The Ford Panther platform is an automobile platform that was used by Ford Motor Company for full-size, rear-wheel drive sedans. Introduced in late 1978 for the 1979 model year, it was progressively updated over 33 years of production. In September 2011, the last car produced on the platform was produced, marking the end of the rear-wheel drive full-size Ford. This also marks the end of the traditional body-on-frame rear wheel drive automobile in the United States since GM's discontinuation of its B platform in late 1996. The only other rear-wheel drive sedans with an available V8 engine currently produced by Ford are the FPV GS/GT range in Australia.
As of the 2011 model year, the Panther platform was in use longer (32 model years) than any other platform in North American automotive history. It was initially developed as a response to the downsizing of full-size cars from Chrysler and General Motors due to increasingly stringent fuel economy standards for cars. During trying periods for Ford, the Panther cars were scheduled for cancellation and replacement (in favor of the front-wheel drive D186 platform) on several occasions, as early as 1985.
A full-size car is a marketing term used in North America for an automobile larger than a mid-size car. In the United States, the EPA uses the term "large car" to denote full-size cars.
Under the label Design for X, a wide collection of specific design guidelines are summarized. Each design guideline addresses a particular issue that is caused by, or affects the characteristics of a product. The design guidelines themselves usually propose an approach and corresponding methods that may help to generate and apply technical knowledge in order to control, improve, or even to invent particular characteristics of a product. From a knowledge-based view, the design guideline represents an explicit form of knowledge, that contains information about "knowing-how-to" (see Procedural knowledge). However, two problems are prevalent. First, this explicit knowledge (i.e. the design guidelines) were transformed from a tacit form of knowledge (i.e. by experienced engineers, or other specialists). Thus, it is not granted that a freshman or someone who is outside of the subject area will comprehend this generated explicit knowledge. This is because it still contains embedded fractions of knowledge or respectively include non-obvious assumptions, also called context-dependency (see e.g. Doz and Santos, 1997:16-18). Second, the characteristics of a product are likely to exceed the knowledge base of a single human. There exists a wide range of specialized fields of engineering, and considering the whole life cycle of a product will require non-engineering expertise. For this purpose examples of design guidelines are listed in the following.
DFX means design for excellence, and also "design for X", where X is a variable with many values.
Reliability engineering is engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product. Dependability, or reliability, describes the ability of a system or component to function under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline within systems engineering. Reliability is theoretically defined as the probability of failure, the frequency of failures, or in terms of availability, a probability derived from reliability and maintainability. Maintainability and maintenance may be defined as a part of reliability engineering. Reliability plays a key role in cost-effectiveness of systems.
Although Reliability is defined and affected by stochastic parameters, according to some acknowledged specialists, quality, reliability and safety are NOT achieved by mathematics and statistics. Nearly all teaching and literature on the subject emphasizes these aspects, and ignores the reality that the ranges of uncertainty involved largely invalidate quantitative methods for prediction and measurement.
Survival analysis is a branch of statistics which deals with analysis of time to events, such as death in biological organisms and failure in mechanical systems. This topic is called reliability theory or reliability analysis in engineering, and duration analysis or duration modeling in economics or event history analysis in sociology. Survival analysis attempts to answer questions such as: what is the proportion of a population which will survive past a certain time? Of those that survive, at what rate will they die or fail? Can multiple causes of death or failure be taken into account? How do particular circumstances or characteristics increase or decrease the probability of survival?
To answer such questions, it is necessary to define "lifetime". In the case of biological survival, death is unambiguous, but for mechanical reliability, failure may not be well-defined, for there may well be mechanical systems in which failure is partial, a matter of degree, or not otherwise localized in time. Even in biological problems, some events (for example, heart attack or other organ failure) may have the same ambiguity. The theory outlined below assumes well-defined events at specific times; other cases may be better treated by models which explicitly account for ambiguous events.
A spare part, spare, service part, repair part, or replacement part, is an interchangeable part that is kept in an inventory and used for the repair or replacement of failed units. Spare parts are an important feature of logistics management and supply chain management, often comprising dedicated spare parts management systems.
Capital spares are spare parts although acknowledged to have a long life or a small chance of failure would cause shutdown of equipment for a prolonged period because of the long delivery of their replacement.
The Ford Crown Victoria (or simply Crown Vic) is a rear-wheel drive full-size sedan that was marketed and manufactured by Ford Motor Company; it was produced from the 1992 to the 2012 model years over two generations. Discontinued in the 2011 model year, it had been in production since 1991 at Ford's St. Thomas Assembly plant in Talbotville, Ontario, Canada. Dropping its previous LTD prefix, Crown Victoria revived a nameplate used by Ford on a two-door version of the Fairlane sold in the North American market during the mid-1950s.
The Crown Victoria shared the Ford Panther platform and major powertrain and suspension components with the Lincoln Town Car and Mercury Grand Marquis. Along with its rebadged Mercury and Lincoln variants, the Crown Victoria was the final full-frame rear-wheel-drive passenger sedan produced in North America. The durability associated with its layout popularized the use of the Crown Victoria with taxicab and fleet owners going on to become one of the most commonly used police patrol/pursuit vehicles in North America.
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on how to design and manage complex engineering projects over their life cycles. Issues such as reliability, logistics, coordination of different teams (requirements management), evaluation measurements, and other disciplines become more difficult when dealing with large, complex projects. Systems engineering deals with work-processes, optimization methods, and risk management tools in such projects. It overlaps technical and human-centered disciplines such as control engineering, industrial engineering, organizational studies, and project management. Systems Engineering ensures that all likely aspects of a project or system are considered, and integrated into a whole.
The term systems engineering can be traced back to Bell Telephone Laboratories in the 1940s. The need to identify and manipulate the properties of a system as a whole, which in complex engineering projects may greatly differ from the sum of the parts' properties, motivated the Department of Defense, NASA, and other industries to apply the discipline.