Can saline flush be used for laxatives?


No. Saline solution won't work as a laxative, but if you mix 2 quarts of water and two teaspoons of sea salt, you will achieve laxative effects within one or two hours of drinking it.

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Whole bowel irrigation
Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) is a medical process involving the rapid administration of large volumes of an osmotically balanced polyethylene glycol solution (GoLYTELY, CoLyte), either orally or via a nasogastric tube, to flush out the entire gastrointestinal tract. Whole bowel irrigation was originally developed to cleanse the large bowel before surgery or colonoscopy. Initially a solution of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium bicarbonate was used but this electrolyte solution was shown to be absorbed by the body, sometimes leading to complications. To solve this problem a specialized irrigation fluid was developed consisting mainly of an iso-osmolar solution of polyethylene glycol. With the polyethylene glycol solution there is negligible fluid or electrolyte absorption and several studies have shown the overall safety of the procedure. Whole bowel irrigation was also suggested as a possible treatment for toxic ingestions. WBI has the effect of mechanically flushing the ingested poison out of the gastrointestinal tract before it can be absorbed into the body. A study in 1987 provided evidence that whole bowel irrigation is an effective and safe gastrointestinal decontamination procedure for acute poisoning. Its common administration for toxic ingestions has been largely replaced with that of activated charcoal. Whole bowel irrigation is undertaken either by having the patient drink the solution or a nasogastric tube is inserted and the solution is delivered down the tube into the stomach. The solution is administered at a rate of 500 mL/h in children 9 months to 6 years, 1000 mL/h in children 6 to 12 years, and 1500 to 2000 mL/h in adolescents and adults. The patient is usually seated on a toilet and the procedure continues until the rectal effluent is clear. The entire procedure usually takes 4 to 6 hours. Often patients vomit (especially if ipecac was given prior to the procedure or following ingestion of a drug that produces vomiting such as aspirin or theophylline), indicating that the rate of infusion may need to be slowed or an antiemetic such as metoclopramide given. Whole bowel irrigation is indicated prior to surgery, colonoscopy, or a barium enema to cleanse the bowel. Whole bowel irrigation is not used routinely in poisoning situations. It is usually reserved for patients who have ingested toxic doses of medications not absorbed by activated charcoal (such as iron and lithium), potentially toxic ingestions of sustained-release or enteric-coated drugs, or in the situation of packaged drug ingestion (body packing/stuffing). Major gastrointestinal dysfunction precludes the use of whole bowel irrigation. WBI is specifically contraindicated in the presence of ileus, significant gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hemodynamic instability, uncontrollable intractable vomiting, bowel obstruction, bowel perforation, and in patients with a decreased level of consciousness with a compromised unprotected airway. Minor complications include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and bloating. Patients with altered mental status or a compromised and unprotected airway are at risk for pulmonary aspiration. M: TOX gen / txn pto ant

