Light Energy is trapped and used to convert carbon dioxide, water, and other minerals
A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, and Titan also contain gases that cause greenhouse effects. Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the Earth; without them, Earth's surface would average about 33 C° (59 F°) colder than the present average of 14 °C (57 °F).
Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (taken as the year 1750), the burning of fossil fuels and extensive clearing of native forests has contributed to a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 to 392.6 parts-per-million (ppm) in 2012. This increase has occurred despite the uptake of a large portion of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in the carbon cycle. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (i.e., emissions produced by human activities) come from combustion of carbon based fuels, principally wood, coal, oil, and natural gas.
An inorganic nonaqueous solvent is a solvent other than water, that is not an organic compound. Common examples are liquid ammonia, liquid sulfur dioxide, sulfuryl chloride and sulfuryl chloride fluoride, phosphoryl chloride, dinitrogen tetroxide, antimony trichloride, bromine pentafluoride, hydrogen fluoride, pure sulfuric acid and other inorganic acids. These solvents are used in chemical research and industry for reactions that cannot occur in aqueous solutions or require a special environment.
The reactions of the compounds containing xenon are mostly conducted in hydrogen fluoride or bromine pentafluoride, which dissolve readily both xenon difluorides and its multiple derivatives, although sulfuric solvents are also used sometimes, in particular sulfuryl chloride fluoride for strong oxidants.
Carbonic acid gas
Dry ice (solid phase)
Fuel gas is any one of a number of fuels that under ordinary conditions are gaseous. Many fuel gases are composed of hydrocarbons (such as methane or propane), hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or mixtures thereof. Such gases are sources of potential heat energy or light energy that can be readily transmitted and distributed through pipes from the point of origin directly to the place of consumption.
Fuel gas is contrasted with liquid fuels and from solid fuels, though some fuel gases are liquefied for storage or transport. While their gaseous nature has advantageous, avoiding the difficulty of transporting solid fuel and the dangers of spillage inherent in liquid fuels, it also has limitation. It is possible for a fuel gas to be undetected and collect in certain areas, leading to the risk of a gas explosion. For this reason, odorizers are added to most fuel gases so that they may be detected by a distinct smell.
Properties of water
Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and/or to produce fuels. Much of the fermentation used industrially to produce food and drink products, as well as home fermentation, uses anaerobic digestion. Silage is produced by anaerobic digestion.
The digestion process begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials. Insoluble organic polymers, such as carbohydrates, are broken down to soluble derivatives that become available for other bacteria. Acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. These bacteria convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with additional ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide. The methanogenic archaea populations play an indispensable role in anaerobic wastewater treatments.
Dihydrogen monoxide (DHMO)
Hydrogen hydroxide (HH or HOH)
Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. Along with the nitrogen cycle and the water cycle, the carbon cycle comprises a sequence of events that are key to making the Earth capable of sustaining life; it describes the movement of carbon as it is recycled and reused throughout the biosphere.
The global carbon budget is the balance of the exchanges (incomes and losses) of carbon between the carbon reservoirs or between one specific loop (e.g., atmosphere ↔ biosphere) of the carbon cycle. An examination of the carbon budget of a pool or reservoir can provide information about whether the pool or reservoir is functioning as a source or sink for carbon dioxide.
water vapor trap light energy
The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Earth's atmosphere determines its contribution to the greenhouse effect and the rates of plant and algal photosynthesis. The concentration has increased markedly in the 21st century, at a rate of 2.0 ppm/yr during 2000–2009 and faster since then. It was 280 ppm in pre-industrial times, and has risen to 400 ppm (parts per million) as of May 2013[update], with the increase largely attributed to anthropogenic sources. About 57% of the CO2 emissions go to increase the atmospheric level, with much of the remainder contributing to ocean acidification. Carbon dioxide is used in photosynthesis (in plants and other photoautotrophs), and is also a prominent greenhouse gas. Despite its relatively small overall concentration in the atmosphere, CO2 is an important component of Earth's atmosphere because it absorbs and emits infrared radiation at wavelengths of 4.26 µm (asymmetric stretching vibrational mode) and 14.99 µm (bending vibrational mode), thereby playing a role in the greenhouse effect. The present level appears to be the highest in the past 800,000 years and likely the highest in the past 20 million years, but well below 10% of its 500-million-year peak.
In 2009, the CO2 global average concentration in Earth's atmosphere was about 0.0387%, or 387 parts per million (ppm). At the scientific recording station in Mauna Loa, the concentration reached 0.04% or 400 ppm for the first time in May 2013, although this level had already been reached in the Arctic in June 2012. There is an annual fluctuation of about 3–9 ppmv which roughly follows the Northern Hemisphere's growing season. The Northern Hemisphere dominates the annual cycle of CO2 concentration because it has much greater land area and plant biomass than the Southern Hemisphere. Concentrations peak in May as the Northern Hemisphere spring greenup begins and reach a minimum in October when the quantity of biomass undergoing photosynthesis is greatest.