β-Lactam antibiotics (beta-lactam antibiotics) are a broad class of antibiotics, consisting of als that contains a β-lactam ring in their molecular structures. This includes penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems. Most β-lactam antibiotics work by inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis in the bacterial organism and are the most widely used group of antibiotics. Up until 2003, when measured by sales, more than half of all commercially available antibiotics in use were β-lactam compounds.
Bacteria often develop resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by synthesizing a β-lactamase, an enzyme that attacks the β-lactam ring. To overcome this resistance, β-lactam antibiotics are often given with β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid.
An enantiopure drug is a pharmaceutical that is available in one specific enantiomeric form. Most biological molecules (proteins, sugars, etc.) are present in only one of many chiral forms, so different enantiomers of a chiral drug molecule bind differently (or not at all) to target receptors. One enantiomer of a drug may have a desired beneficial effect while the other may cause serious and undesired side effects, or sometimes even beneficial but entirely different effects. Advances in industrial chemical processes have made it economical for pharmaceutical manufacturers to take drugs that were originally marketed as a racemic mixture and market the individual enantiomers, either by specifically manufacturing the desired enantiomer or by resolving a racemic mixture. On a case-by-case basis, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has allowed single enantiomers of certain drugs to be marketed under a different name than the racemic mixture. Also case-by-case, the United States Patent Office has granted patents for single enantiomers of certain drugs. The regulatory review for marketing approval (safety and efficacy) and for patenting (proprietary rights) is independent, and differs country by country.
The following table lists pharmaceuticals that have been available in both racemic and single-enantiomer form.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (INN) or co-amoxiclav (BAN) is a combination antibiotic consisting of amoxicillin trihydrate, a β-lactam antibiotic, and potassium clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This combination results in an antibiotic with an increased spectrum of action and restored efficacy against amoxicillin-resistant bacteria that produce β-lactamase.
Unlike co-trimoxazole, the BAN has not been widely adopted internationally. Trade names include Augmentin (by GlaxoSmithKline), Clavamox (by Pfizer), Tyclav (by Beximco Pharma) and many others.
Hebei Zhongrun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd (CSPC Zhongrun) (simplified Chinese: 石药集团河北中润制药有限公司; traditional Chinese: 石藥集團河北中潤制藥有限公司; pinyin: Shíyào jítuán héběi zhōngrùn zhìyào yǒuxiàn gōngsī) is one of China's largest producers of bulk antibiotic active pharmaceutical ingredients. CSPC Zhongrun produces both penicillin and cephalosporin series API.
A joint venture established in 1989 by China Pharmaceutical Group Ltd  (CHINA PHARMA HKEx 01093) , CSPC Zhongrun employs more than 3,600 workers.