Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic have DNA as their genetic material. AnswerParty on!
Cell biology (formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, "contain") is a scientific discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. Cell biology research encompasses both the great diversity of single-celled organisms like bacteria and protozoa, as well as the many specialized cells in multicellular organisms such as humans, plants, and sponges.
Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences. Appreciating the similarities and differences between cell types is particularly important to the fields of cell and molecular biology as well as to biomedical fields such as cancer research and developmental biology. These fundamental similarities and differences provide a unifying theme, sometimes allowing the principles learned from studying one cell type to be extrapolated and generalized to other cell types. Therefore, research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology.
In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a messenger RNA (mRNA) template in a reaction catalysed by the enzymes reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase. cDNA is often used to clone eukaryotic genes in prokaryotes. When scientists want to express a specific protein in a cell that does not normally express that protein (i.e., heterologous expression), they will transfer the cDNA that codes for the protein to the recipient cell. cDNA is also produced naturally by retroviruses (such as HIV-1, HIV-2, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, etc.) and then integrated into the host's genome where it creates a provirus.
According to the central dogma of molecular biology, when synthesizing a protein, a gene's DNA is transcribed into mRNA which is then translated into protein. One difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes is that eukaryotic genes can contain introns (intervening DNA sequences) which are not coding sequences, in contrast with exons, which are DNA coding sequences. During transcription, all intron RNA is cut from the RNA primary transcript and the remaining pieces of the RNA primary transcript are spliced back together to become mRNA. The mRNA code is then translated into an amino acid chain (sequence) that comprises the newly made protein. Prokaryotic genes have no introns, thus their RNA is not subject to cutting and splicing.
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Okazaki fragments are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication. They are complementary to the lagging template strand, together forming short double-stranded DNA sections. Okazaki fragments are between 1,000 and 2,000 nucleotides long in Escherichia coli and are between 100 and 200 nucleotides long in eukaryotes. They are separated by ~10-nucleotide RNA primers and are unligated until RNA primers are removed, followed by enzyme ligase connecting (ligating) the two Okazaki fragments into one continuous newly synthesized complementary strand.
On the leading strand DNA replication proceeds continuously along the DNA molecule as the parent double-stranded DNA is unwound, but on the lagging strand the new DNA is made in installments, which are later joined together by a DNA ligase enzyme. This is because the enzymes that synthesise the new DNA can only work in one direction along the parent DNA molecule. On the leading strand this route is continuous, but on the lagging strand it is discontinuous.