Saline (medicine)
In medicine, saline (also saline solution) is a general phrase referring to a sterile solution of sodium chloride (NaCl, more commonly known as salt) in water, but is only sterile when it is to be placed parenterally (such as intravenously); otherwise, a saline solution is a salt water solution. The sterile solution is typically used for intravenous infusion, rinsing contact lenses, nasal irrigation, and often used to clean a new piercing. It is also a good medium to store an avulsed ("knocked out") tooth until it can be re-implanted by a dentist. Saline solutions are available in various formulations for different purposes. Salines are also used in cell biology, molecular biology, and biochemistry experiments. Concentrations vary from low to normal to high. High concentrations are used rarely in medicine but frequently in molecular biology. Normal saline (NS or N/S) is the commonly-used phrase for a solution of 0.90% w/v of NaCl, about 300 mOsm/L or 9.0 g per liter.a Less commonly, this solution is referred to as physiological saline or isotonic saline, neither of which is technically accurate. NS is used frequently in intravenous drips (IVs) for patients who cannot take fluids orally and have developed or are in danger of developing dehydration or hypovolemia. NS is typically the first fluid used when hypovolemia is severe enough to threaten the adequacy of blood circulation, and has long been believed to be the safest fluid to give quickly in large volumes. However, it is now known that rapid infusion of NS can cause metabolic acidosis. Normal saline was invented by Holland's Hartog Hamburger in 1896. Hamburger's solution was only intended for in vitro study of RBC lysis and was never intended for clinical use. The solution is 9 grams of sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolved in water, to a total volume of 1000 ml. As 1 grams NaCl occupies 0.18 level teaspoons, 9 grams NaCl is 1.62 level teaspoons. The mass of 1 millilitre of normal saline is 1.0046 gram at 22 °C. The molecular weight of sodium chloride is approximately 58.5 grams per mole, so 58.5 grams of sodium chloride equals 1 mole. Since normal saline contains 9 grams of NaCl, the concentration is 9 grams per liter divided by 58.5 grams per mole, or 0.154 mole per liter. Since NaCl dissociates into two ions – sodium and chloride – 1 molar NaCl is 2 osmolar. Thus, NS contains 154 mEq/L of Na+ and Cl−. It has a slightly higher degree of osmolarity (i.e. more solute per litre) than blood (However, if you take into account the osmotic coefficient, a correction for non-ideal solutions, then the saline solution is much closer to isotonic. Osmotic coefficient of NaCl is about 0.93; therefore 0.154 × 1000 × 2 × .93 = 286.44) Nonetheless, the osmolarity of normal saline is a close approximation to the osmolarity of NaCl in blood. One litre of 0.9% Saline contains: For medical purposes, saline is often used to flush wounds and skin abrasions. Normal saline will not burn or sting when applied. Saline is also used in I.V. therapy, intraveno supplying extra water to rehydrate patients or supplying the daily water and salt needs ("maintenance" needs) of a patient who is unable to take them by mouth. Because infusing a solution of low osmolality can cause problems, intravenous solutions with reduced saline concentrations typically have dextrose (glucose) added to maintain a safe osmolality while providing less sodium chloride. As the molecular weight (MW) of dextrose is greater, this has the same osmolality as normal saline despite having less sodium. The amount of normal saline infused depends largely on the needs of the patient (e.g. ongoing diarrhea or heart failure) but is typically between 1.5 and 3 litres a day for an adult. Saline is also often used for nasal washes to relieve some of the symptoms of the common cold. The solution exerts a softening and loosening influence on the mucus to make it easier to wash out and clear the nasal passages for both babies and adults. In this case "home-made" saline may be used: this is made by dissolving approximately half a teaspoon of table salt into 8 ounces (approx. 240ml) of clean tap water. In very rare instances, amoeba Naegleria fowleri infection can occur if amoeba enters the body through the nose, therefore water used for nasal irrigation should be sterile. Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to administer. Depending on the condition being treated, they may contain steroids, antihistamines, sympathomimetics, beta receptor blockers, parasympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, prostaglandins, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or topical anesthetics. Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them and are only lubricating and tear-replacing solutions. Syringe designed saline drops (e.g. Wallace Cameron Ultra Saline Minipod) are distributed in modern needle-exchange programmes as drugs efficiently can be administrated either by injection, or ophthalmic, which is compared to intravenous use; By demonstration, the elimination of latanoprost acid from plasma is rapid (half-life 17 minutes) after either ophthalmic or intravenous administration. However, ophthalmic use is done with sterile filtered drugs that is potent in quite small doses, and with adjusted acidity of pH 7.0-7.5 after the drug has been added, to avoid eye damage. The human eye has a pH of approximately 7.5, water has 7.0. Hypertonic saline (NS) — 7% NaCl solutions are considered mucoactive agents and as such are used to hydrate thick secretions (mucus) in order to make it easier to cough up and out (expectorate). 3% hypertonic saline solutions are also used in critical care settings, acutely increased intracranial pressure, or severe hyponatremia. Inhalation of hypertonic saline has also been shown to help in other respiratory problems, specifically bronchiolitis. Hypertonic saline is currently recommended by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation as a primary part of a cystic fibrosis treatment regimen. Aerosol — Nebulized hypertonic saline treatments disrupt the interaction between glycosaminoglycans and IL-8, rendering IL-8 susceptible to proteolytic degradation with subsequent decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis; all of this ultimately reducing inflammation. Other concentrations commonly used include: In medicine, common types of salines include: And in cell biology, in addition to the above the following are used: Saline was believed to have originated during the Indian Blue Cholera pandemic that swept across Europe in 1831. William Brooke O'Shaughnessy, a recent graduate of Edinburgh Medical School, proposed in an article to medical journal The Lancet to inject cholera patients with highly-oxygenated salts to treat the "universal stagnation of the venous system and rapid cessation of arterialisation of the blood" seen in severely dehydrated cholera patients. He found his treatment harmless in dogs, and his proposal was soon adopted by the physician Thomas Latta in treating cholera patients to beneficial effect. In the following decades, variations and alternatives to Latta's solution were tested and used in treating cholera patients. These solutions contained a range of concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, carbonate, phosphate, and hydroxide. The breakthrough in achieving physiological concentrations was accomplished by Ringer in 1831, when he determined the optimal salt concentrations to maintain the contractility of frog heart muscle tissue. Normal saline is considered a descendant of the pre-Ringer solutions, as Ringer's findings were not adopted and widely used until decades later. The term "normal saline" itself appears to have little historical basis, except for Hartog Jakob Hamburger's 1882–83 in vitro studies of red cell lysis that incorrectly suggested that 0.9% was the concentration of salt in human blood (rather than 0.6%, the true concentration). a In chemistry, a one normal of NaCl is 0.5 molar NaCl assuming complete dissociation. Physiological dissociation is approximately 1.7 ions per mole, so one normal of NaCl is 1/1.7 = 0.588 molar. This is roughly 4 times more concentrated than medical "normal saline" of 0.154 molar.

Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content (such as sodium chloride, magnesium and calcium sulfates, and bicarbonates) of a body of water or in soil.
In oceanography, it has been traditional to express salinity not as percent, but as permille (parts per thousand) (‰), which is approximately grams of salt per kilogram of solution. Other disciplines use chemical analyses of solutions, and thus salinity is frequently reported in mg/L or ppm (parts per million). Prior to 1978, salinity or halinity was expressed as Cl ‰, usually based on comparison with IAPSO Standard Seawater ("Copenhagen water"), a natural sea water distributed to serve as a world standard. In 1978, oceanographers redefined salinity in the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS) as the conductivity ratio of a sea water sample to a standard KCl solution. Although PSS is a dimensionless quantity, its "unit" is usually called PSU. It is not the case that a salinity of 35 exactly equals 35 grams of salt per liter of solution. These seemingly esoteric approaches to measuring and reporting salt concentrations may appear to obscure their practical use, but it must be remembered that salinity is the sum weight of many different elements within a given volume of water. It has always been the case that to get a precise salinity as a concentration and convert this to an amount of substance (sodium chloride, for instance) required knowing much more about the sample and the measurement than just the weight of the solids upon evaporation (one method of determining salinity). For example, volume is influenced by water temperature; and also the composition of the salts is not a constant (although generally very much the same throughout the world ocean). Saline waters from inland seas can have a composition that differs from that of the ocean. For the latter reason, these waters are termed saline as differentiated from ocean waters, where the term haline applies (although is not universally used). Contour lines of constant salinity are called isohales. Marine waters are those of the ocean, another term for which is euhaline seas. The salinity of euhaline seas is 30 to 35. Brackish seas or waters have salinity in the range of 0.5 to 29 and metahaline seas from 36 to 40. These waters are all regarded as thalassic because their salinity is derived from the ocean and defined as homoiohaline if salinity does not vary much over time (essentially constant). The table on the right, modified from Por (1972), follows the "Venice system" (1959). In contrast to homoiohaline environments are certain poikilohaline environments (which may also be thalassic) in which the salinity variation is biologically significant. Poikilohaline water salinities may range anywhere from 0.5 to greater than 300. The important characteristic is that these waters tend to vary in salinity over some biologically meaningful range seasonally or on some other roughly comparable time scale. Put simply, these are bodies of water with quite variable salinity. Highly saline water, from which salts crystallize (or are about to), is referred to as brine. Salinity is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in a body of water. As well, salinity influences the kinds of plants that will grow either in a water body, or on land fed by a water (or by a groundwater). A plant adapted to saline conditions is called a halophyte. A halophyte which is tolerant to residual sodium carbonate salinity are called glasswort or saltwort or barilla plants. Organisms (mostly bacteria) that can live in very salty conditions are classified as extremophiles, or halophiles specifically. An organism that can withstand a wide range of salinities is euryhaline. Salt is expensive to remove from water, and salt content is an important factor in water use (such as potability). The degree of salinity in oceans is a driver of the world's ocean circulation, where density changes due to both salinity changes and temperature changes at the surface of the ocean produce changes in buoyancy, which cause the sinking and rising of water masses. Changes in the salinity of the oceans are thought to contribute to global changes in carbon dioxide as more saline waters are less soluble to carbon dioxide. In addition, during glacial periods, the hydrography is such that a possible cause of reduced circulation is the production of stratified oceans. Hence it is difficult in this case to subduct water through the thermohaline circulation.

