Acneiform eruption refers to a group of dermatoses including acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. Restated, acneiform eruptions are follicular eruptions characterized by papules and pustules resembling acne. The term "acneiform", literally, refers to an appearance similar to acne.
The terminology used in this field can be complex, and occasionally contradictory. Some sources consider acne vulgaris part of the differential diagnosis for an acneiform eruption. Other sources classified acne vulgaris under acneiform eruption. MeSH explicitly excludes perioral dermatitis from the category of "acneiform eruptions", though it does group acneiform eruptions and perioral dermatitis together under "facial dermatoses".
Acne vulgaris (or simply acne) is a common human skin disease, characterized by areas of skin with seborrhea (scaly red skin), comedones (blackheads and whiteheads), papules (pinheads), nodules (large papules), pimples, and possibly scarring. Acne affects mostly skin with the densest population of sebaceous follicles; these areas include the face, the upper part of the chest, and the back. Severe acne is inflammatory, but acne can also manifest in noninflammatory forms. The lesions are caused by changes in pilosebaceous units, skin structures consisting of a hair follicle and its associated sebaceous gland, changes that require androgen stimulation.
Acne occurs most commonly during adolescence, affecting an estimated 70-90% of teenagers. In adolescence, acne is usually caused by an increase in testosterone, which occurs during puberty, regardless of sex. For most people, acne diminishes over time and tends to disappear — or at the very least decreases — by age 25. There is, however, no way to predict how long it will take to disappear entirely, and some individuals will carry this condition well into their thirties, forties, and beyond.
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains physicians in reproductive medicine addressing hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction as well as the issue of infertility. While most REI specialists primarily focus on the treatment of infertility, reproductive endocrinologists are trained to also evaluate and treat hormonal dysfunctions in females and males outside of infertility. Reproductive endocrinologists have specialty training in obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) before they undergo sub-specialty training (fellowship) in REI.
Reproductive surgery is a related specialty, where a physician in ob-gyn or urology further specializes to operate on anatomical disorders that affect fertility.
Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758
Physeter australasianus Desmoulins, 1822re
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), or cachalot, is the largest of the toothed whales. It is the only living member of genus Physeter, and one of three extant species in the sperm whale family, along with the pygmy sperm whale and dwarf sperm whale of the genus Kogia.
Sperm donation is the provision (or ‘donation’) by a man (known as a sperm donor) of his sperm (known as donor sperm) for the purpose of inseminating or impregnating a woman who is not necessarily his sexual partner. The woman may be inseminated by either natural or artificial insemination methods. Sperm may be donated privately and directly to the intended recipient, or through a sperm bank or fertility clinic. The primary recipients of donor sperm are heterosexual couples suffering from male infertility, lesbian couples and single women.
When going through a sperm bank, the recipient may select donor sperm on the basis of the donor's looks, personality, academic ability, race, and many other factors. Sperm banks or clinics are subject to varying state regulations, including restrictions on donor anonymity and number of offspring, and there may be other legal protections of the rights and responsibilities of both recipient and donor. Some sperm banks, either by choice or regulation, limit the amount of information available to potential recipients; a desire to obtain more information on donors is one reason why recipients may choose to use a known donor and/or private donation.
Atrophia Maculosa Varioliformis Cutis (AMVC) is a condition involving spontaneous scarring, specifically depressed scars on the face occurring over a period of months to years. It appears to only affect children and young adults, is considered to be quite rare, normally occurs on the cheeks, temple area and forehead, and is not well understood nor presently treatable. Case reports indicate the scars deepen over time but remain relatively superficial, and with the frequency of new scar appearance diminishing over time.
AMVC is quite difficult to diagnose, for reasons including the depressed box and ice pick scars being very similar to that caused by Acne vulgaris. A confident diagnosis can be made if such scars recently appeared without present acne and without a history of acne. Otherwise the correct diagnosis is usually not made, and even doing so provides little benefit as there is no treatment. It has been suggested in case reports that the condition, although rare, is likely underreported.
The term crime does not, in modern times, have any simple and universally accepted definition, but one definition is that a crime, also called an offence or a criminal offence, is an act harmful not only to some individual, but also to the community or the state (a public wrong). Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law.