Question:

Describe the three different types of interchanges and their components?

Answer:

Expressway Interchanges are categorized by the direction they are going (North, South, East, West)!

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Land transport

Road transport (British English) or road transportation (American English) is the transport of passengers or goods on roads.

Transport

The Malaysian Expressway System (Malay: Sistem Lebuhraya Malaysia), which begins with the North-South Expressway (NSE), is currently in the process of being substantially developed. It was built by private companies under the supervision of the government highway authority, Malaysian Highway Authority (abbreviated as MHA; also referred to as Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia (LLM) in Malay).

A limited-access road known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway and expressway, is a highway or arterial road for high-speed traffic which has many or most characteristics of a controlled-access highway (freeway or motorway), including limited or no access to adjacent property, some degree of separation of opposing traffic flow, use of grade separated interchanges to some extent, prohibition of some modes of transport such as bicycles or horses and very few or no intersecting cross-streets. The degree of isolation from local traffic allowed varies between countries and regions. The precise definition of these terms varies by jurisdiction.

The first implementation of limited-access roadways in the United States was of the Bronx River Parkway in New York, in 1907. The New York State Parkway System was constructed as a network of high speed roads in and around New York City.

The expressways of Singapore are special roads that allow motorists to travel quickly from one urban area to another. All of them are dual carriageways with grade-separated access. They usually have three to four lanes in each direction, although there are two-lane or five-lane carriageways in some places. There are nine expressways, including the new Kallang–Paya Lebar Expressway, which was completed in September 2008, and another one to start construction in 2008, the Marina Coastal Expressway. Studies about the feasibility of additional expressways are ongoing.

Construction on the first expressway, the Pan Island Expressway, started in 1966. The other expressways were completed in stages, with the Kallang–Paya Lebar Expressway being the most recently completed, in 2008. Today, there are 160 km of expressways in Singapore.

An expressway is a controlled-access highway; it is a highway that controls entrances to it and exits from it by incorporating the design of the slip roads for entry and exit into the design of the highway itself. Access-control should not be confused with collection of toll. An expressway may be free to use and may not collect toll at all. Expressways are the highest class of roads in the Indian Road Network. These are six- or eight-lane highways with controlled-access. India has approximately 942 km expressways.

National Highway system of India consists of approximately 10,000 km (6,200 mi) of four-laned highways that collect toll from users but do not have control of access and cannot be called expressways. Currently, a massive project is underway to expand the highway network and the Government of India plans to add an additional 18,637 km (11,580 mi) of expressways to the network by the year 2022. These roads will be access-controlled roads and will feature between four and six lanes with 3,530 km (2,190 mi) km to come up by 2015. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways is already in the process of preparing a draft for creation of a National Expressways Authority of India (NEAI) on the lines of NHAI.

The expressway network of China is an integrated system of national and provincial-level expressways in the People's Republic of China, forming the world's largest expressway system by length. At the end of 2012, the total length of the network was 97,355 kilometres (60,494 mi), of which 12,409 kilometres (7,711 mi) of expressways were built in that year alone. A system of national-level expressways, officially known as the National Trunk Highway System (simplified Chinese: 中国国家高速公路网; traditional Chinese: 中國國家高速公路網; pinyin: Zhōngguó Guójiā Gāosù Gōnglùwǎng) and abbreviated NTHS, with 7 radial expressways (from the capital Beijing), 9 north-south expressways and 18 east-west expressways, forms the backbone of the expressway network in the country. This backbone is known as the 7918 network (simplified Chinese: 7918网; traditional Chinese: 7918網; pinyin: 7918 wǎng). In addition, the provincial-level divisions of China each have their own expressway systems.

Expressways in China are a fairly recent addition to the transportation infrastructure in the country. Previously, the national road network consisted of a system of at-grade China National Highways. China's first expressway, the Shanghai–Jiading Expressway, opened in October 1988. This 17.37 kilometres (10.79 mi) expressway now forms part of Shanghai's expressway network. The early 1990s saw the start of the country's massive plan to upgrade its network of roads. In 1999, the length of the network exceeded 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) in length. Many of the major expressways parallel routes of the older China National Highways.

Conceptual platform diagrams
for Queensboro Plaza station

A cross-platform interchange is a type of interchange between different lines in a metro system. The term originates with the London Underground; such layouts exist in other networks but are not commonly so named. In the United States, it is often referred to as a "cross-platform transfer".

A partial cloverleaf interchange or parclo is a modification of a cloverleaf interchange. The parclo interchange was developed by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation]citation needed[ as a replacement for the cloverleaf on 400-Series Highways, removing the dangerous weaving patterns and allowing for more acceleration and deceleration space on the freeway.

The design has been well received, and has since become one of the most popular freeway-to-arterial interchange designs in North America. It has also been used occasionally in some European countries, such as Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.

Expressway Interchanges
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