Tonicity is a measure of the osmotic pressure gradient (as defined by the water potential of the two solutions) of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane. It is commonly used when describing the response of cells immersed in an external solution. Like osmotic pressure, tonicity is influenced only by solutes that cannot cross the membrane, as only these exert an osmotic pressure. Solutes able to freely cross the membrane do not affect tonicity because they will always be in equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane. There are three classifications of tonicity that one solution can have relative to another. The three are hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic. Hypertonic refers to a greater concentration. In biology, a hypertonic solution is one with a higher concentration of solutes on the outside of the cell. When a cell is immersed into a hypertonic solution, the tendency is for water to flow out of the cell in order to balance the concentration of the solutes. When plant cells are in a hypertonic solution, the flexible cell membrane pulls away from the rigid cell wall, but remains joined to the cell wall at points called plasmodesmata. The cell takes on the appearance of a pincushion, and the plasmodesmata almost cease to function because they become constricted: a condition known as plasmolysis. In plant cells the terms isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic cannot strictly be used accurately because the pressure exerted by the cell wall significantly affects the osmotic equilibrium point. A hypertonic solution is used in osmotherapy to treat cerebral hemorrhage.][ Hypotonic refers to a lesser concentration. A hypotonic solution has a lower concentration of solutes in its surroundings, so in an attempt to balance concentrations, water will rush into the cell, causing swelling. Some organisms have evolved intricate methods of circumventing hypotonicity. For example, saltwater is hypertonic to the fish that live in it. They need a large surface area in their gills in contact with seawater for gas exchange, thus they lose water osmotically to the sea from gill cells. They respond to the loss by drinking large amounts of saltwater, and actively excreting the excess salt. This process is called osmoregulation. An isotonic solution is one in which its effective osmole concentration is the same as the solute concentration of another solution with which it is compared. This occurs, for example, when the concentration of both water and total solute molecules are the same in an external solution as in the cell content. Water molecules diffuse through the plasma membrane in both directions, and as the rate of water diffusion is the same in each direction that cell will neither gain nor lose water. For example, the osmolarity of Normal saline, 9 grams NaCl dissolved in water to a total volume of one litre, is a close approximation to the osmolarity of NaCl in blood, i.e. Normal saline is almost isotonic to blood plasma.

Sodium phosphates
Sodium phosphate is a generic term for the salts of sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid. They are: Sodium phosphates are often used as meat preservatives, as an alternative to sodium nitrite. This is common in canned meats. Oral sodium phosphates for bowel preparation for colonoscopy may in some individuals carry a risk of kidney injury under the form of phosphate nephropathy. There are several oral phosphate formulations which are prepared extemporaneously. Oral phosphate prep drugs have been withdrawn in the United States, although evidence of causality is equivocal. Since safe and effective replacements for phosphate puratives are available, several medical authorities have recommended general disuse of oral phosphates.

