Energy conservation refers to reducing energy through using less of an energy service. Energy conservation differs from efficient energy use, which refers to using less energy for a constant service. For example, driving less is an example of energy conservation. Driving the same amount with a higher mileage vehicle is an example of energy efficiency. Energy conservation and efficiency are both energy reduction techniques.
Even though energy conservation reduces energy services, it can result in increased financial capital, environmental quality, national security, and personal financial security. It is at the top of the sustainable energy hierarchy.]citation needed[
Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second.
Electric power is usually produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by chemical sources such as electric batteries. Electric power is generally supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry. Electric power is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours. Electric utilities measure power using an electricity meter, which keeps a running total of the electric energy delivered to a customer.
A power strip (also known as an extension block, power board, power bar, plug board, trailer lead and by many other variations) is a block of electrical sockets that attaches to the end of a flexible cable (typically with a mains plug on the other end), allowing multiple electrical devices to be powered from a single electrical socket. Power strips are often used when many electrical devices are in proximity, such as for audio/video and computer systems. Power strips often include a circuit breaker to interrupt the flow of electric current in case of an overload or a short circuit.
Sleep mode refers to a low power mode for electronic devices such as computers, televisions, and remote controlled devices. These modes save significantly on electrical consumption compared to leaving a device fully on and, upon resume, allow the user to avoid having to reissue instructions or to wait for a machine to reboot. Many devices signify this power mode with a pulsed or red colored LED power light.
A screw terminal is a type of electrical connector where a wire is held by the tightening of a screw. The wire may be wrapped directly under the head of a screw, may be held by a metal plate forced against the wire by a screw, or may be held by set screws in the side of a metal tube. The wire may be directly stripped of insulation and inserted into the terminal, or may be inserted first into a connecting lug which is then inserted in the terminal.
Standby power, also called vampire power, vampire draw, phantom load, or leaking electricity ("phantom load" and "leaking electricity" are defined technical terms with other meanings, adopted for this different purpose), refers to the electric power consumed by electronic and electrical appliances while they are switched off (but are designed to draw some power) or in a standby mode. This only occurs because some devices claimed to be "switched off" on the electronic interface, but are in a different state from switching off from the plug, or disconnecting from the plug, which can solve the problem of standby power completely. In fact, switching off at the plug is effective enough, there is no need to disconnect all devices from the plug. Some such devices offer remote controls and digital clock features to the user, while other devices, such as power adapters for disconnected electronic devices, consume power without offering any features (sometimes called no-load power). All of the above examples, such as the remote control, digital clock functions and, in the case of adapters, no-load power, are switched off just by switching off at the plug. However, for some devices with built-in internal battery, such as the phone, the standby functions can be stopped by removing the battery instead.
In the past standby power was largely a non-issue for users, electricity providers, manufacturers, and government regulators. In the first decade of the twenty-first century awareness of the issue grew and it became an important consideration for all parties. Up to the middle of the decade, standby power was often several watts or even tens of watts per appliance. By 2010 regulations were in place in most developed countries restricting standby power of devices sold to one watt (and half that from 2013).
The One Watt Initiative (or the proper One-Watt Initiative) is an energy-saving initiative by the International Energy Agency (IEA) to reduce standby power-use by any appliance to not more than one watt in 2010, and 0.5 watts in 2013, which has given rise to regulations in many countries and regions.
Standby power, informally called vampire or phantom power, refers to the electricity consumed by many appliances when they are switched off or in standby mode. The typical standby power per appliance is low (typically from less than 1 to 25 W), but, when multiplied by the billions of appliances in houses and in commercial buildings, standby losses represent a significant fraction of total world electricity use. According to Alan Meier, a staff scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, standby power before the One Watt Initiative proposals were implemented as regulations accounted for as much as 10% of household power consumption. A study in France found that standby power accounted for 7% of total residential consumption, and other studies put the proportion of consumption due to standby power at 13%.
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve several billion users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW), the infrastructure to support email, and peer-to-peer networks.
Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.