In vertebrates the gallbladder (cholecyst, gall bladder or biliary vesicle) is a small organ where bile is stored, before it is released into the small intestine. In humans, the loss of the gallbladder, in most cases, is easily tolerated by the body. The surgical removal of the gallbladder is called a cholecystectomy.
Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller components that are more easily absorbed into a blood stream, for instance. Digestion is a form of catabolism: a breakdown of large food molecules to smaller ones.
In the human digestive system, food enters the mouth and mechanical digestion of the food starts by the action of mastication, a form of mechanical digestion, and the wetting contact of saliva. Saliva, a liquid secreted by the salivary glands, contains salivary amylase, an enzyme which starts the digestion of starch in the food. After undergoing mastication and starch digestion, the food will be in the form of a small, round slurry mass called a bolus. It will then travel down the esophagus and into the stomach by the action of peristalsis. Gastric juice in the stomach starts protein digestion. Gastric juice mainly contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin. As these two chemicals may damage the stomach wall, mucus is secreted by the stomach, providing a slimy layer that acts as a shield against the damaging effects of the chemicals. At the same time protein digestion is occurring, mechanical mixing occurs by peristalsis, which is waves of muscular contractions that move along the stomach wall. This allows the mass of food to further mix with the digestive enzymes.
Abdominal pain (or stomach ache) is a common symptom associated with transient disorders or serious disease. Diagnosing the cause of abdominal pain can be difficult, because many diseases can cause this symptom. Most frequently the cause is benign and/or self-limiting, but more serious causes may require urgent intervention.
The body of gallbladder is the portion of the gallbladder which is distal to the neck and proximal to the fundus of gallbladder. The gallbladder is located right below the liver in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen. The body is attached to the liver and is about 4 inches long. It resembles a pear in shape.
Splenic flexure syndrome is a term sometimes used to describe bloating, muscle spasms of the colon, and upper abdominal discomfort thought to be caused by trapped gas at the splenic (as opposed to hepatic) flexure in the colon; the pain caused can be excruciating and debilitating, and may mimic that of a heart attack (because of the proximity of the splenic flexure to the diaphragm and referred pain from irritation to the diaphragmatic sensory nerves).
Some physicians classify splenic flexure syndrome as a type of IBS; others consider it a separate condition.
Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.
Note: Varies by jurisdiction
Note: Varies by jurisdiction