Vasectomy reversal is a term used for surgical procedures that reconnect the male reproductive tract after interruption by a vasectomy. Two procedures are possible at the time of vasectomy reversal: vasovasostomy (vas deferens to vas deferens connection) and vasoepididymostomy (epididymis to vas deferens connection). Although vasectomy is considered a permanent form of contraception, advances in microsurgery have improved the success of vasectomy reversal procedures. The procedures remain technically demanding and expensive, and may not restore the pre-vasectomy condition.
Technical advances in vasectomy reversal mirror those in microsurgery over the past 100 years. As a discipline, microsurgery was first performed by Carl Nylen in Sweden for middle ear surgery in 1910, but grew most rapidly as a discipline in the 20th century stimulated by its success in microvascular reconstruction of war-injured soldiers. The first microsurgical vasectomy reversal was performed by Earl Owen in 1971.
Post-vasectomy pain syndrome is a chronic and sometimes debilitating genital pain condition that may develop immediately or several years after vasectomy. Because this condition is a syndrome, there is no single treatment method, therefore efforts focus on mitigating/relieving the individual patient's specific pain. When pain in the epididymides is the primary symptom, post-vasectomy pain syndrome is often described as congestive epididymitis.
Any of the aforementioned pain conditions/syndromes can persist for years after vasectomy and affect as many as one in three vasectomized men. The range of PVPS pain can be mild/annoying to the less-likely extreme debilitating pain experienced by a smaller number of sufferers in this group. There is a continuum of pain severity between these two extremes. Pain is thought to be caused by any of the following, either singularly or in combination: testicular backpressure, overfull epididymides, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, sperm granulomas, and nerve entrapment. Pain can be present continuously in the form of orchialgia and/or congestive epididymitis or it can be situational, such as pain during intercourse, ejaculation or physical exertion.
"Sibling Rivalry" is the 22nd episode of the fourth season of the animated comedy series Family Guy. It originally aired on Fox in the United States on March 26, 2006. The episode follows Stewie as he battles with his half-brother, Bertram (voiced by Wallace Shawn), who is born to two lesbians after Peter donates sperm. Meanwhile, Lois begins excessive eating after Peter undergoes a vasectomy and loses his interest in sex.
The episode was written by Cherry Chevapravatdumrong and directed by Dan Povenmire. The episode received mixed reviews from critics for its storyline and many cultural references. According to Nielsen ratings, it was viewed in 7.95 million homes in its original airing. The episode featured guest performances by Randy Crenshaw, Gavin Dunne, Bob Joyce, John Joyce, Phil LaMarr, Rick Logan, Wallace Shawn, Tara Strong, Nicole Sullivan and Wally Wingert, as well as several recurring voice actors for the series.
Vasovasostomy (literally connection of the vas to the vas) is a surgery by which vasectomies are partially reversed. Another surgery for vasectomy reversal is vasoepididymostomy.
Vasovasostomy is a form of microsurgery first performed by Earl Owen in 1971.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, are methods or devices used to prevent pregnancy. Planning, provision and use of birth control is called family planning. Safe sex, such as the use of male or female condoms, can also help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Birth control methods have been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods only became available in the 20th century. Some cultures deliberately limit access to birth control because they consider it to be morally or politically undesirable.
The most effective methods of birth control are sterilization by means of vasectomy in males (99.95% success rate) and tubal ligation in females (99.5% success rate), intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implantable contraceptives. This is followed by a number of hormonal contraceptives including oral pills, patches, vaginal rings, and injections. Less effective methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms and contraceptive sponge and fertility awareness methods. The least effective methods are spermicides and withdrawal by the male before ejaculation. Sterilization, while highly effective, is not usually reversible; all other methods are reversible, most immediately upon stopping them. Emergency contraceptives can prevent pregnancy in the few days after unprotected sex. Some regard sexual abstinence as birth control, but abstinence-only sex education may increase teen pregnancies when offered without contraceptive education.
Sterilization (also spelled sterilisation) is any of a number of medical techniques that intentionally leave a person unable to reproduce. It is a method of birth control. For other causes of sterility, see infertility. Sterilization methods include both surgical and non-surgical, and exist for both males and females. Sterilization procedures are intended to be permanent; reversal is generally difficult or impossible.
Most female sterilizations occur in developing countries, while vasectomies are mainly the product of industrialized, Western countries. Women mostly make up sterilization rates worldwide, but their motivations behind the procedure vary depending on demographic factors. While physical effects are the most commonly thought of, sterilization can also affect the psyche, family, and community at large.
Vasoepididymostomy or epididymovasostomy is a surgery by which vasectomies are reversed. It involves connection of the severed vas deferens to the epididymis and is more technically demanding than the vasovasostomy.
For a vasectomy reversal that involves a vasoepididymostomy, there are two microsurgical approaches. The procedure involves a similar surgical incision as vasovasostomy; however, unlike with a vasovasostomy, the testis is usually delivered into the field for this more complex microsurgery. After the findings from the vasal fluid are reviewed showing epididymal obstruction, the epididymis is exposed by opening the outer testis covering (tunica vaginalis). The epididymis is inspected and an individual tubule is selected to enter and connect to the vas deferens. From this point on, one of two epididymovasostomy techniques is taken. In the mucosa-to-mucosa, end to side method, an opened epididymal tubule is connected to the cut end of the vas deferens with 4 to 6 small (10-0) simple sutures placed around the circumference of each. This “inner” layer is supported with an “outer” layer of radially placed 9-0 sutures to strengthen the connection. Recently, an “invagination” vasoepididymostomy was described as an alternative to the mucosa-to-mucosa method. With this technique, one, two or three “vest” sutures of 10-0 suture should be placed near the opening of the epididymal tubule to allow the epididymal tubule to “invaginate” into the vas deferens, theoretically creating a connection, that, based on studies in animal models, has an improved watertight seal and possibly a higher chance for success. Once the vas-deferens-epididymis connection is completed, the covering around the testis is replaced.
Tubal ligation or tubectomy (also known as having one's "tubes tied" (ligation)) is a surgical procedure for sterilization in which a woman's fallopian tubes are clamped and blocked, or severed and sealed, either method of which prevents eggs from reaching the uterus for fertilization. Tubal ligation is considered a permanent method of sterilization and birth control.
Tubal ligation is considered major surgery requiring the patient to undergo general anesthesia. It is advised that women should not undergo this surgery if they currently have or have had a history of bladder cancer. After the anesthesia takes effect, a surgeon will make a small incision at each side of, but just below the navel in order to gain access to each of the two fallopian tubes. With traditional tubal ligation, the surgeon severs the tubes, and then ties (ligates) them off thereby preventing the travel of eggs to the uterus. Other methods include using clips or rings to clamp them shut, or severing and cauterizing them. Tubal ligation is usually done in a hospital operating-room setting. The corresponding male surgical sterilization procedure known as vasectomy is considered minor surgery done with local anesthesia and typically done in an out-patient setting.
Vasitis nodosa is a complication experienced in approximately 66% of men who undergo vasectomy. It is a benign nodular thickening of the vas deferens, in which small off-shoots proliferate, infiltrating surrounding tissue. It can be mistaken for low-grade adenocarcinoma by pathologists, and is implicated in late vasectomy failure.
In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.
Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement.