the medium backstrap installed, the grip size is comparable to the third generation pistols. The magazine release catches are enlarged and reversible for left-handed use. To utilize the exchangeable magazine release feature, fourth generation Glock magazines have two notches cut on both sides of the magazine body.
Mechanically, fourth generation Glock pistols are fitted with a dual recoil spring assembly to help reduce perceived recoil and increase service life expectancy. Earlier subcompact Glock models such as the Glock 26 and Glock 30 have already used a dual recoil spring assembly which was carried over to the fourth generation versions of those models. The slide and barrel shelf have been resized, and the front portion of the polymer frame has been widened and internally enlarged, in order to accommodate the dual recoil spring assembly. The trigger mechanism housing has also been modified to fit into the smaller sized grip space.
The introduction of fourth generation Glock pistols continued in July 2010 when the Glock 19 and Glock 23, the reduced size "compact" versions of the Glock 17 and Glock 22, became available for retail. In late 2010 Glock continued the introduction of fourth generation models with the Glock 26 and Glock 27 "subcompact" variants.
In January 2013 more fourth generation Glock pistols were introduced commercially during the annual SHOT Show including the Glock 20 Gen4 along with other fourth generation Glock models.
In September 2011 Glock announced a recoil spring exchange program in which the manufacturer voluntarily offers to exchange the recoil spring assemblies of its fourth generation pistols (with the exception of the "subcompact" Glock 26 and Glock 27 models) sold before 22 July 2011 at no cost “in order to ensure our products perform up to GLOCK’s stringent standards,” according the company.
The Glock 17 is a 9mm short recoil-operated locked breech semi-automatic pistol that uses a modified Browning cam-lock system adapted from the Hi-Power pistol. The firearm's locking mechanism utilizes a linkless, vertically tilting barrel with a rectangular breech that locks into the ejection port cut-out in the slide. During the recoil stroke, the barrel moves rearward initially locked together with the slide approximately 3 mm (0.12 in) until the bullet leaves the barrel and chamber pressure drops to a safe level. A ramped lug extension at the base of the barrel then interacts with a tapered locking block integrated into the frame, forcing the barrel down and unlocking it from the slide. This camming action terminates the barrel's movement while the slide continues back under recoil, extracting and ejecting the spent cartridge casing. The slide's uninterrupted rearward movement and counter-recoil cycle are characteristic of the Browning system.
The slide features a spring-loaded claw extractor and the stamped sheet metal ejector is pinned to the subframe. Post 2002 pistols have a reshaped extractor that serves as a loaded chamber indicator. When a cartridge is present in the chamber, a tactile metal edge protrudes slightly out immediately behind the ejection port on the right side of the slide.
The striker firing mechanism has a spring-loaded firing pin that is cocked in two stages, powered by the firing pin spring. When the pistol is charged, the firing pin is in the half-cock position. As the trigger is pulled, the striker is then fully cocked. At the end of its travel, the trigger bar is tilted downward by the disconnector, releasing the striker to fire the cartridge. The disconnector resets the trigger bar so that the striker will be captured in half-cock at the end of the firing cycle. This is known as a pre-set trigger mechanism, referred to as the "Safe Action" trigger by the manufacturer. The disconnector ensures the pistol can only fire semi-automatically.
The factory-standard two-stage trigger has a trigger travel of 12.5 mm (0.49 in) and is rated at 25 N (5.6 flb), but by using a modified connector it can be increased to 35 N (7.9 lbf) or lowered to 20 N (4.5 lbf). In response to a request made by American law enforcement agencies for a two-stage trigger with increased trigger pull, Glock introduced the NY1 (New York) trigger module, which features a flat spring in a plastic housing that replaces the trigger bar's standard coil spring. This trigger modification is available in two versions: NY1 and NY2 that are rated at 25 N (5.6 lbf) to 40 N (9.0 lbf) and 32 N (7.2 lbf) to 50 N (11.2 lbf) respectively, which require approximately 20 N (4.5 lbf) to 30 N (6.7 lbf) of force to disengage the safeties and another 10 N (2.2 lbf) to 20 N (4.5 lbf) in the second stage to fire a shot.
The Glock's frame, magazine body and several other components are made from a high-strength nylon-based polymer invented by Gaston Glock and called Polymer 2. This plastic was specially formulated to provide increased durability and is more resilient than carbon steel and most steel alloys. Polymer 2 is resistant to shock, caustic liquids and temperature extremes where traditional steel/alloy frames would warp and become brittle. The injection molded frame contains four hardened steel guide rails for the slide: two at the rear of the frame, and the remaining pair above and in front of the trigger guard. The trigger guard itself is squared off at the front and checkered. The grip has a non-slip, stippled surface on the sides and both the front and rear straps. The frame houses the locking block, which is an investment casting that engages a 45° camming surface on the barrel's lower camming lug. It is retained in the frame by a steel axis pin that holds the trigger and slide catch. The trigger housing is held to the frame by means of a plastic pin. A spring-loaded sheet metal pressing serves as the slide catch, which is secured from unintentional manipulation by a raised guard molded into the frame.
