Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.
Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumed by the world population is supplied by the food industry.
The fat content of milk is the proportion of milk, by weight,:266 made up by butterfat. The fat content, particularly of cow's milk, is modified to make a variety of products. The fat content of milk is usually stated on the container, and the colour of the label or milk bottle top varied to enable quick recognition.
Chocolate milk is a sweetened, usually cold, cocoa-flavored milk drink. It is created when chocolate syrup (or chocolate powder) is mixed with milk (from cows, goats, soy, rice, etc.). It can be purchased pre-mixed or made at home with either cocoa powder and a sweetener (such as sugar or a sugar substitute), or with melted chocolate, chocolate syrup, or chocolate milk mix. Other ingredients, such as starch, salt, carrageenan, vanilla, or artificial flavoring may be added. The carrageenan is used at very low concentrations to form an imperceptible weak gel that prevents the large, dense particles of chocolate from sedimenting. Chocolate milk should be refrigerated like plain milk. When chocolate milk begins to spoil, it gives off a coffee-like odor, unlike plain milk, and due to the properties of the carrageenan, certain brands are known to, after a certain amount of time, coagulate into a viscous, chunky bottom layer and a thin, watery upper layer. It was invented by Hans Sloane in the late 1680s.
Some nutritionists have criticized chocolate milk for its high sugar content and its relationship to childhood obesity. Of the milk served in U.S. schools, 71 percent is flavored. In New York City, school food officials say nearly 60 percent of the 100 million cartons served each year are fat-free chocolate milk. Because chocolate milk can contain twice as much sugar as plain low-fat milk from added sugars, some school districts have stopped serving it, including those in Berkeley, CA, and Washington, DC. In the US, 32 percent of children and teens are overweight and at risk for diabetes, high blood pressure and other issues related to obesity.
Soy milk (also called soya milk, soymilk, soybean milk, fake milk or soy juice and sometimes referred to as soy drink/beverage) is a beverage made from soybeans. A traditional staple of Asian cuisine, it is a stable emulsion of oil, water, and protein. It is produced by soaking dry soybeans and grinding them with water. Soy milk contains about the same proportion of protein as cow's milk: around 3.5%; also 2% fat, 2.9% carbohydrate, and 5% ash. Soy milk can be made at home with traditional kitchen tools or with a soy milk machine. Despite the terminology used by consumers, it is illegal to sell soy milk under that name in the European Union, where - with certain exceptions - EC Regulation (1898/87) has restricted the term 'milk' to mammary secretions since 1987; in such countries the term 'soy drink' is commonly used.
The coagulated protein from soy milk can be made into tofu, just as dairy milk can be made into cheese.