The science of photography refers to the use of science, such as chemistry and physics, in all aspects of photography. This applies to the camera, its lenses, physical operation of the camera, electronic camera internals, and the process of developing film in order to take and develop pictures properly.
Animal communication is any transfer of information on the part of one or more animals that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. When animals communicate to their audience, they have a clear intention and reference, and the signal can be understood away from the physical object that it refers to. The study of animal communication — sometimes called zoosemiotics (defined as the study of sign communication or semiosis in animals; distinguishable from anthroposemiotics, the study of human communication) — has played an important part in ethology, sociobiology, and the study of animal cognition.
Animal communication is a rapidly growing area of study. Even in the 21st century, many prior understandings related to diverse fields such as personal symbolic name use, animal emotions, animal culture, learning and even animal sexual behaviour, long thought to be well understood, have been revolutionized.
The tapetum lucidum // (Latin: "bright tapestry", plural tapeta lucida) is a layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates. Lying immediately behind the retina it reflects visible light back through the retina, increasing the light available to the photoreceptors, though blurring the initial image of the light on focus. The tapetum lucidum contributes to the superior night vision of some animals. Many of these animals are nocturnal, especially carnivores that hunt their prey at night, while others are deep sea animals.
Similar adaptations occur in some species of spiders, although these are not the result of a tapetum lucidum. Most primates, including humans, lack a tapetum lucidum, and compensate for this by perceptive recognition methods and by the use of altering the iris .
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions. It detects and interprets information from visible light to build a representation of the surrounding environment. The visual system carries out a number of complex tasks, including the reception of light and the formation of monocular representations; the buildup of a binocular perception from a pair of two dimensional projections; the identification and categorization of visual objects; assessing distances to and between objects; and guiding body movements in relation to visual objects. The psychological process of visual information is known as visual perception, a lack of which is called blindness. Non-image forming visual functions, independent of visual perception, include the pupillary light reflex (PLR) and circadian photoentrainment.
Night vision is the ability to see in low light conditions. Whether by biological or technological means, night vision is made possible by a combination of two approaches: sufficient spectral range, and sufficient intensity range. Humans have poor night vision compared to many animals, in part because the human eye lacks a tapetum lucidum.
Cat senses are adaptations that allow cats to be highly efficient predators. Cats have acute sight, hearing and smell, and their sense of touch is enhanced by long whiskers that protrude from their heads and bodies. These senses allow cats to hunt effectively in dim light or at night.