The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that were established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 189 United Nations member states at the time (there are 193 currently) and at least 23 international organizations committed to help achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, the goals follow:
Each goal has specific targets and dates for achieving those targets. To accelerate progress, the G8 Finance Ministers agreed in June 2005 to provide enough funds to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the African Development Bank (AfDB) to cancel $40 to $55 billion in debt owed by members of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) to allow them to redirect resources to programs for improving health and education and for alleviating poverty.
Camp Sizanani was founded as a joint venture between Global Camps Africa, a non-profit headquartered in Reston, Virginia, and HIVSA, a South African foundation that provides care and services to HIV-affected individuals. Located in the town of Magaliesburg in the Gauteng province of South Africa, Sizanani offers multiple camp sessions throughout the year for children aged nine through fifteen whose lives have been affected by HIV. The term HIV-affected can imply that an individual is infected with the virus, but it can also mean that the infection of family members or guardians have impacted the individual's life. While some children at Sizanani carry HIV, many more have been orphaned by a parent's AIDS-related death or have family members coping with the disease. Nearly all of Sizanani's campers come from Soweto, Johannesburg's enormous township, to which many black Africans were relegated during South Africa's apartheid era. The children attend the camp free of charge; they are sponsored by Global Camps Africa and its donors.
Sizanani takes its name from a Zulu word which translates idiomatically to mean "help each other". It is largely modeled on the North American summer camp tradition. Accordingly, its stated goals include fostering independence, self-esteem, cooperative skills, respect for others and awareness of HIV/AIDS and other health issues. This final goal is particularly unique to Sizanani, given the children's backgrounds and the AIDS crisis that continues to grip South Africa.
Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.
A social issue (also called a social problem or a social situation) is an issue that relates to society's perception of a person's personal lives. Different cultures have different perceptions and what may be "normal" behavior in one society may be a significant social issue in another society. Social issues are distinguished from economic issues. Some issues have both social and economic aspects, such as immigration. There are also issues that don't fall into either category, such as wars.
Thomas Paine, in Rights of Man and Common Sense, addresses man's duty to "allow the same rights to others as we allow ourselves". The failure to do so causes the birth of a social issue.