The Glock pistol has a relatively low slide profile, which holds the barrel axis close to the shooter's hand and makes the pistol more comfortable to shoot by reducing muzzle rise and allows for faster aim recovery in rapid shooting sequence. The rectangular slide is milled from a single block of ordnance-grade steel using CNC machinery. The barrel and slide undergo two hardening processes prior to treatment with a proprietary nitriding process called Tenifer. The Tenifer treatment is applied in a 500 °C nitrate bath. The Tenifer finish is between 0.04 mm (0.0016 in) and 0.05 mm (0.0020 in) in thickness, and is characterized by extreme resistance to wear and corrosion; it penetrates the metal, and treated parts have similar properties even below the surface to a certain depth.
The Tenifer process produces a matte gray-colored, non-glare surface with a 64 Rockwell C hardness rating and a 99% resistance to salt water corrosion (which meets or exceeds stainless steel specifications), making the Glock particularly suitable for individuals carrying the pistol concealed as the highly chloride-resistant finish allows the pistol to better endure the effects of perspiration. Glock steel parts having the Tenifer treatment are more corrosion-resistant than analogous gun parts having other finishes or treatments, including Teflon, bluing, hard chrome plating, or phosphates. After applying the Tenifer process, a black Parkerized decorative surface finish is applied. The underlaying Tenifer treatment will remain protecting these parts even if the decorative surface finish were to wear off.
A current production Glock 17 consists of 34 parts. For maintenance, the pistol disassembles into five main groups: the barrel, slide, frame, magazine, and recoil-spring assembly. The firearm is designed for the NATO-standard 9×19mm Parabellum pistol cartridge, but can use high-power (increased pressure) +P and +P+ ammunition with either full-metal-jacket or jacketed hollow-point projectiles.
The hammer-forged barrel has a female type polygonal rifling with a right-hand twist. The stabilization of the round is not by conventional rifling, using lands and grooves, but rather through a polygonal profile consisting of a series of six or eight interconnected non-circular segments (only the .45ACP and .45GAP have octagonal polygonal rifling). Each depressed segment within the interior of the barrel is the equivalent of a groove in a conventional barrel. Thus the interior of the barrel consists of smooth arcs of steel rather than sharply defined slots.
The method by which Glock barrels are rifled is somewhat unusual; instead of using a traditional broaching machine to cut the rifling into the bore, the Glock process involves beating a slowly rotating mandrel through the bore to obtain the hexagonal or polygonal shape. As a result, the barrel's thickness in the area of each groove is not compromised as with conventional square-cut barrels. This has the advantage of providing a better gas seal around the projectile as the bore has a slightly smaller diameter, which translates into more efficient use of the combustion gases trapped behind the bullet, slightly greater (consistency in) muzzle velocities, increased accuracy and ease of maintenance.
Glock pistols are designed with three independent safety mechanisms to prevent accidental discharge. The system, designated "Safe Action" by Glock, consists of an external integrated trigger safety and two automatic internal safeties: a firing pin safety and a drop safety. The external safety is a small inner lever contained in the trigger. Pressing the lever activates the trigger bar and sheet metal connector. The firing pin safety is a solid hardened steel pin that, in the secured state, blocks the firing pin channel (disabling the firing pin in its longitudinal axis). It is pushed upward to release the firing pin for firing only when the trigger is actuated and the safety is pushed up through the backward movement of the trigger bar. The drop safety guides the trigger bar in a ramp that is released only when direct rearward pressure is applied to the trigger. The three safety mechanisms are automatically disengaged one after the other when the trigger is squeezed, and are automatically reactivated when the trigger is released. This passive safety system omits the manipulation of traditional on-off levers, hammers or other external safeties as found in many other handgun designs.
In 2003, Glock announced the Internal Locking System (ILS) safety feature. The ILS is a manually activated lock that is located in the back of the pistol's grip. It is cylindrical in design and, according to Glock, each key is unique. When activated, the lock causes a tab to protrude from the rear of the grip giving both a visual and tactile indication as to whether the lock is engaged or not. When activated, the ILS renders the Glock unfireable as well as making it impossible to disassemble. When disengaged, the ILS adds no further safety mechanisms to the Glock pistol. The ILS is available as an option on most Glock pistols. Glock pistols cannot be retrofitted to accommodate the ILS. The lock must be factory built in Austria and shipped as a special order.
