Bacterial vaginosis (BV) or very uncommonly vaginal bacteriosis is a disease of the vagina caused by bacteria. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), risk factors for BV include douching and having new or multiple sex partners, although it is unclear what role sexual activity plays in the development of BV. BV is caused by an imbalance of naturally occurring bacterial flora and is often confused with yeast infection (candidiasis) or infection with Trichomonas vaginalis (trichomoniasis), which are not caused by bacteria.
Tenericutes (no wall)
Fibrobacteres–Chlorobi/Bacteroidetes (FCB group)
Planctomycetes–Verrucomicrobia/Chlamydiae (PVC group)
Pseudomembranous colitis, a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), is an inflammation of the colon. It is often, but not always, caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. Because of this, the informal name C. difficile colitis or just C. diff is also commonly used. The illness is characterized by offensive-smelling diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, life-threatening complications can develop, such as toxic megacolon.
Anaerobic infections are caused by anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria do not grow on solid media in room air (0.04% carbon dioxide and 21% oxygen); facultative anaerobic bacteria can grow in the presence as well as in the absence of air. Microaerophilic bacteria do not grow at all aerobically or grow poorly, but grow better under 10% carbon dioxide or anaerobically. Anaerobic bacteria can be divided into strict anaerobes that can not grow in the presence of more than 0.5% oxygen and moderate anaerobic bacteria that are able of growing between 2 to 8% oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria usually do not possess catalase, but some can generate superoxide dismutase which protects them from oxygen.
The clinically important anaerobes in decreasing frequency are: 1. Six genera of Gram-negative rods (Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Bilophila and Sutterella spp.); 2. Gram-positive cocci (primarily Peptostreptococcus spp.); 3. Gram-positive spore-forming (Clostridium spp.) and nonspore-forming bacilli (Actinomyces, Propionibacterium, Eubacterium, Lactobacillus and Biﬁdobacterium spp.); and 4. Gram-negative cocci (mainly Veillonella spp.) .
Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.