Use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and
suitable biochemical and physico-chemical factors to improve or replace
Note: While most definitions of tissue engineering cover a broad range
of applications, in practice the term is closely associated with applications
that repair or replace portions of or whole tissues (i.e., bone, cartilage,
blood vessels, bladder, skin, etc.).
Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.