The Glock 17 feeds from staggered-column or double stack magazines that have a 17-round capacity (which can be extended to 19 with an optional floor plate) or optional 33-round high capacity magazines. For jurisdictions which restrict magazine capacity to 10 rounds, Glock offers single stack 10-round magazines. The magazines are made of steel and are overmolded with plastic. A steel spring drives a plastic follower. After the last cartridge has been fired, the slide remains open on the slide stop. The slide stop release lever is located on the left side of the frame directly beneath the slide and can be manipulated by the thumb of the shooting hand.
Glock magazines are "one-way" interchangeable between models, meaning that a compact or subcompact pistol will accept magazines designed for the larger pistols chambered for the same round. However, magazines designed for compact and subcompact models will not function in larger pistols because they are not tall enough to reach the slide and magazine release. For example, the subcompact Glock 26 will accept magazines from both the full-size Glock 17 and the compact Glock 19, but the Glock 17 will not accept magazines from the smaller Glock 19 or the Glock 26.
The Glock 17 has a fixed polymer combat-type sighting arrangement that consists of a ramped front sight and a notched rear sight with white contrast elements painted on for increased acquisition speed – a white dot on the front post and a rectangular border on the rear notch. The rear sight can be adjusted for windage as it has a degree of lateral movement in the dovetail it is mounted in. Three other factory rear sight configurations are available in addition to the standard 6.5 mm (0.26 in) height sight: a lower impact 6.1 mm (0.24 in) sight and two higher impact versions – 6.9 mm (0.27 in) and 7.3 mm (0.29 in).
The Glock pistol accessories available from the factory include several devices for tactical illumination, such as a series of front rail mounted "Glock tactical lights" featuring a white tactical light and an optional visible laser sight. An alternate version of the tactical light utilizing an invisible infrared light and laser sight is available, designed to be used with an infrared night vision device. Another lighting accessory is an adapter to mount a flashlight onto the bottom of a magazine.
Polymer holsters in various configurations and matching magazine pouches are available. In addition, Glock produces optional triggers, recoil springs, slide stops, magazine release levers, and underwater spring cups.
Magazine floor plates (or "+2 baseplates"), which expand the capacity of the standard magazines by 2 rounds are available for models chambered for the 9×19mm Parabellum, .40 S&W, .357 SIG, and .380 ACP cartridges. In addition to the standard non-adjustable polymer sight line, three alternative sight lines are offered by Glock. These consist of steel, adjustable and self-illuminating tritium night rear sights and factory steel and self-illuminating tritium contrast pointer steel front sights.
Following the introduction of the Glock 17, numerous variants and versions have been offered. Variants that differ in caliber, frame, and slide length are identified by different model numbers with the exception of the discontinued Glock 17L. Other changes not dealing with frame and slide length are identified with suffixes, such as "C", which denotes compensated models. Minor options such as frame color, sights, and included accessories are identified by a separate model code on the box and do not appear anywhere on the firearm.
Glock pistols come in five form factors, all modeled after the original full-size Glock 17. "Standard" models are designed as full-size duty firearm with a large magazine capacity. "Compact" models are slightly smaller with reduced magazine capacity and lighter weight while maintaining a usable grip length. "Subcompact" models are designed for easier carry being lighter and shorter, and are intended to be used with two fingers on the grip below the trigger guard and do not feature an accessory rail like the larger post generation two Glock models. .45 ACP and 10mm models have bigger, wider slides and are slightly larger than the smaller chambered pistols and are available in the sub-compact models Glock 29 (10mm) and Glock 30 (.45ACP). Glock produces a single-stack "Slimline" .45 ACP pistol, the Glock 36. "Competition" versions have longer barrels and slides, adjustable sights, an extended slide and magazine release.
Beginning in 2007, Glock introduced several "Short Frame" models designated by the suffix "SF". The short frame was originally designed to compete in the now cancelled U.S. military Joint Combat Pistol trials for a new .45 ACP pistol to replace the M9 pistol. Glock's entry featured an optional ambidextrous magazine release and MIL-STD-1913 rail along with a reduction in the size of the backstrap. The Glock 21SF is currently available in three versions: one with a Picatinny rail and ambidextrous magazine release and two with a Universal Glock rail available with or without the ambidextrous magazine release. Current 10 mm and .45 ACP Glock magazines are manufactured with ambidextrous magazine release cutouts. As of January 2009, the Glock 20, 21, 29, and 30 were offered in short-framed variations. These models incorporate a 2.5 mm (0.098 in) reduction in trigger reach, and full-sized models feature a 4 mm (0.16 in) reduction in heel depth. This reduction in heel depth corresponds to an overall reduction in length for those models.