Saline water
Saline water is a general term for water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl). The salt concentration is usually expressed in parts per thousand (permillle, ‰) or parts per million (ppm). The United States Geological Survey classifies saline water in three salinity categories. Salt concentration in slightly saline water is around 1,000 to 3,000 ppm (0.1-0.3%), in moderately saline water 3,000 to 10,000 ppm (0.3-1%) and in highly saline water 10,000 to 35,000 ppm (1-3.5%). Seawater has a salinity of roughly 35,000 ppm, equivalent to 35 grams of salt per one liter (or kilogram) of water. The saturation level is dependent on the temperature of the water. At freezing one mililiter of water can dissolve about 357 milligrams of salt; a concentration of 35.7%. At boiling the amount that can be dissolved in a mililiter of water increases to about 390 milligrams or 39% saline solution. Some industries make use of saline water, such as mining and thermoelectric-power. In the United States, 14 percent of all water used in 2000 was saline. Almost all saline withdrawals, over 92 percent, were used by the thermoelectric-power industry to cool electricity-generating equipment. About three percent of the nation's saline water was used for mining and other industrial purposes. Due to their proximity to the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, states near the coast make the most use of saline water. Almost 40% of all saline water use in 2000 occurred in California, Florida, and Maryland. The use of saline water, as with freshwater, has been trending downward since a peak in 1968. But, in the period between 1950 and 1968, the use of saline water increased at a much higher rate than freshwater use. The thermal conductivity of seawater is 0.6 W/mK at 25 °C and a salinity of 35 g/kg.[1]. The thermal conductivity decreases with increasing salinity and increases with increasing temperature; these graphs and online calculations plot thermal conductivity for varying salinity and temperature: [2] The salt content can be determined with a salinometer.

Laxatives (purgatives, aperients) are foods, compounds and/or drugs taken to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation. Certain stimulant, lubricant and saline laxatives are used to evacuate the colon for rectal and/or bowel examinations, and may be supplemented by enemas under certain circumstances. Sufficiently high doses of laxatives may cause diarrhea. Laxatives work to increase the movement of feces along the colon. Some laxatives combine more than one active ingredient. Laxatives may be oral and/or in suppository form. Foods that help with laxation include fruits, especially banana, kiwifruit and prunes, bran products, aloe vera, blackstrap molasses, pear and nuts (especially almonds and walnuts).][ A bulk-forming agent is a substance, such as fiber in food, that adds bulk and water to stools so that they can pass more easily through the intestines (lower part of the digestive tract). Also known as bulking agents or roughage, these include insoluble dietary fibre. Bulk-producing agents cause the stool to be bulkier and to retain more water, as well as forming an emollient gel, making it easier for peristaltic action to move it along. They should be taken with plenty of water. Bulk-producing agents have the gentlest of effects among laxatives and can be taken just for maintaining regular bowel movements. Act as a surfactant, enabling additional water and fats to be incorporated in the stool, making it easier to move. These simply make the stool slippery, so that it slides through the intestine more easily. An example is mineral oil, which also retards colonic absorption of water, softening the stool. Mineral oil may decrease the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and some minerals. These cause the intestines to hold more water within, softening the stool. There are two principal types, saline and hyperosmotic. Saline laxatives attract and retain water in the intestinal lumen, increasing intraluminal pressure and thus softening the stool. They also cause the release of cholecystokinin, which stimulates the digestion of fat and protein. Saline laxatives may alter a patient's fluid and electrolyte balance. Lactulose works by the osmotic effect, which retains water in the colon, lowering the pH through bacterial fermentation to lactic, formic and acetic acid, and increasing colonic peristalsis. Lactulose is also indicated in Portal-systemic encephalopathy. Glycerin suppositories work mostly by hyperosmotic action, but also the sodium stearate in the preparation causes local irritation to the colon. Solutions of polyethylene glycol and electrolytes (sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, and sometimes sodium sulfate) are used for whole bowel irrigation, a process designed to prepare the bowel for surgery or colonoscopy and to treat certain types of poisoning. Brand names for these solutions include GoLytely, GlycoLax, CoLyte, Miralax, NuLytely, SUPREP, Fortrans and others. Solutions of sorbitol have similar effects as the forementioned. Brand name SoftLax. For adults, a randomized controlled trial found PEG [MiraLax or GlycoLax] 17 grams once per day to be superior to tegaserod at 6 mg twice per day. A randomized controlled trial found greater improvement from 2 sachets (26 grams) of PEG versus 2 sachets (20 grams) of lactulose. 17 grams/day of PEG has been effective and safe in a randomized controlled trial for six months. Another randomized controlled trial found no difference between sorbitol and lactulose. For children, PEG was found to be more effective than lactulose. Stimulant laxatives (also called "contact laxatives") act on the intestinal mucosa or nerve plexus, altering water and electrolyte secretion. They also stimulate peristaltic action and can be dangerous under certain circumstances. They are the most powerful among laxatives and should be used with care. These are motility stimulants that work through activation of 45-HT receptors of the enteric nervous system in the gastrointestinal tract. However, some have been discontinued or restricted due to potentially harmful cardiovascular side-effects. Tegaserod (brand name Zelnorm) was discontinued from marketing in the United States on March 30, 2007. It is still available to physicians for patients in emergency situations that are life-threatening or require hospitalization. Cisapride (brand name Prepulsid) was voluntarily removed from the U.S. market on July 14, 2000 for the same reason as Tegaserod. Its use in many other countries is discontinued or restricted. It is still available for veterinary use as a compound to treat GI tract problems. Prucalopride (brand name Resolor) is a current drug which was approved for use in the EU October 15, 2009 and in Canada (brand name Resotran) on December 7, 2011. It has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States, but it is in development by Shire PLC. Lubiprostone (brand name Amitiza) is used in the management of chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. It causes the intestines to produce a chloride-rich fluid secretion which soften the stool, increases motility, and promotes spontaneous bowel movements (SBM). Laxative abuse can lead to potentially fatal fluid and electrolyte imbalances (especially dehydration, hypokalaemia and a metabolic alkalosis) as well as intestinal paralysis,][ irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), pancreatitis, renal failure, factitious diarrhea and other problems. Although patients with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa frequently abuse laxatives in an attempt to lose weight, laxatives act to speed up the transit of faeces through the large intestine, which occurs subsequent to the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. Thus studies of laxative abuse have found that effects on body weight primarily reflect temporary losses of body water rather than energy (calorie) loss Physicians warn against the chronic use of stimulant laxatives due to concern that chronic use causes the colonic tissues to get worn out over time and not be able to expel feces due to long term overstimulation.][ A common finding in patients who have used stimulant laxatives is a brown pigment deposited in the intestinal tissue, known as melanosis coli.][ Laxatives, then called physicks or purgatives, were used extensively in pre-modern medicine to treat a wide range of conditions for which they are now generally regarded as ineffective in modern evidence-based medicine.][ Similarly, laxatives (often termed colon cleanses), continue to be promoted by practitioners of complementary medicine for a range of conditions, including conditions which are not medically recognized, e.g. mucoid plaque.][ M: DIG anat (t, g, p)/phys/devp/enzy noco/cong/tumr, sysi/epon proc, drug (A2A/2B/3/4/5/6/7/14/16), blte
Laxatives Saline
Magnesium compounds

Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12. Its common oxidation number is +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and ninth in the known universe as a whole. Magnesium is the fourth most common element in the Earth as a whole (behind iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the planet's mantle. The relative abundance of magnesium is related to the fact that it easily builds up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of three helium nuclei to carbon (which in turn is made from three helium nuclei). Due to magnesium ion's high solubility in water, it is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater. Magnesium is produced in stars larger than 3 solar masses by fusing helium and neon in the alpha process at temperatures above 600 megakelvins.

The free element (metal) is not found naturally on Earth, as it is highly reactive (though once produced, it is coated in a thin layer of oxide (see passivation), which partly masks this reactivity). The free metal burns with a characteristic brilliant white light, making it a useful ingredient in flares. The metal is now mainly obtained by electrolysis of magnesium salts obtained from brine. Commercially, the chief use for the metal is as an alloying agent to make aluminium-magnesium alloys, sometimes called magnalium or magnelium. Since magnesium is less dense than aluminium, these alloys are prized for their relative lightness and strength.

Fecal impaction

A fecal impaction is a solid, immobile bulk of human feces that can develop in the rectum as a result of chronic constipation. A related term is fecal loading which refers to a large volume of stool in the rectum of any consistency.

Medicine Gastroenterology
Intravenous fluids

Intravenous therapy (IV therapy or iv therapy in short) is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein. The word intravenous simply means "within vein." Therapies administered intravenously are often called specialty pharmaceuticals. It is commonly referred to as a drip because many systems of administration employ a drip chamber, which prevents air from entering the blood stream (air embolism), and allows an estimation of flow rate.

Intravenous therapy may be used to correct electrolyte imbalances, to deliver medications, for blood transfusion or as fluid replacement to correct, for example, dehydration. Intravenous therapy can also be used for chemotherapy.


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