Drinking bleach can cause a host of symptoms including vomiting, upset stomach, heartburn and in some cases, chemical burns to the inside of the mouth and esophagus and, yes, it can be fatal.
A chemical burn occurs when living tissue is exposed to a corrosive substance such as a strong acid or base. Chemical burns follow standard burn classification and may cause extensive tissue damage. The main types of irritant and/or corrosive products are: acids, bases, oxidizers, solvents, reducing agents and alkylants. Additionally, chemical burns can be caused by some types of chemical weapons e.g. vesicants such as mustard gas and Lewisite, or urticants such as phosgene oxime.
Chemical burns may:
Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs of digestion, including the esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The symptoms relate to the organ affected and can include obstruction (leading to difficulty swallowing or defecating), abnormal bleeding or other associated problems. The diagnosis often requires endoscopy, followed by biopsy of suspicious tissue. The treatment depends on the location of the tumor, as well as the type of cancer cell and whether it has invaded other tissues or spread elsewhere. These factors also determine the prognosis.
Overall, the GI tract and the accessory organs of digestion (pancreas, liver, gall bladder) are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other system in the body. There is significant geographic variation in the rates of different gastrointestinal cancers.
A general practitioner (GP) is a medical practitioner who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
As a difference to medical or surgical specialized doctors they intend to practice a holistic approach that takes into consideration the biological, psychological and social environment in which patients live. Their duties are not confined to specific organs of the body, and they have particular skills in treating people with multiple health issues. They are trained to treat patients of any age and sex to levels of complexity that are defined by each country.
Stomach cancer, or gastric cancer, refers to cancer arising from any part of the stomach. Stomach cancer causes about 800,000 deaths worldwide per year. Prognosis is poor (5-year survival <5 to 15%) because most patients present with advanced disease.
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Barrett esophagus (British English: Barrett's oesophagus), sometimes called Barrett syndrome or columnar epithelium lined lower oesophagus (CELLO), refers to an abnormal change (metaplasia) in the cells of the lower portion of the esophagus. When the normal stratified squamous epithelium lining of the esophagus is replaced by simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells (cells usually found lower in the gastrointestinal tract), Barrett's esophagus is diagnosed. The medical significance of Barrett esophagus is its strong association with esophageal adenocarcinoma, a particularly lethal cancer.
The main cause of Barrett esophagus is thought to be an adaptation to chronic acid exposure from reflux esophagitis. In the last 4 years, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing in the Western world. Barrett esophagus is found in 5–15% of patients who seek medical care for heartburn (gastroesophageal reflux disease, GERD), although a large subgroup of patients with Barrett esophagus do not have symptoms. It is considered to be a premalignant condition because it is associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer (more specifically, adenocarcinoma) of about 0.5% per patient-year. If the cancer develops, it is very often deadly. Diagnosis of Barrett esophagus requires endoscopy (more specifically, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a procedure in which a fibre optic cable is inserted through the mouth to examine the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) and biopsy. The cells of Barrett esophagus, after biopsy, are classified into four general categories: non-dysplastic, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and frank carcinoma. High-grade dysplasia and early stages of adenocarcinoma can be treated by endoscopic resection and new endoscopic therapies such as radiofrequency ablation, whereas advanced stages (submucosal) are generally advised to undergo surgical treatment. Non-dysplastic and low-grade patients are generally advised to undergo annual observation with endoscopy, with radiofrequency ablation as a therapeutic option. In high-grade dysplasia, the risk of developing cancer might be at 10% per patient-year or greater.