Glock pistols chambered for the .45 ACP (and the .45 GAP) feature octagonal polygonal rifling rather than the hexagonal shaped bores used for models in different chamberings. Octagonal rifling provides a better gas seal in relatively large diameter rifled bores, since an octagon resembles a circle more closely than a hexagon.
As is typical of pistols chambered in .40 S&W, each of the standard Glock models (22, 23, and 27) may be easily converted to the corresponding .357 SIG chambering (Glock 31, 32, and 33 respectively) simply by replacing the barrel. No other parts need to be replaced, as the .40 S&W magazines will feed the .357 SIG round.
The .380 ACP models are primarily intended for markets which prohibit civilian ownership of firearms chambered in military calibers such as 9×19mm Parabellum. They are not offered in the United States, due to the characteristics of the gun making it unable to pass import restrictions.
Due to the relatively low bolt thrust of the .380 ACP cartridge, these models feature an unlocked breech and operates via straight blowback of the slide. This method of operation required modification of the locking surfaces on the barrel as well as a redesign of the former locking block.
Glock pistols chambered for the .45 GAP (and the .45 ACP) feature octagonal polygonal rifling rather than the hexagonal shaped bores used for models in other chamberings. Octagonal rifling provides a better gas seal in relatively large diameter rifled bores, since an octagon resembles a circle more closely than a hexagon.
The Ghost TR01 is a compact semi-automatic pistol designed by ÜçYıldız ["Three Stars"] Arms (Akdal Arms) of Turkey. It was designed as a pistol for security and law enforcement personnel rather than the military market. The TR01 is very much like the Glock 17 and shares very many similarities. The Turkish armed forces prefer to use the Yavuz 16 which has recently passed military trials and is in service with a few regiments. The TR01 was introduced in 1990 and continues to be produced.
The Akdal has been designed with high ergonomic quality with a comfortable grip and well balanced weight. The TR01 uses a short recoil operated locking breech mechanism which is also seen in Glock 17s. The locking breech is based on the Glock 17's Browning model in which the barrel engages the slide with a single lug, entering the ejection window. The pistol utilises a pre-cocked striker, which takes some of the workload off the shooter by allowing the trigger to be pulled less to fire off a shot.
The pistol has several safety mechanisms to prevent a misfire or accidental discharge. These include a trigger safety, a firing pin safety, decocking indicator and a chamber indicator. The rounds in the magazine are double stacked, which allows for twice as many rounds because there are two rows as opposed to the one in a single-stacked magazine.
The sights for the pistol are fixed, but a Picatinny rail can be fitted in front of the trigger guard or in front of the ejection port for a laser or Aimpoint sight. Finally, the stock is made of lightweight polymer and the barrel has six right-hand rifling grooves.
.357 SIG firearms
Gaston Glock (born July 19, 1929) is an Austrian engineer, and founder of the firearms company Glock. The well-regarded Glock "safe-action" pistol is used by security forces and law enforcement agencies in 48 countries. The process of producing the Glock pistol includes the application of Tenifer, a patented metal treatment that hardens the slide and barrel. Glock had never actually designed or manufactured a gun until he was 52 years old, but he was already an expert in plastics, having made a small fortune manufacturing curtain rods and grenade shells for the Austrian Army.
Glock has three children out of his former marriage with Helga Glock. In 2011, he divorced and married then 31-year old Kathrin Tschikof, manager of the Glock Horse Performance Center. Glock regularly supports different charity drives in Austria, having donated over one million euros.
In July 1999, Charles Ewert, a business associate of Glock, hired a French ex-mercenary to murder Glock (who was 70 years old at that time) with a mallet in a garage in Luxembourg in an apparent attempt to cover up embezzlement of millions from the Glock company.
Although Glock's injuries included seven head wounds and the loss of about a litre of blood, Glock was able to fend off the attack by striking the hitman twice. The hired killer, 67-year-old Jacques Pêcheur, was sentenced to 17 years in prison for the attack. Charles Ewert was sentenced to 20 years as a result of Pêcheur's testimony.
In 2012, a book written by Paul M. Barrett was published about Gaston Glock's life, titled Glock: The Rise of America's Gun. The Wall Street Journal calls it "a fascinating look at one man's extraordinary success".
10mm Auto firearms
The .357 SIG pistol cartridge is the product of Swiss-German firearms manufacturer SIG Sauer, in cooperation with the American ammunition manufacturer Federal Cartridge. While it is based on a .40 S&W case necked down to accept 0.355-inch (9.0 mm) bullets, the .357 SIG brass is slightly longer (0.009-inch (0.23 mm) to 0.020-inch (0.51 mm)). The cartridge is used by a number of law enforcement agencies and has a good reputation for both accuracy and stopping power.
Developed in 1994, the new cartridge was named "357" to highlight its purpose: to duplicate the performance of 125-grain (8.1 g) .357 Magnum loads fired from 4-inch (100 mm) barreled revolvers, in a cartridge designed to be used in a semi-automatic pistol with greater ammunition capacity than a revolver. Performance is similar to the 9x23mm Winchester.
The 10mm Auto (10×25mm, Official C.I.P. Nomenclature: 10 mm Auto, Official S.A.A.M.I. Nomenclature: 10mm Automatic) is a semi-automatic pistol cartridge first developed by Jeff Cooper and introduced in 1983 with the Bren Ten pistol. Its design was subsequently improved then produced initially by ammunitions manufacturer FFV Norma AB of Åmotfors, Sweden.
Although it was selected for service by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1989 from the aftermath of the 1986 F.B.I. Miami Shootout, the cartridge was later decommissioned (except by the Hostage Rescue Team and Special Weapons and Tactics Teams) after their Firearms Training Unit eventually concluded that its recoil was excessive in terms of training for average agent/police officer competency of use and qualification, and that the pistols chambered for the caliber were too large for some small-handed individuals. These issues led to the creation and following replacement to a shorter version of the 10mm that exists today as the .40 Smith & Wesson. The 10mm never attained the mainstream success of this compact variant, but there is still an enthusiastic group of supporters who often refer to the .40 S&W as the ".40 Short & Weak".
In firearms terminology, an action is the physical mechanism that manipulates cartridges and/or seals the breech. The term is also used to describe the method in which cartridges are loaded, locked, and extracted from the mechanism. Actions are generally categorized by the type of mechanism used. A firearm action is technically not present on muzzleloaders as all loading is done by hand. The mechanism that fires a muzzle-loader is called the lock.
Manual operation is a firearms term describing any type of firearm action that is loaded one shot at a time by the user rather than automatically. For example, break action is a form of manual operation using a simple hinge mechanism that is manually unlatched by the operator exposing the chamber(s) for reloading.
The "safe action" is a firing pin lock system which Glock developed to be used in the vast majority of their pistols. The action is very similar to the quick action used by Walther and other pistol manufacturers. The system consists of one external and two internal safeties which use a striker-engaged firing pin, rather than the more traditional hammer-engaged. It uses additional precautions to prevent the firing pin from moving or being struck if the firearm were to be dropped or shaken.
The three safeties are:
Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of engineering, physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the production and usage of heat and mechanical power for the design, production, and operation of machines and tools. It is one of the oldest and broadest engineering disciplines.
The engineering field requires an understanding of core concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. Mechanical engineers use these core principles along with tools like computer-aided engineering, and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others.
A semi-automatic pistol is a type of handgun which uses a single chamber and barrel, with a mechanism powered by the previous shot to load a fresh cartridge into the chamber. One round is fired each time the trigger of a semi-automatic pistol is pulled.
A revolver, which uses multiple chambers and a single barrel, and a derringer, which uses multiple chambers and multiple barrels, also fire one round for trigger pull, but achieve this in different ways and as such are not classified as being semi-automatic.
A machine pistol is a typically a handgun-style, magazine-fed, self-loading firearm, capable of fully automatic or burst fire, and chambered for pistol cartridges. The term is a literal translation of Maschinenpistole, the German term for a hand-held automatic weapon firing pistol cartridges. While the dividing line between machine pistols and compact submachine guns is hard to draw, the term "submachine gun" usually refers to carbines designed for automatic fire of pistol cartridges, while the term "machine pistol" usually refers to a weapon built up from a semi-automatic pistol design. Machine pistols are generally more compact to be concealable and can be operated one-handed, while submachine guns are usually designed to be two-handed and tend to have longer barrels for better accuracy.
As a small, concealable weapon with a high rate of fire, machine pistols have numerous applications. Bodyguards from government or private agencies sometimes carry concealed machine pistols when they are protecting high-risk VIPs. Criminal gang members such as narcotics traffickers also use machine pistols, often cheaper guns such as the MAC-10 or the Tec-9 which have been illegally converted to fire in a fully automatic fashion. In a law enforcement context, machine pistols may be used by tactical police units such as SWAT teams or hostage rescue teams which are operating inside buildings and other cramped spaces, although they tend to use submachine guns instead.